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Chapter 1 Plumbing

Plumbarius individual who worked I the sanitary field of Ancient Rome

Plumbum means lead
DWV Drainage, Waste, Vent
Blow-off/ detritus controlled outlet used to discharged water.
Common vent dual vent
Diameter Diameter of a pipe/tube refers to the internal diameter (ID) of such pipe,
except brass and copper tube.
Fixture Unit Flow Rate
total discharge flow in gallons/min of a sample fixture divided
Refer to NPC 1999
by 7.5 gallons.
Lateral (1) In plumbing secondary pipe. (2) In sewage, it receives sewage only
from building sewer.
Return Bend - 180 bend in pipe
Stack vent Waste/Soil Vent

Chapter 2 Plumbing Materials

Cast Iron pipe (CI) (1) 1.5m long.ranging from 50-150mm. (2) less than 25
storey. (3) ferrous oxide called rust (4) Types of CI: SV Type (general) and XV Type
(extra duty/underground).
Asbestos Pipe Twice (2x) as that of the standard cast iron pipe.
Bituminous Fiber Sewer Pipe (1) Cheapest (2)light in weight (3) slightly flexible
Vitrified Clay Pipe length of 0.72m, heated in a large kiln under a temp of 1370C.
Lead Pipe poisonous and injurious
Galvanized Steel Pipe 6m long. Easily corroded by alkaline and acid water.
Kapal Manipis
Deteriorate faster when used in hot water supply.
Galvanized Wrought Iron Pipe more resistant to acid waste that steel pipe.
Brass Pipe made of alloy/zinc and copper. 15% (alloy/zinc) and 85% copper
Copper pipe (1) durable and extremely corrosive resistant material. (2) Type K, L
and M. (3) It may be used 1 size smaller than a steel pipe.
Plastic/ Synthetic Pipe developed in the mid year of 1935 Naitatag ang
pwede hanggang 150m long.
1. PE and PB tubes are in coil available at 30m long.
2. PVC pipes and fittings weighs about 1/5 of the metal pipe.
3. PE weighs about 1/8 as much as steel pipe.
Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone acetone
Plastic derived from coal and petroleum products.
Celluloid 1st Plastic material introduced followed by Bakelite (1905) and now, PE.

Chapter 3 Measuring, Cutting and Joining Pipes

For Cast Iron Pipe, Single hub used more than 1.5m long, double hub if shorter.
Hubless pipe with neoprene rubber sleeves. In joining hubless, oakum followed by
molten lead 20-25mm lalagpas lang ng 3mm.
For Galvanized Steel Pipe, cutting is done by using 14-teeth per inch hacksaw
blade. Nipples ranging from 2-12 inches long.
One (1) roll of Teflon Tape is 1 meter long
For copper pipe, cutting is done by using 24-teeth per inch (heavy pipes) and 32teeth per inch(thinner). NEVER allow the fluxed joint to stand for more than 3
hours before soldering.

For plastic pipe,(1) joining by SOLVENT WELDING. (2) Insert and make a quarter
turn(1/4) and turning should not be more than 30sec. (3) 2 hours before testing the
line under pressure. (4) 15-20hrs permit to use of the line.

Chapter 4 Sewage Disposal System

Daily average of human waste/excreta 80 grams (feces) and 950 grams (urine),
diluted with water at the rate of 30-100 gallons/day.
Total sewage solids, 50% is organic (nabubulok)


1. Cesspool hole in the ground curbed with stones, bricks etc. (obsolete)
2. Privy concrete sealed vault with wooden shelter (obsolete)
3. Septic Tank
4. Public Sewer Line consisting of STP
1. Combination Public Sewer conveys both storm water and sanitary waste (obsolete)
2. Sanitary Sewer sanitary waste only.
2.1 Intercepting/ Trunk Line Sewer concrete pipe 0.6-3m in diameter. Min depth =
2.2 Tributary Sewer vitrified clay/concrete laid in open trench.NOT more than 3m
below street grade.
3. Storm Drain

Manhole Interval distance = 75-150m, Manhole diameter = 0.9-1.2m

Sewage Ejector when public sewer line was installed at a depth of 2-4m below the
street level.
SEPTIC TANK sludge (sa baba), scum (lumulutang). MIN inside dimension = 0.9
wide, 1.5 long, 1.2 depth.
Stabilization process of decomposition.
Putrefaction decomposition caused by anaerobic bacteria
Septic A sewage that turns dark and smell unpleasantly due to anaerobic

1 m3 = 264

Location of Septic Tank: 2m from the outside wall, 15m away from any source of
water supply.

Chapter 5 The Waste Pipe

Special Waste - When a waste pipe is NOT directly connected to a soil stack/house
Premature Waste Line Defects tilted or crooked joint connection.
Cleanout equal to the diameter of waste pipe.
Scouring means to flush or wash out, to remove dirt or grease by flowing through.
Flowing water at drainage pipe must be the pipe diameter.
Fixture Unit amount of water each fixture discharges in 1min interval.
WASTE PIPE Direct and Indirect waste.
Generally, 50mm pipe is required for ALL TYPES of urinals.

Chapter 6 The Soil Pipe

Stack vent extended above the roof NOT less than 0.3m long and NOT less than
75mm (3) diameter.
When the roof is to be used other than protection from the elements of the weather,
Vent stack should be extended NOT less than 2m above roof.
Cleanout - equal to the diameter of the soil branch. Located at the farthest end of
the branch away from the vertical soil pipe.

Chapter 7 The House Drain

House Drain receives discharges of all soil and wastes stacks. Collecting Line of a
Plumbing System. Being HORIZONTAL PIPELINE.


1. Combined Drain sanitary waste and storm water. (obsolete)
2. Sanitary Drain sanitary and domestic waste only
3. Storm Drain
4. Industrial Drain

Any branch of the house drain terminating at a floor drain or fixture, shall be provided
with 100mm pipe extended at least 2inches above the floor.
The trap of the floor drain NOT more than 0.5m below finished floor line.
Cleanout installed every 20m interval distance.
House Trap installed in the house drain immediately inside the foundation wall of
the building.
Area Drain MINIMUM SIZE 100mm or 4 pipe
If the fixture is less than 1.5m from the drain, it should be TAPPED but NOT
necessarily VENTED.
MINIMUM size for floor drain 75mm or 3 p-trap, installed NOT more than 0.2m
below the floor line.
Cellar Basement Floor Drain
GREASE TRAP (1) Basin width should NOT be less than 0.60m. (2) Length should
be 3-4 times its width. (3) MINIMUM DEPTH of concrete grease trap should NOT be
less than 1.2m below the outlet invert.

Chapter 8 The House Sewer

House Sewer/ Building Sewer starts 0.90m from the outer face of the building.
Most practical method of establishing grade 1/8 bend

Chapter 9 The Storm Drain

Splash Pan collector of water coming down from the downspout


1. Inside Storm Drain located UNDER the basement floor or w/in walls of the building.
2. Outside Storm Drain installed outside the foundation wall of the building.
3. Overhead Storm Drain adopted when the street drainage is higher in elevation than the
basement floor of the building.
o Change in direction: (1) combination of wye and 1/8 bend (2) long radius fittings
Roof leader / downspout water conductor.
Pag sa loob, conductor. Pag sa
labas downspout.

Chapter 10 Traps for Plumbing Fixtures

1856 first patented trap was innovated in the United States.

P-Trap was called Gooseneck
Trap Seal = Water Seal


1. Common Seal 5cm deep
2. Deep Seal P-Trap 7.5 10cm
Permissible and Objectionable Trap
P-Trap shall be installed within 0.60m of the fixture it served.
Long Run Horizontal Pipe / Running Trap could be used only near the drain of the
floor area or yard. NOT provided with a hand-hole cleanout.
Every trap shall be self-cleaning and must be provided with a cleanout.
NO fixture shall be double trapped.
Classification of Fixtures to be installed:
1. Class 1 (Private Use) residential houses, apartment and private bathroom of hotels etc.
2. Class 2 (Semi-Public Use) office buildings, factories, dormitories and the like
3. Class 3 (Public Use) schools, gymnasium, hotel, railroad and bus terminals, public
comfort rooms.
Chapter 11 Plumbing Ventilation

Compressibility One of the properties of gas. When compressed, pressure greater

than one atmospheric is developed.


1. Siphonage minus pressure. The trap of a common seal is open and exposed to the
atmosphere, both the inlet and the outlet orifices will be under balance atmospheric
(1) Direct/Self-Siphoning created when a rapid flow of water passing through the pipe
siphon down the water seal inside the traps with NO VENT PROVISION.
(2) Indirect/ Momentum Siphoning created by heavy discharge of water from a fixture
installed on a line serving another fixture at a lower floor. (Pababa)
2. Back Pressure plus pressure. When large amount of water flow drops downward
rapidly forming a slug like, the air inside the pipe will be compressed downward.
3. Evaporation
4. Wind Effect
5. Capillary Action draining of water
1. Main Soil and Waste Pipe extended through roof
2. Main Vent/ Collecting Vent Line Vent stack connecting all vent
3. Individual Vent/ Back Vent usual ventilation in a fixture connecting to the main vent.
4. Unit Vent vent between two(2) identical fixtures
5. Circuit/ Loop Vent two or more fixtures connected in a soil or waste branch
6. Relief Vent vent for battery of fixtures.
Toke/By-pass Vent if 2-3 floors interval
7. Looped Vent fixtures that are away from the main vent
8. Wet Vent

NO vent shall be less than 38mm (1) except for a 32mm (1) waste
Vent practically rise vertically or at 45 up to the point of 0.15m above the fixture.

Chapter 12 The Sovent System

Two Line Drainage System = DWV

Sovent System completely eliminates the vent stack and other forms of ventilation.
First introduce by Fritz Sommer in 1962
Aerator spatters/scatters the effluent in drops or small blobs wherein they are
mixed with the air. Cannot produce either plus/minus pressure of more than 25mm
water gauge. A water seal 50mm high is safe against siphoning or back flow.
The original material used for Sovent is copper.

Chapter 13 Cold Water Supply in Building

Water (liquid form) 839 times heavier than air

Water (vapor form) 133 times lighter than air
Wells that are supplying water for public use MINIMUM distance of 100m radius
from residential areas.
There should be NO CONCRETE Sanitary sewers existing w/in 15m radius of the well.
NO outdoor privy, cesspools, septic tank or drain field shall be located w/in 45m
radius of the well.
A complete chemical analysis for each type of water sold shall be made at least
twice a year.
When NEW mains are installed, or old mains repaired, they should be filled with
strong chlorine solution of 40 to 60mg per liter for at least 24hrs.
Water main 3m horizontally from sanitary sewer when they are parallel.


1. Direct Pressure Distribution centrifugal/piston pump
2. Indirect Pressure Distribution turbine pump

House Service pipe connection from the public water main/any water supply to
the building served.
Branches horizontal pipes that serve the faucets/fixtures.


1. By normal water pressure
2. Overhead feed system
3. Air Pressure Distribution System 10 storeys, when air is compressed into a closed
compartment under atmospheric pressure to the extent of its volume content, the
pressure will increase up to 15lbs/in2 capable of elevating water up to 10.5m high. The
ideal pressure range is from 20-40psi.

Direct Up-feed pumping system innovation of air pressure water distribution/

triplex pump. ONLY ONE pump operates at a time.
Normal Pressure refers to the pressure range measured over a period of 24hrs.
For residential, normal pressure ranges from 30-40psi. On the other hand, water
pressure greater than 50psi may cause pipe hammering/bursting of pipe joint.
Pressure Reducing Valve keep the pressure constant at 40psi/ reset to any
pressure desired.

MAXIMUM DEMAND max water distribution of fixtures in terms of FU. One unit is
valued at 8 gallons of water discharge per min interval.
Public Water Distribution has an averaged water pressure of 50psi.

Chapter 14 Hot Water Supply in Building

Hot water installation: copper tube, stainless steel pipe, PVDC plastic pipe.


1. Up-feed and Gravity Return System installed at the bottom of the riser.
2. Overhead Feed and Gravity Return System installed at the top of the riser.

Pump Circuit System mechanical device used to circulate hot water to the plumbing
HOT WATER TANK: (1) Range Boiler small, (2) Storage Boiler large
Range Boiler generally made of copper or stainless steel sheet, D=0.3-0.6m & not
more than L=1.8m
Storage Boiler made of heavy-duty stainless, D=0.6-1.3m & not more than L=5m
A 12mm () thick fiberglass efficient insulating cover.
Hot and Cold water running in parallel minimum distance of 0.15m.


1. Hot water space heating system LOW temperature.
2. Hot water supply system HIGHER temperature.
Chapter 16 Fire Protection in Building

MARCH Fire Prevention Month.

Elevated water tank supply constant pressure
Underground water reservoir covered with earth from 0.6 to 0.9m
Hydropneumatic pump used to store air under pressure
Sprinkler heads open automatically at temperatures of 135F - 160F
Typical spacing of sprinkler heads: (1) 3.80m horizontal. (2) 3m vertical.
Nozzles are set about 2.40 3.60m apart on the supply pipes and spaced about 3
4m apart at right angle exposed beams or panels.
Enough water to operate at least 25% for 30mins.