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# C. U.

Shah University
Subject
:
Course:

Dynamics of Machines

Code: 4TE05DOM1

B.-Tech

Faculty:
Engineering

Chapter No. 01

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Balancing
of
rotating
&
reciprocating
masses

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Questions
Define partial balancing in locomotives.
Write the effects of balancing.
Define primary and secondary balancing.
Define balancing & why need of balancing in machines.
Differentiate between static and dynamic balancing.

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## Classify types of V- engines.

Discuss the concept of reverse and direct crank.
Explain with neat sketch static balancing machines.
Explain with neat sketch dynamic balancing machines.
Derive the expression for balancing of several masses rotating in different
planes.
Explain effects of partial balancing of locomotives.
A, B, C and D are four masses carried by a rotating shaft at radii 0.1 m, 0.15 m,
0.15 m and 0.2 m respectively. The planes in which the masses rotate are spaced
at 500 mm apart and the magnitude of the masses B, C and D are 9 kg, 5 kg and
4 kg respectively. Find the required mass A; and the relative angular settings of
the four masses so that the shaft shall be in complete balance
The length of each connecting rod of a 600 V-engine is 220 mm and the stroke
is 100 mm. The mass of the reciprocating parts is 1.2 Kg/cylinder and the crank
speed is 2400 rpm. Find the values of primary and secondary forces.
The following data refer to a four coupled wheel locomotive with two inside
cylinders
Pitch of cylinder = 600 mm
Coupling rod crank radius = 240mm
Reciprocating mass/cylinder=315kg
Distance of centre of mass in plane
Revolving mass/ cylinder = 260 kg
of driving wheel = 750 mm
Distance between driving wheels= 1.6 m Angle between engine crank = 900
Distance between coupling rods = 2 m Angle between coupling rod crank
Diameter of driving wheels = 1.9 m
with adjacent engine crank = 1800
Revolving parts for each coupling rod crank = 130 kg
Engine crank radius = 300 mm
The balanced mass required for the reciprocating parts is equally divided
between each pair of coupled wheel.
Determine (i) magnitude and position of balanced mass required to balanced
two-third of reciprocating masses.
(ii) hammer blow and maximum tractive force when the speed of locomotive
is 80 km/ hr.

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## Mechanical College: C.U. Shah College of

Engineering & Technology

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Chapter No. 02
Introduction of

Semester: 5th

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Vibration
Undamped
vibration

&
free

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## Write the types of vibrations.

Define SHM.
Define periodic time & amplitude of vibrations.

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## Write the effects of vibrations.

What are the remedies taken while vibrations produced in machines.
Write the elements of vibratory system.
Explain equivalent stiffness of spring.
Classify with neat sketch types of vibrations.
equilibrium and energy method.
Rayleigh method.

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Chapter No. 03

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Damped
vibration

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Chapter No. 04
Forced
vibration

## Define damped vibrations.

Write types of damping.
Define damping factor.
Write the formula of critical damping coefficient.
What are the applications of damping.
Write the factors on which damping coefficient depends.
Discuss rate of decay of amplitude.
Differentiate between over damping and under damping.
Explain any two types of damping with neat sketch.
Derive logarithmic decrement and derive the expression for it.
In a damped vibrating system, the mass having 20 Kg makes 40 oscillations
in 25 sec. The amplitude of natural vibrations decreases to one eighth of the
initial value after 8 oscillations. Determine: (i) the logarithmic factor
(ii) damping factor & damping coefficient (iii) Spring stiffness
Derive the governing equation characterized by free damped vibration.
Derive the general solution in differential equation form of over damped &
critically damped system.

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## Define vibration isolator.

Define force transmissibility.
Define motion transmissibility.
Write the types of isolator.
Define magnification factor.
Explain base excitation.
Derive the expression for force transmissibility.
A machine of mass one tonne is acted upon by an external force of 2450 N at
a frequency of 1500 r.p.m. To reduce the effects of vibration, isolator of
rubber having a static deflection of 2 mm under the machine load and an
estimated damping factor = 0.2 are used. Determine (1) the force transmitted
to the foundation (2) the amplitude of vibration of machine (3) the phase lag.
Explain forced vibration of longitudinal system and derive the expression
for it.
A refrigerator unit having mass of 35 kg is to be supported on three springs,
each having a spring stiffness s. the unit operates at 480 rpm. Find the value
of stiffness if only 10% of the shaking force is allowed to be transmitted to

Chapter No. 05

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Critical speed of
shafts

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Chapter No. 06
Torsional
vibrations and
vibrations
of
multi-rotor
system

the supported.
A machine of mass 100 kg is supported on an elastic support of total stiffness
800 kN/m and has rotating unbalanced element which results in disturbing
force of 400 N at a speed of 3000 rpm. Assuming the damping ratio as 0.25,
determine the amplitude of vibrations due to unbalance and the force
transmitted to the support.

## Define critical speed of shaft.

Define rotor.
Define eccentricity.
Explain behavior of shaft rotor system by ranges of shaft speed with respect to
critical speed.
Explain the method to determine the critical speed of shaft carrying single rotor,
considering damping.
Explain the method to determine the critical speed of shaft carrying single rotor,
considering without damping.
A vertical shaft of 20 mm in diameter & 600 mm long held in short bearings at
the ends. A 5Kg disc is mounted on the shaft midway between the bearings,
C.G. of disc is 0.5 mm away from the axis of the shaft. If the allowable tensile
stress for the shaft is 70 N/ mm 2 .Determine (i) critical speed of shaft (ii) the
range of speed which is not safe. Take E= 200 Gpa
A vertical shaft of 12 mm diameter rotates in sleeve bearing and a dics of mass
15 Kg is mounted on the shaft at mid span. The distance between two bearings
is 0.5 m. If the C. G. of rotor is 0.8 mm from the axis of the shaft, Determine (i)
critical speed of rotation of the shaft (ii) the speed range in which the bending
stress will exceed 125 N/mm2, E= 2 *105 N/ mm2.

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## Define torsional vibrations.

Define node point.
Define zero frequency.
Explain the concept of torsionally equivalent shaft.
Which parameters are determined in two rotor system to find the frequency.
Write step by step procedure of Stodolas method to find out fundamental
natural frequency of system having three degree of freedom.
Describe Dunkerleys method to find the natural frequency of a shaft carrying
Derive the expression for critical speed of shaft carrying multiple rotors by
Rayleigh method.
A shaft of 50 mm diameter and 3 m length has a mass of 10 kg per meter
length. It is simply supported at the ends and carries three masses of 70 kg, 90
kg and 50 kg at 1 m, 2 m and 2.5 m respectively from the left support. Find the
natural frequency of transverse vibrations by using Dunkerleys method.
Consider value of E=200 GPa
A vertical shaft of 5 mm diameter is 200 mm long and is supported in long
bearing at its ends. A disc of mass 50 kg is attached to the center of the shaft.
Neglecting any increase in stiffness due to the attachment of the disc to the
shaft, find the critical speed of rotation and the maximum bending stress when
the shaft is rotating at 75% of the critical speed. The center of the disc is 0.25
mm from the geometric axis of the shaft. E = 200 GN/m2.
Two rotors, A and B are attached to the ends of the shaft 600 mm long. The
mass and radius of gyration of rotor A is 40 kg and 400 mm respectively and
that of rotor B are 50 kg and 500 mm respectively. The shaft is 80 mm diameter
for first 250 mm, 120 mm for next 150 mm and 100 mm for the remaining
length from the rotor A. Assume the modulus of rigidity of the shaft material
0.8105 N/mm2. Find the position of node on equivalent shaft of diameter 80
mm and on the actual shaft. Also find the natural frequency of the torsional

vibrations.

Chapter No. 07

Vibration
measuring
instruments

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## Name the information which obtained from vibration measuring instruments.

Define vibration transducer.
How seismometer can be used as acceleration measuring instruments.
Why need of data analysis in vibration measuring instruments.
Draw and explain block diagram of vibration measurement process.
Explain classification of vibration measuring instruments.
Discuss with block diagram of FFT analyzer and write its applications.
Explain with schematic diagram of accelerometer.
Describe construction, working principle of vibrometer.