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two-dimensional anisotropic elasticity

with perturbed boundaries

B y Chyanbin H w u a n d C. W. Fan

Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University,

Tainan, Taiwan 70101, Republic of China

Received 14 April 1997; accepted 22 July 1997

considered in this paper. The boundary treated may be the one perturbed by a

straight line or an ellipse. A general solution up to the first-order perturbation has

been found by using Strohs formalism, analytical continuation method, conformal

mapping function, and perturbation technique. As to higher-order perturbation solutions, general procedure is depicted in this paper. In order to illustrate the use of

general solution, two typical examples are solved completely. One is a cosine waveshaped surface indented by a rigid flat-ended punch, the other is a triangular hole

boundary indented by a rigid stamp.

Keywords: wavy-shaped surface; elliptical boundary perturbation;

punch indentation problems; contact problems; Stroh formalism;

analytic continuation method

1. Introduction

Usually, the mathematical model of elasticity can be divided into two parts. One is

the basic equation which includes the equilibrium equations, constitutive laws and

the kinematic relations. The other is the boundary condition which can be distinguished into traction-boundary-, displacement-boundary- and mixed-boundary-value

problems. Once a problem is formulated based upon the basic equation, its solvability

is usually dependent on the boundary condition. As to the same boundary geometry, the mixed boundary-value problems are more difficult than the traction- or

displacement-boundary-value problems. Therefore, the usual step to attack the elasticity problems is from simple geometry to complicated geometry, then from traction

(or displacement) boundary to mixed boundary. This is exactly the step we took in

our recent work (Hwu 1990; Hwu & Yen 1993; Fan & Hwu 1996, 1998). Hence, after

solving the problems for straight and elliptic boundaries, we now like to deal with

the problems with more complicated boundaries.

When the boundary geometries are simple like the straight boundary, the main

concern is the development of a systematic approach for solving the mixed boundaryvalue problems. This has been done in Fan & Hwu (1996) by combining the Stroh

formalism for two-dimensional anisotropic elasticity and the analytical continuation

method for the manipulation of complex variables. As to the problems with elliptical

boundary (Fan & Hwu 1998), we emphasize upon the introduction of conformal

mapping functions. However, it is found that there are many practical boundary

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998) 454, 12691282

Printed in Great Britain

1269

TEX Paper

1270

the coarse surfaces and the polygonal holes, etc. In order to handle these kinds of

boundary, the perturbation technique may be considered.

In this paper, two kinds of perturbed boundaries will be considered. One is a

boundary perturbed from a straight line, the other is a boundary perturbed from

an ellipse. In the literature, only traction boundary-value problems have been solved

for problems with perturbed boundaries. For example, Meade & Keer (1984) and

Rice (1985) considered the problems with rough crack surfaces, and Gao (1992)

considered the problems with traction-free polygonal holes. No analytical solutions

can be found in the literature for the mixed boundary value problems with perturbed

boundaries, even in the case of isotropic materials. Unlike the step we described for

the geometry and boundary conditions, the analysis of anisotropic elasticity problems

is not necessary to be difficult than the analysis of isotropic elasticity problems (Ting

1996). Therefore, we will go directly to the anisotropic elasticity problems without

considering the corresponding isotropic problems first.

The basic equations for linear anisotropic elasticity are the straindisplacement

equations, the stressstrain laws and the equations of equilibrium, which can be

expressed in a fixed rectangular coordinate system xi , i = 1, 2, 3 as (the symbols x1

and x2 will be replaced by x and y for the convenience of presentation)

ij = 12 (ui,j + uj,i ),

ij = Cijks ks ,

(2.1)

where ui , ij and ij are, respectively, the displacement, stress and strain; the repeated indices imply summation; a comma stands for differentiation and Cijks are the

elastic constants which are assumed to be fully symmetric and positive definite.

For two-dimensional problems in which x3 does not appear in the basic equations

or the boundary conditions, the general solution to equations (2.1) may be expressed

in terms of three holomorphic functions of complex variables (Stroh 1958; Lekhnitskii

1963). This enables us to apply many of the powerful results of complex function

theory to the two-dimensional elasticity. For the latter use of derivation, we now list

a compact matrix form solution (Stroh 1958; Ting 1996) which satisfies all the basic

equations given in (2.1), i.e.

u = 2 Re{Af (z)} = Af (z) + A f (z),

where

(2.2 a)

A = [a1 a2 a3 ], B = [b1 b2 b3 ],

f (z) = [f1 (z1 ) f2 (z2 ) f3 (z3 )]T , z = x + p y,

)

= 1, 2, 3.

(2.2 b)

(1 , 2 , 3 ) stands for the stress function vector, which is related to the stresses ij

and surface traction t by

i1 = i,2 ,

and

t=

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

i2 = i,1 ,

,

s

(2.2 c)

(2.2 d)

1271

where s is the arc length measured along the curved boundary; p , =1,2,3, are

the material eigenvalues whose imaginary parts have been arranged to be positive;

(a , b ), = 1, 2, 3, are their associated eigenvectors; f (z ), = 1, 2, 3, are three

holomorphic complex functions to be determined by satisfying the boundary conditions. The superscript T denotes the transpose and the overbar represents the

conjugate of a complex number.

Note that (Suo 1990, Hwu 1993) during the derivation through the method of analytical continuation (Muskhelishvili 1954) , the argument of each component function

of f (z) is written as z = x + py without referring to its associated eigenvalues p .

Once the solution of f (z) is obtained for a given boundary-value problem, a replacement of z1 , z2 or z3 should be made for each component function to calculate field

quantities from (2.2). In other words, the function vector f (z) obtained through the

method of analytical continuation has the form of

f (z) = [f1 (z), f2 (z), f3 (z)]T ,

z = x + py,

(2.3)

which is not consistent with the solution form shown in (2.2 b) and is valid only along

the boundary y = 0. To get the explicit full-field solution, a mathematical operation

based upon the above statement is needed (Hwu 1993).

The general solutions provided in the last section, (2.2), have satisfied all the basic

equations listed in (2.1). The only unknown of (2.2) is the complex function vector

f (z) which should be determined by the satisfaction of boundary conditions set for

the physical problems. Of several physically distinct types of boundary conditions,

there are three fundamental types of boundary conditions which seem to be of considerable physical interest. In the first it is supposed that the surface traction is specified

at all points along the boundary. Thus if t is the prescribed traction value along the

boundary C, the boundary conditions may be written as t(

z ) = t(

z ), z C. Or,

z ), z C. This kind of boundary-value problem

by integration of (2.2 d), (

z ) = (

is referred to the stress boundary-value problem. Alternatively the displacement u

(

may be specified at all points along the boundary, so that u(

z) = u

z ), z C, which

is referred to the displacement boundary-value problem.

In many physical problems, the displacement boundary conditions hold over a part

L of C and the stresses are defined over the remainder C L of C. That is,

(

u(

z) = u

z ), z L, t(

z ) = t(

z ), z C L.

(3.1)

The solution of the basic equations (2.1) subject to these conditions (3.1) constitutes

the mixed boundary-value problems. When L vanishes, the mixed boundary-value

problem reduces to the stress boundary-value problem. When L = C, we get a

displacement boundary-value problem. Therefore, if we get a solution whose boundary conditions are set by equation (3.1), the corresponding solutions for the stress

and displacement boundary-value problems can also be obtained by letting L vanish

or L = C. As we are dealing with the linear elasticity in which the superposition

technique can be applied, without loss of generality, we may consider the following

boundary conditions:

(

u(

z) = u

z ),

z L,

t(

z ) = O,

z C L,

(3.2)

instead of (3.1). Besides (3.1) or (3.2), there are other kinds of mixed boundary

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

1272

conditions such as

z) = b

ti (

z ), i = 1 and/or 2 and/or 3,

ti (

z) = u

bj (

z ), j 6= i, z C,

uj (

z C,

)

(3.3)

which will not be studied in this paper but may be solved in a similar way.

In the literature, there are many discussions and solutions to the stress and displacement boundary-value problems. Relatively few solutions are devoted to the

mixed boundary-value problems due to its rather more awkward nature than the

other two. Recently, by combining the Stroh formalism and the method of analytical

continuation, we obtain a series of analytical solutions to the punch problems which

are types of mixed boundary-value problems (Fan & Hwu 1996, 1998). In those studies, we consider the boundary conditions with straight or elliptical boundaries. In

this paper, we like to give a further study for the boundary condition (3.2) with C

being perturbed by a straight line or elliptical contour.

A typical example of boundary condition (3.2) is the punch indentation problem

where the half-plane and the punch are assumed to be in full contact without slip.

If slip condition is assumed, the boundary condition will be in a form similar to

(3.3). The solution to this kind of boundary conditions has been found in Hwu &

Fan (1998) for the problems with straight boundaries. By referring to the method

employed in the present paper and that used in Hwu & Fan (1998), it is possible to

study the increasing or receding contact as the punch is pressed upon a wave-shaped

surface.

Consider an anisotropic elastic body occupying the lower half-plane whose boundary C is a wavy curve perturbed from the straight line y = 0 and can be expressed

in terms of a small parameter as

y = (x),

(4.1)

where (x) is a wave-shape function such as cos x. Along this boundary the displacements and stresses are prescribed as shown in (3.2) of which the displacement

prescribed boundary L may be the union of a finite set of segments Lk = (ak , bk ),

k = 1, 2, . . . , n.

In order to solve such a mixed boundary-value problem, we let the complex function vector f (z) be expanded in the following perturbation form:

f (z) = f0 (z) + f1 (z) + 2 f2 (z) + .

(4.2)

z = z + p(x),

z = x + p[y (x)],

each term fi (z), i = 0, 1, 2, . . . can be expanded in terms of fi (

as

z ) + p(x)fi0 (

z ) + 12 (p(x))2 fi00 (

z) + ,

fi (z) = fi (

and (4.2) becomes

z ) + [f1 (

z ) + p(x)f00 (

z )] + 2 [f2 (

z ) + p(x)f10 (

z ) + 12 p2 2 (x)f000 (

z )] + .

f (z) = f0 (

(4.3)

Note that in (4.3) the subscript of p is dropped because the p term is always

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

1273

accompanied with the argument z of which the subscript has been dropped during

the derivation by the method of analytical continuation as discussed in the paragraph

following (2.2). Surely, once the solution is obtained, a replacement of z1 , z2 or z3

together with their corresponding p should be made for each component function

to evaluate the full field solution.

With (2.2 a), (2.2 d) and (4.3), the conditions (3.2) along the perturbed boundary

z = x can be expressed as

)

(

2Re{A[f0 (x ) + (f1 (x ) + p(x )f00 (x )) + ]} = u

z ), x L,

(4.4 a)

2Re{B[f0 (x ) + (f1 (x ) + p(x )f00 (x )) + ]} = O, x 6 L,

(

where u

z ) is assumed to depend on and be expanded into series of as

(

0 (x) +

2 (x) + ,

u

z) = u

u1 (x) + 2 u

(4.4 b)

and a value with superscript denotes that it is approaching from S which stands

for the region under the straight perturbed boundary. By comparing the coefficients

of k (k = 0, 1, 2, . . .) on both sides of equation (4.4), we obtain

(

0 (x), x L,

2Re{Af0 (x )} = u

6

L,

2Re{Bf

0 (x )} = O,

1 (x), x L,

2Re{A[f1 (x ) + p(x )f0 (x )]} = u

6

L,

2Re{B[f

1 (x ) + p(x )f0 (x )]} = O,

(

00

2 (x), x L,

2Re{A[f2 (x ) + p(x )f10 (x ) + 12 (p(x ))2 f0 (x )]} = u

00

..

(4.5)

The first set of equations in (4.5) for the zero-order perturbation is identical to that

for the mixed boundary-value problems with straight boundary y = 0, whose solution

z ) has been found in Fan & Hwu (1996) as

f00 (

Z

1 1

1

0

00 (t) dt + B 1 Xs (

B Xs (

[X + (t)]1 M u

z) =

z)

z )ps (

z ),

(4.6)

f0 (

2

s

L tz

where M = iBA1 is the impedance matrix. Xs (

straight line, which is holomorphic in the whole plane cut along L and Xs+ (x) =

z ) is an arbitrary polynomial vector

M M 1 Xs (x), x L (see Appendix A). ps (

with degree not higher than the number of punches n, which may be determined by

considering the force equilibrium of each punch (see Appendix B).

z ) as a reference to solve the other unknown functions fi (

z)

We can now use f0 (

in sequence according to (4.5). For the purpose of illustration, the derivation for the

first-order perturbation will be carried out as follows.

To employ the method of analytical continuation, we now rewrite the second set

of equations in (4.5) as

1 (x), x L,

Af1 (x ) + p(x )Af00 (x ) = Af1 (x ) p(x )Af00 (x ) + u

Bf1 (x ) + p(x )Bf00 (x ) = Bf1 (x ) p(x )Bf00 (x ),

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

x 6 L.

(4.7)

1274

Since both f1 (

z ) and p(

z )f00 (

z ) are holomorphic in S , by the theory of complex

variable functions,

f1 (

z ) and p(

z )f00 (

z)

+

z ) such that

would also be holomorphic in S . If we introduce a new function 1 (

Bf1 (

z ) + p(

z )Bf00 (

z ), z S ,

1 (

z) =

(4.8)

[Bf1 (

z ) + p(

z )Bf00 (

z )], z S + ,

z ) is sectionally holomorphic in the whole plane except

we can conclude that 1 (

possibly on some segments of the x-axis, and (4.7) can now be expressed in terms of

1 (

z ) as

1 (x),

1 (x+ ) + M M 1 1 (x ) = iM u

x L,

1 (x+ ) 1 (x ) = O,

x 6 L.

(4.9)

Equation (4.9) is in the form of Hilbert problem whose solution is (Hwu 1992)

Z

1

1

1 (t) dt + Xs (

Xs (

[Xs+ (t)]1 M u

z) =

z)

z )ps (

z ),

(4.10)

1 (

2

t

L

in which the polynomial vector ps (

z ) should be determined by the loading condition.

With this result and the definition given in (4.8), the first-order perturbation solution f1 (

z ) can be obtained directly. In a similar way, the higher-order perturbation

solution can be solved step by step.

An exact solution of mixed boundary-value problems for an anisotropic elastic

plate with a curvilinear opening is obtained only for the cases that the employed

mapping function is single-valued (Fan & Hwu 1998). The most common examples

are elliptic openings which include circles and cracks. For isotropic plates, it can

even be extended to polygonal holes. If the mapping function is not single-valued,

the solutions provided in Fan & Hwu (1998) is not exact. In this section, we like to

discuss the cases when an opening in an anisotropic plate differs slightly from that

of an ellipse or circle. By introduction of a small parameter which will characterize

the deviation of the opening from that of the ellipse or circle, we consider the opening

whose contour is given by (Lekhnitskii 1968)

N

x = a cos +

(ck cos k + dk sin k) ,

k=1

(5.1)

N

X

y = a c sin +

(ck sin k + dk cos k) .

k=1

c = 1 and = 0, c 0, the contour represents, respectively, a circle and a crack. An

infinite plane with an opening (5.1) may be conformally transformed to the plane

with the opening in the shape of a unit circle || = 1. The transformation function is

zo = zoe + o (),

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

(5.2 a)

1275

where zo = x + iy and

zoe = o () = a{ 12 (1 + c) + 12 (1 c)(1/)},

o () =

N

X

a(ck + idk ) k .

(5.2 b)

k=1

Note that the subscript o is used to denote that the transformation is related to the

isotropic media whose material eigenvalues p = i and their associated arguments

z (= x + p y) becomes zo . Whereas the superscript e is used to denote that the

transformation is related to the corresponding elliptical opening.

In order to make the transformation, equation (5.2), single-valued and conformal

it is necessary that all the roots of equation, by differentiating (5.2) with respect

to ,

(5.3)

o0 () + 0o () = 0,

be expressed on the plane by points located inside of the unit circle || = 1. We

will always consider that the coefficients ck , dk and parameter are such that this

condition is satisfied.

In order to employ the Stroh formalism of which the undetermined holomorphic

functions f (z) = {f1 (z1 ) f2 (z2 ) f3 (z3 )}T are expressed in terms of the arguments

z (= x + p y), = 1, 2, 3, the transformation function between z and should be

found. Since the transformation function between zo and is expressed in terms of

polynomial series of , we may also assume that z is a function of polynomial series

of . By considering the mapping of the opening boundary whose = ei and x, y

are given in (5.1), we obtain

(5.4 a)

z = ze + (),

where

ze = w () = 12 a{(1 ip c) + (1 + ip c)(1/)},

N

X

1

() = 12 a

(ck idk )(1 + ip ) k + (ck + idk )(1 ip ) k ,

k=1

= 1, 2, 3.

(5.4 b)

Note that although o (), o () + o () and () may be single-valued under a

certain condition, e.g. (5.3). () + () is usually non-single-valued. Hence, it

is possible to get the exact solutions for the isotropic media with an elliptical or a

polygonal opening, and for the anisotropic media with an elliptical opening. To solve

the problems of the anisotropic media with general curvilinear openings, we like to

use the solutions for the anisotropic media with an elliptical opening as a reference.

Then, by the perturbation technique an approximate solution for the anisotropic

media with openings slightly different from ellipse may be found. To this end, the

first step we need to take is to find the reference argument ze (= xe + p y e ) of the

problem with an elliptical opening if a corresponding point zo (= x + iy) is given

for the problem with an opening boundary of (5.1). The procedure is described as

follows.

(1) Given the position (x, y) on the physical domain z which contains an opening

described by (5.1).

(2) Calculate zo by using zo = x + iy.

(3) Calculate by inverting zo = o () + o (), which should be single-valued

since the condition set in (5.3) is required.

(4) Calculate ze by ze = ().

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

1276

Like the problem of straight boundary perturbation, we now expand the complex

function vector f (z) in the following perturbation form

f (z) = f0 (z) + f1 (z) + 2 f2 (z) + .

ze

With

as

(5.5)

(5.6)

f (z) = f0 (z e ) + [f1 (z e ) + ()f00 (z e )] + 2 [f2 (z e ) + ()f10 (z e ) + 12 2 ()f000 (z e )] + .

(5.7)

Note that as we discussed in the paragraphs following (2.2) and (4.3), the subscript

of z , ze and () is also dropped in the expressions given in (5.5)(5.7). Since

ze = (), for convenience we now express fi (z e ) by fi () without changing the

symbol of fi . Thus,

f (z) = f0 ()+[f1 ()+()f00 ()]+2 [f2 ()+()f10 ()+ 12 2 ()f000 ()]+ . (5.8)

By employing (5.8) into (2.2 a) and (2.2 d), the condition (3.2) along the elliptical

perturbed boundary z = () + () where = ei can then be expressed as

)

(

z ), L,

2Re{A[f0 ( + ) + (f1 ( + ) + ( + )f00 ( + )) + ]} = u

(5.9 a)

2Re{B[f0 ( + ) + (f1 ( + ) + ()f00 ( + )) + ]} = O, 6 L,

where

2 () + .

(

0 () +

u1 () + 2 u

(5.9 b)

u

z) = u

A value with superscript + denotes that it is approaching from S + which stands for

the region outside the unit circle of the mapped region. Comparing the coefficients

of k (k = 0, 1, 2, . . .) on both sides of (5.9) leads to

(

0 (), L,

2Re{Af0 ( + )} = u

(

)}

=

O,

6

L,

2Re{Bf

0

+

+

0

+

1 (), L,

2Re{A[f1 ( ) + ( )f0 ( )]} = u

+

+

0

+

(

)

+

(

)f

(

)]}

=

O,

6

L,

2Re{B[f

1

0

(

00

2 (), L,

2Re{A[f2 ( + ) + ( + )f10 ( + ) + 12 2 ( + )f0 ( + )]} = u

00

1 2

+

+

0

+

+

+

..

(5.10)

Like the problem of straight perturbed boundary, the first equation set of (5.10)

for the zero-order perturbation is identical to that for the mixed boundary-value

problems with elliptical boundary, whose solution f00 (z e ) has been found in Fan &

Hwu (1998) as

Z

1

1

f00 () =

B 1 Xe ()

[Xe+ (s)]1 M u

2i

s

L

(5.11)

p

where = a sin2 + c2 cos2 and ei = s. Xe () is the Plemelj function for

the

arc,

1

which is holomorphic in the whole plane cut along L and Xe+ () = M M Xe (),

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

1277

the loading conditions (Appendix B). Once f0 () is obtained, it can be used as a

reference to solve the other unknown functions fi () and we will demonstrate the

derivation for the first-order perturbation solution as follows.

The second equation of (5.10) can be written as

1 (), L,

Af1 ( + ) + ( + )Af00 ( + ) + Af1 ( + ) + ( + )Af00 ( + ) = u

Bf1 ( + ) + ( + )Bf00 ( + ) + Bf1 ( + ) + ( + )Bf00 ( + ) = O,

6 L.

(5.12)

Unlike the straight boundary perturbation, due to the form of () given in (5.4 b)2

(z)f00 (z) will not be holomorphic in S + or S . To find a sectionally holomorphic

function, we need to seperate () in (5.12) into two parts. One is holomorphic in

S + , the other is holomorphic in S . With this separation, using the following relation

(Fan & Hwu 1998):

1

i 0

1

u

(),

L,

+

Af00 ( + ) = 2 Af00

(5.13)

1

1

, 6 L,

Bf00 ( + ) = 2 Bf00

and introducing

Bf1 () + 2 a

(ck + idk )[1 ip + (1 ip) 2 ] k Bf00 (), S + ,

k=1

1 ()

N

1 k

1

1

1

0

, S,

Bf1 2 a

k=1

(5.14)

equation (5.12) can be rewritten as the following Hilbert problem of vector form:

)

6 L,

1 ( + ) 1 ( ) = O,

(5.15 a)

1

1 (),

L,

1 ( + ) + M M 1 ( ) = M u

where

1 ()

u

N

X

k1

0

1 ()

=i u

Re[ia(ck idk )(1 + ip) ]

u0 () .

(5.15 b)

k=1

Since f0 () and f1 () are holomorphic in the elastic body S + , from the theory of

complex variable functions

f0 (1/)

and f1 (1/)

holomorphic in the whole plane cut along L of the unit circle. The solution of 1 ()

can then be obtained by using the formula for the Hilbert problems of vector form

derived by Hwu (1992), which leads to

Z

1

1

1 (s) ds + Xe ()pe (),

Xe ()

[Xe+ (s)]1 M u

(5.16)

1 () =

2i

s

L

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

1278

Thus, 1 () is completely solved by (5.16) and hence f1 () can be obtained from

(5.14). The higher-order perturbation solutions can also be obtained in a similar

manner.

6. Illustrative examples

(a ) A rigid flat-ended punch on a cosine wave-shaped boundary

Consider a single rigid punch with a flat-ended profile indenting into the cosine

wave-shaped surface of an anisotropic elastic half-plane. If the wave-shaped surface

is slightly perturbed from a straight line by a small amount in amplitude, it may

be expressed as

y = (x), (x) = cos x.

(6.1)

During the indentation, the punch is assumed to completely adhere to the halfplane over the contact region |x| 6 a in such a way that no slip occurs. Thus, the

displacement of the surface of the half-plane is known at each point of the contact

(

region, and will be u

z ) = ci2 (x)i2 , or

0 = ci2 ,

u

1 = (x)i2 ,

u

(6.2)

which will remain constant and will not be disturbed by

applied to the punch is q

the perturbed surface. From (B 3), we have

Z

Z

[00 (x+ ) 00 (x )] dx =

q,

[10 (x+ ) 10 (x )] dx = O.

(6.3)

L

To find the solution to this problem, we first calculate the zero-order perturbation

00 (x) = O, and Xs (

solution f00 (

z ) from (4.6) in which u

z ) and ps (

z ) can be obtained

from (A 2) and (B 1), (B 2) as

1 1

,

Xs (

q

z ) = s (

z ), ps (

z) =

(6.4 a)

2i s

where

i

z a

1

.

(6.4 b)

(

z) =

z2 a2 z + a

00 (x) = O, we obtain

Substituting (6.4) into (4.6) with u

1 1

.

B s (

f00 (

z) =

z )1

(6.5)

s q

2i

z ), the sectionally holomorphic

To find the first-order perturbation solution f10 (

function 1 (

z ) derived in (4.10) should be evaluated first, in which the only unknown

remaining to be determined is the polynomial vector ps (

z ). By (6.3), we see that

is considered when we solve the reference solution f0 (

the total applied force q

z)

and no extra loading is applied on the perturbed problem. This implies that the

polynomial vector ps (

z ) is identical to zero for the first-order perturbation solution.

With this result, 1 (

z ) is completely determined by the integral term of (4.10) with

1 (x) = cos xi2 , which may be evaluated with the aid of the residue theory (please

u

refer to Hwu (1992) and Fan & Hwu (1996) for the detailed illustration of the integral

evaluation). The result is

1 (

z ) = i cos z(M 1 + M

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

1 1

i2 .

(6.6)

1279

Substituting (6.5) and (6.6) into (4.8)1 , and using the normalization relation

1

1 T

(M 1 + M )s = I, we now obtain the first-order perturbation solution as

2 s

i cos z 1

T

).

B s (s i2 + p (

z )1

(6.7)

s q

2

In a similar way, the higher-order perturbation solution can also be obtained step by

step. The complete solution to the present problem may then be expressed by

z) =

f1 (

f (z) = f0 (

z ) + [f1 (

z ) + p(x)f00 (

z )] + 2 [f2 (

z ) + p(x)f10 (

z ) + 12 p2 2 (x)f000 (

z )] + .

Note that a replacement of the function argument z1 , z2 or z3 (including the material

eigenvalues p1 , p2 or p3 ) should be made for each component function of f (z) to

calculate field quantities from (2.2).

(b ) A rigid stamp on a triangular hole boundary

The previous example shows how to apply the results obtained in 4 for straight

boundary perturbation to solve a real problem. To illustrate the application of the

results obtained in 5 for the elliptical boundary perturbation, we now choose an

opening whose contour differs slightly from that of an ellipse. To avoid tedious mathematical calculation, a relatively simple opening represented by (5.1) with N = 2,

c1 = d1 = d2 = 0, c2 = 1, = 0.25 will be considered in this example. By actually

plotting this contour, we see that it is an opening differing little from an equilateral triangle with rounded corners. If an anisotropic plate is given with this kind of

over a segment, which is

opening and is indented by a rigid stamp under force q

mapped onto an arc L = (ei , ei ) in the -domain, the stress and strain fields to

this problem may now be solved by applying the solutions obtained in 5. Since the

stamp is also assumed to completely adhere to the hole boundary, the displacement

(

along the contact region will be a constant value. Hence, u

z ) = const. along L. Note

that this condition is different from that given in equation (6.2). In that case the

punch profile (flat ended) differs from the wavy surface on initial contact, while in

the present example, the surfaces of the stamp and the hole boundary are assumed

to be perfectly matched on initial contact and during the subsequent indentation.

To find the solution to this problem, we first calculate the zero-order perturbation

00 (s) = O, and Xe () and pe () can be obtained

solution f00 () from (5.11) in which u

from (A 7) and (B 4) as

Xe () = e (),

pe () = d2 2 + d1 + d0 + d1 1 ,

where

() = hh( ei )(1/2)i ( ei )(1/2)+i ii,

d0 =

1

T

,

hhe2 ii1

e BA q

2i

and

z+

d1 =

1 1

,

BAT q

2i e

d1 = O,

d2 = O,

(6.8 b)

z 2 a2 (1 + c2 p2 )

, z = x + py.

a(1 icp)

00 (s) = O, we obtain

Substituting (6.8) into (5.11) with u

2

1 1

e

T

T

1

.

f00 () =

B e () 1

BA

+

BA

q

e

e

2i

(6.8 a)

(6.8 c)

(6.9)

1280

To find the first-order perturbation solution f10 (), we first consider the solution

00 () = u

1 () = O, we have u

1 () = O.

1 () obtained in (5.16). By (5.15 b) with u

Moreover, pe () = O due to the same reason stated in the previous example. Hence,

1 () = O by (5.16). Substituting this result into (5.14)1 , we obtain

f1 () = 12 a[(1 ip) 2 + (1 ip)]f00 ().

(6.10)

The complete solution to the present problem may then be expressed by f (z) =

f0 () + [f1 () + ()f00 ()] + . Note that a replacement of the function argument

1 , 2 or 3 (including the material eigenvalues p1 , p2 or p3 ) should be made for each

component function of f () to calculate field quantities from (2.2).

7. Concluding remarks

The general solution (2.2) satisfies all the basic equations for the two-dimensional

anisotropic elasticity. The only unknown in this general solution is the complex function vector f (z) which shall be determined through the satisfaction of the boundary

conditions. Usually, there are two ways to determine f (z). One is the semi-inverse

method, the other is the method of analytical continuation. The former always

depends upon the knowledge of corresponding isotropic solutions or known physical behaviours, which is unknown in the present problem. Hence, we employ the

method of analytical continuation to solve our problems. Since the boundary geometry considered is the one perturbed by a straight line or an ellipse, f (z) is expanded

into a perturbation series. The zero-order solution of this perturbation series is found

to be exactly the one for the straight or elliptical boundary problems, which has been

found in our previous work. As to the first-order solution for the straight perturbation boundary, results are obtained in (4.8) and (4.10), and illustrative example is

given in 6 for a cosine-wavy surface indented by a rigid flat-ended punch. When

the boundary contour is slightly different from an ellipse, the first-order solution is

obtained in (5.14) and (5.16) which are written in terms of the mapped variable

because the corresponding zero-order solution is found by introducing a mapping

function which transforms a region outside an ellipse in the z -plane to a region

outside a unit circle in the -plane as shown in (5.4 b)1 . The illustrative example for

the elliptical perturbation boundary is then presented by considering a triangular

hole boundary indented by a rigid stamp.

The authors acknowledge the support by National Science Council, Republic of China, through

grant no. NSC 86-2212-E006-056.

(a) Xs (z)

The plemelj function matrix Xs (z) for straight boundary is a matrix containing

sectionally holomorphic functions which satisfy the following relations:

(A 1)

The solution to (A 1) is (Hwu 1992)

Xs (z) = s (z),

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

(A 2 a)

where

s = [1 , 2 , 3 ]s ,

(z) =

Y

n

1281

(1+ )

(z aj )

(z bj )

(A 2 b)

j=1

(M 1 + e2i M

) = O.

(A 3)

The explicit solutions for the eigenvalues are (Fan & Hwu 1996)

= 12 + i ,

where

1 = =

=

[ 12

1+

1

ln

,

2 1

2

1/2

tr(S )]

= 1, 2, 3,

2 = ,

(A 4 a)

3 = 0,

T

S = i(2AB I),

(A 4 b)

tr stands for the trace of matrix. To have a unique eigenvector matrix, s is normalized by

1 T

(M 1

2 s

+ M 1 )s = I.

(A 5)

(b) Xe ()

The plemelj function matrix Xe () for an elliptical boundary is a matrix containing

sectionally holomorphic functions which satisfy the following relations:

Xe+ () = Xe (), 6 L,

(A 6)

1

Xe+ () + M M Xe () = O, L.

Note that equations (A 1) and (A 6) are the same if we interchange M and M . With

this observation, it can easily be proved that the eigenvalues of these two problems are

the same and their corresponding eigenvectors are conjugates of each other. Hence,

Xe () = e (),

(A 7 a)

e = s .

(A 7 b)

where

(a) ps (z)

By the infinity condition, it is known that ps (z) is at most a polynomial of degree

n 1 where n is the number of punches (Fan & Hwu 1996). Hence,

ps (z) = d0 + d1 z + + dn1 z n1 .

(B 1)

dn1 =

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1998)

1 1

q.

2i s

(B 2)

1282

the equlibrium of each punch, which leads to

Z

qk =

[ 0 (x+ ) 0 (x )] dx,

L

Z k

=

{[00 (x+ ) 00 (x )] + [ 0 (x+ ) 0 (x )] + } dx, k = 1, 2, . . . , n,

Lk

(B 3)

where

Pnqk is the known resultant force vector applied on the kth punch Lk and

q = k=1 qk .

(b) pe ()

Consider the infinity and zero conditions, it can be shown that

pe () = d1 1 + d0 + d1 + d2 2 + + dn+1 n+1 ,

(B 4)

where the unknown coefficients di can be determined by the infinity and zero conditions, as well as the loading conditions as that shown in (B 3). Details about the

determination of pe () for one punch example can be found in Fan & Hwu (1998).

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