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## Mixed boundary-value problems of

two-dimensional anisotropic elasticity
with perturbed boundaries
B y Chyanbin H w u a n d C. W. Fan
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University,
Tainan, Taiwan 70101, Republic of China
Received 14 April 1997; accepted 22 July 1997

## The mixed boundary-value problems of two-dimensional anisotropic elasticity are

considered in this paper. The boundary treated may be the one perturbed by a
straight line or an ellipse. A general solution up to the first-order perturbation has
been found by using Strohs formalism, analytical continuation method, conformal
mapping function, and perturbation technique. As to higher-order perturbation solutions, general procedure is depicted in this paper. In order to illustrate the use of
general solution, two typical examples are solved completely. One is a cosine waveshaped surface indented by a rigid flat-ended punch, the other is a triangular hole
boundary indented by a rigid stamp.
Keywords: wavy-shaped surface; elliptical boundary perturbation;
punch indentation problems; contact problems; Stroh formalism;
analytic continuation method

1. Introduction
Usually, the mathematical model of elasticity can be divided into two parts. One is
the basic equation which includes the equilibrium equations, constitutive laws and
the kinematic relations. The other is the boundary condition which can be distinguished into traction-boundary-, displacement-boundary- and mixed-boundary-value
problems. Once a problem is formulated based upon the basic equation, its solvability
is usually dependent on the boundary condition. As to the same boundary geometry, the mixed boundary-value problems are more difficult than the traction- or
displacement-boundary-value problems. Therefore, the usual step to attack the elasticity problems is from simple geometry to complicated geometry, then from traction
(or displacement) boundary to mixed boundary. This is exactly the step we took in
our recent work (Hwu 1990; Hwu & Yen 1993; Fan & Hwu 1996, 1998). Hence, after
solving the problems for straight and elliptic boundaries, we now like to deal with
the problems with more complicated boundaries.
When the boundary geometries are simple like the straight boundary, the main
concern is the development of a systematic approach for solving the mixed boundaryvalue problems. This has been done in Fan & Hwu (1996) by combining the Stroh
formalism for two-dimensional anisotropic elasticity and the analytical continuation
method for the manipulation of complex variables. As to the problems with elliptical
boundary (Fan & Hwu 1998), we emphasize upon the introduction of conformal
mapping functions. However, it is found that there are many practical boundary
Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998) 454, 12691282
Printed in Great Britain

1269

TEX Paper

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## geometries that cannot be covered by the conformal mapping functions, such as

the coarse surfaces and the polygonal holes, etc. In order to handle these kinds of
boundary, the perturbation technique may be considered.
In this paper, two kinds of perturbed boundaries will be considered. One is a
boundary perturbed from a straight line, the other is a boundary perturbed from
an ellipse. In the literature, only traction boundary-value problems have been solved
for problems with perturbed boundaries. For example, Meade & Keer (1984) and
Rice (1985) considered the problems with rough crack surfaces, and Gao (1992)
considered the problems with traction-free polygonal holes. No analytical solutions
can be found in the literature for the mixed boundary value problems with perturbed
boundaries, even in the case of isotropic materials. Unlike the step we described for
the geometry and boundary conditions, the analysis of anisotropic elasticity problems
is not necessary to be difficult than the analysis of isotropic elasticity problems (Ting
1996). Therefore, we will go directly to the anisotropic elasticity problems without
considering the corresponding isotropic problems first.

## 2. Two-dimensional anisotropic elasticity

The basic equations for linear anisotropic elasticity are the straindisplacement
equations, the stressstrain laws and the equations of equilibrium, which can be
expressed in a fixed rectangular coordinate system xi , i = 1, 2, 3 as (the symbols x1
and x2 will be replaced by x and y for the convenience of presentation)
ij = 12 (ui,j + uj,i ),

ij = Cijks ks ,

## ij,j = Cijks uk,sj = 0,

(2.1)

where ui , ij and ij are, respectively, the displacement, stress and strain; the repeated indices imply summation; a comma stands for differentiation and Cijks are the
elastic constants which are assumed to be fully symmetric and positive definite.
For two-dimensional problems in which x3 does not appear in the basic equations
or the boundary conditions, the general solution to equations (2.1) may be expressed
in terms of three holomorphic functions of complex variables (Stroh 1958; Lekhnitskii
1963). This enables us to apply many of the powerful results of complex function
theory to the two-dimensional elasticity. For the latter use of derivation, we now list
a compact matrix form solution (Stroh 1958; Ting 1996) which satisfies all the basic
equations given in (2.1), i.e.
u = 2 Re{Af (z)} = Af (z) + A f (z),
where

## = 2 Re{Bf (z)} = Bf (z) + B f (z),

(2.2 a)

A = [a1 a2 a3 ], B = [b1 b2 b3 ],
f (z) = [f1 (z1 ) f2 (z2 ) f3 (z3 )]T , z = x + p y,

)
= 1, 2, 3.

(2.2 b)

## In the above equations, u = (u1 , u2 , u3 ) is the vector form of displacement; =

(1 , 2 , 3 ) stands for the stress function vector, which is related to the stresses ij
and surface traction t by
i1 = i,2 ,
and
t=
Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

i2 = i,1 ,

,
s

(2.2 c)
(2.2 d)

## Mixed boundary-value problems

1271

where s is the arc length measured along the curved boundary; p , =1,2,3, are
the material eigenvalues whose imaginary parts have been arranged to be positive;
(a , b ), = 1, 2, 3, are their associated eigenvectors; f (z ), = 1, 2, 3, are three
holomorphic complex functions to be determined by satisfying the boundary conditions. The superscript T denotes the transpose and the overbar represents the
conjugate of a complex number.
Note that (Suo 1990, Hwu 1993) during the derivation through the method of analytical continuation (Muskhelishvili 1954) , the argument of each component function
of f (z) is written as z = x + py without referring to its associated eigenvalues p .
Once the solution of f (z) is obtained for a given boundary-value problem, a replacement of z1 , z2 or z3 should be made for each component function to calculate field
quantities from (2.2). In other words, the function vector f (z) obtained through the
method of analytical continuation has the form of
f (z) = [f1 (z), f2 (z), f3 (z)]T ,

z = x + py,

(2.3)

which is not consistent with the solution form shown in (2.2 b) and is valid only along
the boundary y = 0. To get the explicit full-field solution, a mathematical operation
based upon the above statement is needed (Hwu 1993).

## 3. The mixed boundary-value problem

The general solutions provided in the last section, (2.2), have satisfied all the basic
equations listed in (2.1). The only unknown of (2.2) is the complex function vector
f (z) which should be determined by the satisfaction of boundary conditions set for
the physical problems. Of several physically distinct types of boundary conditions,
there are three fundamental types of boundary conditions which seem to be of considerable physical interest. In the first it is supposed that the surface traction is specified
at all points along the boundary. Thus if t is the prescribed traction value along the
boundary C, the boundary conditions may be written as t(
z ) = t(
z ), z C. Or,
z ), z C. This kind of boundary-value problem
by integration of (2.2 d), (
z ) = (
is referred to the stress boundary-value problem. Alternatively the displacement u
(
may be specified at all points along the boundary, so that u(
z) = u
z ), z C, which
is referred to the displacement boundary-value problem.
In many physical problems, the displacement boundary conditions hold over a part
L of C and the stresses are defined over the remainder C L of C. That is,
(
u(
z) = u
z ), z L, t(
z ) = t(
z ), z C L.
(3.1)
The solution of the basic equations (2.1) subject to these conditions (3.1) constitutes
the mixed boundary-value problems. When L vanishes, the mixed boundary-value
problem reduces to the stress boundary-value problem. When L = C, we get a
displacement boundary-value problem. Therefore, if we get a solution whose boundary conditions are set by equation (3.1), the corresponding solutions for the stress
and displacement boundary-value problems can also be obtained by letting L vanish
or L = C. As we are dealing with the linear elasticity in which the superposition
technique can be applied, without loss of generality, we may consider the following
boundary conditions:
(
u(
z) = u
z ),

z L,

t(
z ) = O,

z C L,

(3.2)

instead of (3.1). Besides (3.1) or (3.2), there are other kinds of mixed boundary
Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

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## C. Hwu and C. W. Fan

conditions such as
z) = b
ti (
z ), i = 1 and/or 2 and/or 3,
ti (
z) = u
bj (
z ), j 6= i, z C,
uj (

z C,

)
(3.3)

which will not be studied in this paper but may be solved in a similar way.
In the literature, there are many discussions and solutions to the stress and displacement boundary-value problems. Relatively few solutions are devoted to the
mixed boundary-value problems due to its rather more awkward nature than the
other two. Recently, by combining the Stroh formalism and the method of analytical
continuation, we obtain a series of analytical solutions to the punch problems which
are types of mixed boundary-value problems (Fan & Hwu 1996, 1998). In those studies, we consider the boundary conditions with straight or elliptical boundaries. In
this paper, we like to give a further study for the boundary condition (3.2) with C
being perturbed by a straight line or elliptical contour.
A typical example of boundary condition (3.2) is the punch indentation problem
where the half-plane and the punch are assumed to be in full contact without slip.
If slip condition is assumed, the boundary condition will be in a form similar to
(3.3). The solution to this kind of boundary conditions has been found in Hwu &
Fan (1998) for the problems with straight boundaries. By referring to the method
employed in the present paper and that used in Hwu & Fan (1998), it is possible to
study the increasing or receding contact as the punch is pressed upon a wave-shaped
surface.

## 4. Straight boundary perturbation

Consider an anisotropic elastic body occupying the lower half-plane whose boundary C is a wavy curve perturbed from the straight line y = 0 and can be expressed
in terms of a small parameter as
y = (x),

(4.1)

where (x) is a wave-shape function such as cos x. Along this boundary the displacements and stresses are prescribed as shown in (3.2) of which the displacement
prescribed boundary L may be the union of a finite set of segments Lk = (ak , bk ),
k = 1, 2, . . . , n.
In order to solve such a mixed boundary-value problem, we let the complex function vector f (z) be expanded in the following perturbation form:
f (z) = f0 (z) + f1 (z) + 2 f2 (z) + .

(4.2)

## If we introduce a new variable z in place of z by (Meade & Keer 1984)

z = z + p(x),

z = x + p[y (x)],

## z ) and their derivatives

each term fi (z), i = 0, 1, 2, . . . can be expanded in terms of fi (
as
z ) + p(x)fi0 (
z ) + 12 (p(x))2 fi00 (
z) + ,
fi (z) = fi (
and (4.2) becomes
z ) + [f1 (
z ) + p(x)f00 (
z )] + 2 [f2 (
z ) + p(x)f10 (
z ) + 12 p2 2 (x)f000 (
z )] + .
f (z) = f0 (
(4.3)
Note that in (4.3) the subscript of p is dropped because the p term is always
Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

## Mixed boundary-value problems

1273

accompanied with the argument z of which the subscript has been dropped during
the derivation by the method of analytical continuation as discussed in the paragraph
following (2.2). Surely, once the solution is obtained, a replacement of z1 , z2 or z3
together with their corresponding p should be made for each component function
to evaluate the full field solution.
With (2.2 a), (2.2 d) and (4.3), the conditions (3.2) along the perturbed boundary
z = x can be expressed as
)
(
2Re{A[f0 (x ) + (f1 (x ) + p(x )f00 (x )) + ]} = u
z ), x L,
(4.4 a)
2Re{B[f0 (x ) + (f1 (x ) + p(x )f00 (x )) + ]} = O, x 6 L,
(
where u
z ) is assumed to depend on and be expanded into series of as
(
0 (x) +
2 (x) + ,
u
z) = u
u1 (x) + 2 u

(4.4 b)

and a value with superscript denotes that it is approaching from S which stands
for the region under the straight perturbed boundary. By comparing the coefficients
of k (k = 0, 1, 2, . . .) on both sides of equation (4.4), we obtain
(

0 (x), x L,
2Re{Af0 (x )} = u

6
L,
2Re{Bf
0 (x )} = O,

1 (x), x L,
2Re{A[f1 (x ) + p(x )f0 (x )]} = u

6
L,
2Re{B[f
1 (x ) + p(x )f0 (x )]} = O,
(

00

2 (x), x L,
2Re{A[f2 (x ) + p(x )f10 (x ) + 12 (p(x ))2 f0 (x )]} = u

00

## 2Re{B[f2 (x ) + p(x )f1 (x ) + 2 (p(x )) f0 (x )]} = O, x 6 L,

..

(4.5)
The first set of equations in (4.5) for the zero-order perturbation is identical to that
for the mixed boundary-value problems with straight boundary y = 0, whose solution
z ) has been found in Fan & Hwu (1996) as
f00 (
Z
1 1
1
0
00 (t) dt + B 1 Xs (
B Xs (
[X + (t)]1 M u
z) =
z)
z )ps (
z ),
(4.6)
f0 (
2
s
L tz

## z ) is the Plemelj function for the

where M = iBA1 is the impedance matrix. Xs (
straight line, which is holomorphic in the whole plane cut along L and Xs+ (x) =
z ) is an arbitrary polynomial vector
M M 1 Xs (x), x L (see Appendix A). ps (
with degree not higher than the number of punches n, which may be determined by
considering the force equilibrium of each punch (see Appendix B).
z ) as a reference to solve the other unknown functions fi (
z)
We can now use f0 (
in sequence according to (4.5). For the purpose of illustration, the derivation for the
first-order perturbation will be carried out as follows.
To employ the method of analytical continuation, we now rewrite the second set
of equations in (4.5) as

1 (x), x L,
Af1 (x ) + p(x )Af00 (x ) = Af1 (x ) p(x )Af00 (x ) + u
Bf1 (x ) + p(x )Bf00 (x ) = Bf1 (x ) p(x )Bf00 (x ),
Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

x 6 L.

(4.7)

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## C. Hwu and C. W. Fan

Since both f1 (
z ) and p(
z )f00 (
z ) are holomorphic in S , by the theory of complex
variable functions,
f1 (
z ) and p(
z )f00 (
z)
+
z ) such that
would also be holomorphic in S . If we introduce a new function 1 (

Bf1 (
z ) + p(
z )Bf00 (
z ), z S ,
1 (
z) =
(4.8)

[Bf1 (
z ) + p(
z )Bf00 (
z )], z S + ,
z ) is sectionally holomorphic in the whole plane except
we can conclude that 1 (
possibly on some segments of the x-axis, and (4.7) can now be expressed in terms of
1 (
z ) as
1 (x),
1 (x+ ) + M M 1 1 (x ) = iM u

x L,

1 (x+ ) 1 (x ) = O,

x 6 L.
(4.9)
Equation (4.9) is in the form of Hilbert problem whose solution is (Hwu 1992)
Z
1
1
1 (t) dt + Xs (
Xs (
[Xs+ (t)]1 M u
z) =
z)
z )ps (
z ),
(4.10)
1 (
2
t

L
in which the polynomial vector ps (
With this result and the definition given in (4.8), the first-order perturbation solution f1 (
z ) can be obtained directly. In a similar way, the higher-order perturbation
solution can be solved step by step.

## 5. Elliptical boundary perturbation

An exact solution of mixed boundary-value problems for an anisotropic elastic
plate with a curvilinear opening is obtained only for the cases that the employed
mapping function is single-valued (Fan & Hwu 1998). The most common examples
are elliptic openings which include circles and cracks. For isotropic plates, it can
even be extended to polygonal holes. If the mapping function is not single-valued,
the solutions provided in Fan & Hwu (1998) is not exact. In this section, we like to
discuss the cases when an opening in an anisotropic plate differs slightly from that
of an ellipse or circle. By introduction of a small parameter which will characterize
the deviation of the opening from that of the ellipse or circle, we consider the opening
whose contour is given by (Lekhnitskii 1968)



N

x = a cos +
(ck cos k + dk sin k) ,

k=1
(5.1)


N
X

y = a c sin +
(ck sin k + dk cos k) .

k=1

## When = 0 we obtain an ellipse with semi-axes a and ac. In the case of = 0,

c = 1 and = 0, c 0, the contour represents, respectively, a circle and a crack. An
infinite plane with an opening (5.1) may be conformally transformed to the plane
with the opening in the shape of a unit circle || = 1. The transformation function is
zo = zoe + o (),
Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

(5.2 a)

## Mixed boundary-value problems

1275

where zo = x + iy and
zoe = o () = a{ 12 (1 + c) + 12 (1 c)(1/)},

o () =

N
X

a(ck + idk ) k .

(5.2 b)

k=1

Note that the subscript o is used to denote that the transformation is related to the
isotropic media whose material eigenvalues p = i and their associated arguments
z (= x + p y) becomes zo . Whereas the superscript e is used to denote that the
transformation is related to the corresponding elliptical opening.
In order to make the transformation, equation (5.2), single-valued and conformal
it is necessary that all the roots of equation, by differentiating (5.2) with respect
to ,
(5.3)
o0 () + 0o () = 0,
be expressed on the plane by points located inside of the unit circle || = 1. We
will always consider that the coefficients ck , dk and parameter are such that this
condition is satisfied.
In order to employ the Stroh formalism of which the undetermined holomorphic
functions f (z) = {f1 (z1 ) f2 (z2 ) f3 (z3 )}T are expressed in terms of the arguments
z (= x + p y), = 1, 2, 3, the transformation function between z and should be
found. Since the transformation function between zo and is expressed in terms of
polynomial series of , we may also assume that z is a function of polynomial series
of . By considering the mapping of the opening boundary whose = ei and x, y
are given in (5.1), we obtain
(5.4 a)
z = ze + (),
where
ze = w () = 12 a{(1 ip c) + (1 + ip c)(1/)},

N 
X
1
() = 12 a
(ck idk )(1 + ip ) k + (ck + idk )(1 ip ) k ,

k=1

= 1, 2, 3.

(5.4 b)
Note that although o (), o () + o () and () may be single-valued under a
certain condition, e.g. (5.3). () + () is usually non-single-valued. Hence, it
is possible to get the exact solutions for the isotropic media with an elliptical or a
polygonal opening, and for the anisotropic media with an elliptical opening. To solve
the problems of the anisotropic media with general curvilinear openings, we like to
use the solutions for the anisotropic media with an elliptical opening as a reference.
Then, by the perturbation technique an approximate solution for the anisotropic
media with openings slightly different from ellipse may be found. To this end, the
first step we need to take is to find the reference argument ze (= xe + p y e ) of the
problem with an elliptical opening if a corresponding point zo (= x + iy) is given
for the problem with an opening boundary of (5.1). The procedure is described as
follows.
(1) Given the position (x, y) on the physical domain z which contains an opening
described by (5.1).
(2) Calculate zo by using zo = x + iy.
(3) Calculate by inverting zo = o () + o (), which should be single-valued
since the condition set in (5.3) is required.
(4) Calculate ze by ze = ().
Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

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## C. Hwu and C. W. Fan

Like the problem of straight boundary perturbation, we now expand the complex
function vector f (z) in the following perturbation form
f (z) = f0 (z) + f1 (z) + 2 f2 (z) + .
ze

With
as

(5.5)

(5.6)

## Substituting (5.6) into (5.5), we have

f (z) = f0 (z e ) + [f1 (z e ) + ()f00 (z e )] + 2 [f2 (z e ) + ()f10 (z e ) + 12 2 ()f000 (z e )] + .
(5.7)
Note that as we discussed in the paragraphs following (2.2) and (4.3), the subscript
of z , ze and () is also dropped in the expressions given in (5.5)(5.7). Since
ze = (), for convenience we now express fi (z e ) by fi () without changing the
symbol of fi . Thus,
f (z) = f0 ()+[f1 ()+()f00 ()]+2 [f2 ()+()f10 ()+ 12 2 ()f000 ()]+ . (5.8)
By employing (5.8) into (2.2 a) and (2.2 d), the condition (3.2) along the elliptical
perturbed boundary z = () + () where = ei can then be expressed as
)
(
z ), L,
2Re{A[f0 ( + ) + (f1 ( + ) + ( + )f00 ( + )) + ]} = u
(5.9 a)
2Re{B[f0 ( + ) + (f1 ( + ) + ()f00 ( + )) + ]} = O, 6 L,
where
2 () + .
(
0 () +
u1 () + 2 u
(5.9 b)
u
z) = u
A value with superscript + denotes that it is approaching from S + which stands for
the region outside the unit circle of the mapped region. Comparing the coefficients
of k (k = 0, 1, 2, . . .) on both sides of (5.9) leads to
(

0 (), L,
2Re{Af0 ( + )} = u

(
)}
=
O,

6
L,
2Re{Bf
0

+
+
0
+

1 (), L,
2Re{A[f1 ( ) + ( )f0 ( )]} = u

+
+
0
+
(
)
+
(
)f
(
)]}
=
O,

6
L,
2Re{B[f
1
0
(

00

2 (), L,
2Re{A[f2 ( + ) + ( + )f10 ( + ) + 12 2 ( + )f0 ( + )]} = u

00

1 2
+
+
0
+
+
+

## 2Re{B[f2 ( ) + ( )f1 ( ) + 2 ( )f0 ( )]} = O, 6 L,

..

(5.10)
Like the problem of straight perturbed boundary, the first equation set of (5.10)
for the zero-order perturbation is identical to that for the mixed boundary-value
problems with elliptical boundary, whose solution f00 (z e ) has been found in Fan &
Hwu (1998) as
Z
1
1

## 00 (s) ds + B 1 Xe ()pe (),

f00 () =
B 1 Xe ()
[Xe+ (s)]1 M u
2i
s

L
(5.11)
p
where = a sin2 + c2 cos2 and ei = s. Xe () is the Plemelj function for
the
arc,
1
which is holomorphic in the whole plane cut along L and Xe+ () = M M Xe (),
Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

1277

## L (Appendix A). pe () is an arbitrary polynomial vector to be determined by

the loading conditions (Appendix B). Once f0 () is obtained, it can be used as a
reference to solve the other unknown functions fi () and we will demonstrate the
derivation for the first-order perturbation solution as follows.
The second equation of (5.10) can be written as

1 (), L,
Af1 ( + ) + ( + )Af00 ( + ) + Af1 ( + ) + ( + )Af00 ( + ) = u
Bf1 ( + ) + ( + )Bf00 ( + ) + Bf1 ( + ) + ( + )Bf00 ( + ) = O,

6 L.

(5.12)
Unlike the straight boundary perturbation, due to the form of () given in (5.4 b)2
(z)f00 (z) will not be holomorphic in S + or S . To find a sectionally holomorphic
function, we need to seperate () in (5.12) into two parts. One is holomorphic in
S + , the other is holomorphic in S . With this separation, using the following relation
(Fan & Hwu 1998):

 
1
i 0
1

u
(),

L,
+
Af00 ( + ) = 2 Af00

(5.13)
 

1
1

, 6 L,
Bf00 ( + ) = 2 Bf00

and introducing

Bf1 () + 2 a
(ck + idk )[1 ip + (1 ip) 2 ] k Bf00 (), S + ,

k=1
1 ()

 

 
N

1 k
1
1

1
0

## (ck idk ) 1 + ip + (1 + ip) 2 Bf0

, S,

Bf1 2 a

k=1
(5.14)
equation (5.12) can be rewritten as the following Hilbert problem of vector form:
)
6 L,
1 ( + ) 1 ( ) = O,
(5.15 a)
1
1 (),
L,
1 ( + ) + M M 1 ( ) = M u
where
1 ()
u



N
X
k1
0
1 ()
=i u
Re[ia(ck idk )(1 + ip) ]
u0 () .

(5.15 b)

k=1

Since f0 () and f1 () are holomorphic in the elastic body S + , from the theory of
complex variable functions
f0 (1/)

and f1 (1/)

## will also be holomorphic in S . Thus, when k > 2, 1 () defined in (5.14) will be

holomorphic in the whole plane cut along L of the unit circle. The solution of 1 ()
can then be obtained by using the formula for the Hilbert problems of vector form
derived by Hwu (1992), which leads to
Z
1
1
1 (s) ds + Xe ()pe (),
Xe ()
[Xe+ (s)]1 M u
(5.16)
1 () =
2i
s

L
Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

1278

## where the polynomial vector pe () should be determined by the loading conditions.

Thus, 1 () is completely solved by (5.16) and hence f1 () can be obtained from
(5.14). The higher-order perturbation solutions can also be obtained in a similar
manner.

6. Illustrative examples
(a ) A rigid flat-ended punch on a cosine wave-shaped boundary
Consider a single rigid punch with a flat-ended profile indenting into the cosine
wave-shaped surface of an anisotropic elastic half-plane. If the wave-shaped surface
is slightly perturbed from a straight line by a small amount in amplitude, it may
be expressed as
y = (x), (x) = cos x.
(6.1)
During the indentation, the punch is assumed to completely adhere to the halfplane over the contact region |x| 6 a in such a way that no slip occurs. Thus, the
displacement of the surface of the half-plane is known at each point of the contact
(
region, and will be u
z ) = ci2 (x)i2 , or
0 = ci2 ,
u

1 = (x)i2 ,
u

(6.2)

## where i2 = (0 1 0) and c is the relative depth of indentation. The resultant force

which will remain constant and will not be disturbed by
applied to the punch is q
the perturbed surface. From (B 3), we have
Z
Z
[00 (x+ ) 00 (x )] dx =
q,
[10 (x+ ) 10 (x )] dx = O.
(6.3)
L

To find the solution to this problem, we first calculate the zero-order perturbation
00 (x) = O, and Xs (
solution f00 (
z ) from (4.6) in which u
z ) and ps (
z ) can be obtained
from (A 2) and (B 1), (B 2) as
1 1
,
Xs (
q
z ) = s (
z ), ps (
z) =
(6.4 a)
2i s
where
i


z a
1

.
(6.4 b)
(
z) =
z2 a2 z + a
00 (x) = O, we obtain
Substituting (6.4) into (4.6) with u
1 1
.
B s (
f00 (
z) =
z )1
(6.5)
s q
2i
z ), the sectionally holomorphic
To find the first-order perturbation solution f10 (
function 1 (
z ) derived in (4.10) should be evaluated first, in which the only unknown
remaining to be determined is the polynomial vector ps (
z ). By (6.3), we see that
is considered when we solve the reference solution f0 (
the total applied force q
z)
and no extra loading is applied on the perturbed problem. This implies that the
polynomial vector ps (
z ) is identical to zero for the first-order perturbation solution.
With this result, 1 (
z ) is completely determined by the integral term of (4.10) with
1 (x) = cos xi2 , which may be evaluated with the aid of the residue theory (please
u
refer to Hwu (1992) and Fan & Hwu (1996) for the detailed illustration of the integral
evaluation). The result is
1 (
z ) = i cos z(M 1 + M
Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

1 1

i2 .

(6.6)

## Mixed boundary-value problems

1279

Substituting (6.5) and (6.6) into (4.8)1 , and using the normalization relation
1
1 T
(M 1 + M )s = I, we now obtain the first-order perturbation solution as
2 s
i cos z 1
T
).
B s (s i2 + p (
z )1
(6.7)
s q
2
In a similar way, the higher-order perturbation solution can also be obtained step by
step. The complete solution to the present problem may then be expressed by
z) =
f1 (

f (z) = f0 (
z ) + [f1 (
z ) + p(x)f00 (
z )] + 2 [f2 (
z ) + p(x)f10 (
z ) + 12 p2 2 (x)f000 (
z )] + .
Note that a replacement of the function argument z1 , z2 or z3 (including the material
eigenvalues p1 , p2 or p3 ) should be made for each component function of f (z) to
calculate field quantities from (2.2).
(b ) A rigid stamp on a triangular hole boundary
The previous example shows how to apply the results obtained in 4 for straight
boundary perturbation to solve a real problem. To illustrate the application of the
results obtained in 5 for the elliptical boundary perturbation, we now choose an
opening whose contour differs slightly from that of an ellipse. To avoid tedious mathematical calculation, a relatively simple opening represented by (5.1) with N = 2,
c1 = d1 = d2 = 0, c2 = 1, = 0.25 will be considered in this example. By actually
plotting this contour, we see that it is an opening differing little from an equilateral triangle with rounded corners. If an anisotropic plate is given with this kind of
over a segment, which is
opening and is indented by a rigid stamp under force q
mapped onto an arc L = (ei , ei ) in the -domain, the stress and strain fields to
this problem may now be solved by applying the solutions obtained in 5. Since the
stamp is also assumed to completely adhere to the hole boundary, the displacement
(
along the contact region will be a constant value. Hence, u
z ) = const. along L. Note
that this condition is different from that given in equation (6.2). In that case the
punch profile (flat ended) differs from the wavy surface on initial contact, while in
the present example, the surfaces of the stamp and the hole boundary are assumed
to be perfectly matched on initial contact and during the subsequent indentation.
To find the solution to this problem, we first calculate the zero-order perturbation
00 (s) = O, and Xe () and pe () can be obtained
solution f00 () from (5.11) in which u
from (A 7) and (B 4) as
Xe () = e (),

pe () = d2 2 + d1 + d0 + d1 1 ,

where
() = hh( ei )(1/2)i ( ei )(1/2)+i ii,
d0 =

1
T
,
hhe2 ii1
e BA q
2i

and
z+

d1 =

1 1
,
BAT q
2i e

d1 = O,

d2 = O,

## Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

(6.8 b)

z 2 a2 (1 + c2 p2 )
, z = x + py.
a(1 icp)
00 (s) = O, we obtain
Substituting (6.8) into (5.11) with u

2

1 1
e
T
T
1
.
f00 () =
B e () 1

BA
+
BA
q
e
e
2i

(6.8 a)

(6.8 c)

(6.9)

1280

## C. Hwu and C. W. Fan

To find the first-order perturbation solution f10 (), we first consider the solution
00 () = u
1 () = O, we have u
1 () = O.
1 () obtained in (5.16). By (5.15 b) with u
Moreover, pe () = O due to the same reason stated in the previous example. Hence,
1 () = O by (5.16). Substituting this result into (5.14)1 , we obtain
f1 () = 12 a[(1 ip) 2 + (1 ip)]f00 ().

(6.10)

## Similarly, the higher-order perturbation solution can be obtained step by step.

The complete solution to the present problem may then be expressed by f (z) =
f0 () + [f1 () + ()f00 ()] + . Note that a replacement of the function argument
1 , 2 or 3 (including the material eigenvalues p1 , p2 or p3 ) should be made for each
component function of f () to calculate field quantities from (2.2).

7. Concluding remarks
The general solution (2.2) satisfies all the basic equations for the two-dimensional
anisotropic elasticity. The only unknown in this general solution is the complex function vector f (z) which shall be determined through the satisfaction of the boundary
conditions. Usually, there are two ways to determine f (z). One is the semi-inverse
method, the other is the method of analytical continuation. The former always
depends upon the knowledge of corresponding isotropic solutions or known physical behaviours, which is unknown in the present problem. Hence, we employ the
method of analytical continuation to solve our problems. Since the boundary geometry considered is the one perturbed by a straight line or an ellipse, f (z) is expanded
into a perturbation series. The zero-order solution of this perturbation series is found
to be exactly the one for the straight or elliptical boundary problems, which has been
found in our previous work. As to the first-order solution for the straight perturbation boundary, results are obtained in (4.8) and (4.10), and illustrative example is
given in 6 for a cosine-wavy surface indented by a rigid flat-ended punch. When
the boundary contour is slightly different from an ellipse, the first-order solution is
obtained in (5.14) and (5.16) which are written in terms of the mapped variable
because the corresponding zero-order solution is found by introducing a mapping
function which transforms a region outside an ellipse in the z -plane to a region
outside a unit circle in the -plane as shown in (5.4 b)1 . The illustrative example for
the elliptical perturbation boundary is then presented by considering a triangular
hole boundary indented by a rigid stamp.
The authors acknowledge the support by National Science Council, Republic of China, through
grant no. NSC 86-2212-E006-056.

## Appendix A. Plemelj function matrix Xs (z ) or Xe ( )

(a) Xs (z)
The plemelj function matrix Xs (z) for straight boundary is a matrix containing
sectionally holomorphic functions which satisfy the following relations:

(A 1)

## Xs+ (x) + M M 1 Xs (x) = O, x L.

The solution to (A 1) is (Hwu 1992)
Xs (z) = s (z),
Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

(A 2 a)

## Mixed boundary-value problems

where
s = [1 , 2 , 3 ]s ,

(z) =

Y
n

1281

(1+ )

(z aj )

(z bj )

(A 2 b)

j=1

## and , = 1, 2, 3 of (A 2 b) are the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of

(M 1 + e2i M

) = O.

(A 3)

The explicit solutions for the eigenvalues are (Fan & Hwu 1996)
= 12 + i ,
where
1 =  =
=

[ 12

1+
1
ln
,
2 1
2

1/2

tr(S )]

= 1, 2, 3,
2 = ,

(A 4 a)

3 = 0,
T

S = i(2AB I),

(A 4 b)

tr stands for the trace of matrix. To have a unique eigenvector matrix, s is normalized by
1 T
(M 1
2 s

+ M 1 )s = I.

(A 5)

(b) Xe ()
The plemelj function matrix Xe () for an elliptical boundary is a matrix containing
sectionally holomorphic functions which satisfy the following relations:

Xe+ () = Xe (), 6 L,
(A 6)
1

Xe+ () + M M Xe () = O, L.
Note that equations (A 1) and (A 6) are the same if we interchange M and M . With
this observation, it can easily be proved that the eigenvalues of these two problems are
the same and their corresponding eigenvectors are conjugates of each other. Hence,
Xe () = e (),

(A 7 a)

e = s .

(A 7 b)

where

## Appendix B. Determination of polynomial vector ps (z ) and pe ( )

(a) ps (z)
By the infinity condition, it is known that ps (z) is at most a polynomial of degree
n 1 where n is the number of punches (Fan & Hwu 1996). Hence,
ps (z) = d0 + d1 z + + dn1 z n1 .

(B 1)

## If the total resultant force applied on the half-plane is q, we have

dn1 =
Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

1 1
q.
2i s

(B 2)

1282

## The remaining (n 1) unknown coefficients of ps (z) are determined by considering

the equlibrium of each punch, which leads to
Z
qk =
[ 0 (x+ ) 0 (x )] dx,
L
Z k
=
{[00 (x+ ) 00 (x )] + [ 0 (x+ ) 0 (x )] + } dx, k = 1, 2, . . . , n,
Lk

(B 3)
where
Pnqk is the known resultant force vector applied on the kth punch Lk and
q = k=1 qk .
(b) pe ()
Consider the infinity and zero conditions, it can be shown that
pe () = d1 1 + d0 + d1 + d2 2 + + dn+1 n+1 ,

(B 4)

where the unknown coefficients di can be determined by the infinity and zero conditions, as well as the loading conditions as that shown in (B 3). Details about the
determination of pe () for one punch example can be found in Fan & Hwu (1998).

References
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