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PERROTIS COLLEGE

THESSALONIKI, GREECE
UNIVERSITY OF WALES INSTITUTE, CARDIFF.

Notes on
Harvard / Author-Date system of referencing

Damiana Koutsomiha
dkouts@afs.edu.gr
2310-492-889
Dimitris & Aliki Perrotis Library
Note: This guide is written primarily for the use of students undertaking Perrotis College
modules
1

The following form of citations are reproduced by the Commonwealth of Australia 2002,
Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, rev. by Snooks & Co., John Wiley
& Sons Australia, Brisbane. Copyright: Commonwealth of Australia
and

Lathrop A & Foss K 2005, Guiding Students from Cheating and Plagiarism to
Honesty and Integrity: Strategies for Change, Libraries Unlimited, Westport, CT
Documents from CQ University provided the inspiration for the format of this referencing
guide.

Table of contents
Plagiarism........................................................................................................................ 5
What is referencing?...........................................................................................................6
When do you not need to reference................................................................................. ..7
Elements of the reference list
Book8

Journal article9
Web site...10
How to arrange entries in the reference list.11
In text citation or references12
Tables and figures14
Hard copy books ....................................................................................................................
One author....................................................................................................................166
Two authors .................................................................................................................166
Three authors ...............................................................................................................177
Four or more authors....................................................................................................177
No author .......................................................................................................................18
Several sources are cited at once ...................................................................................18
Second or later edition ...............................................................................................1919
Edited work....................................................................................................................19
Chapter in edited work...................................................................................................19
One volume of multi-volume work ...............................................................................19
Electronic books ....................................................................................................................
E-book............................................................................................................................20
Chapter in an e-book......................................................................................................20
Hard copy journal articles......................................................................................................
One or more authors ......................................................................................................21
No author .......................................................................................................................21
Magazine........................................................................................................................21
Online or electronic journals..................................................................................................
Journal article from a database ......................................................................................22
Journal article from a website ........................................................................................22
Hardcopynewspaper articles ..............................................................................................
Newspaper article with an author ..................................................................................23
Newspaper article without an author .............................................................................23
3

Electronic copynewspaper articles.....................................................................................


Newspaper article with an author (website)...................................................................24
Newspaper article with no author (website) ..................................................................24
Other documents on the World Wide Web (WWW)...................................................255
Document on the World Wide Web...............................................................................25
Document on the WWW no date ................................................................................25
Document on the World Wide Web no author/sponsor..............................................25
Conference paper from a website ..................................................................................25
Government sponsored websites ...........................................................................................
Page on a government website.......................................................................................26
Specialized sources ................................................................................................................
Conference proceedings.................................................................................................26
published ........................................................................................................................26
DVD/Video....................................................................................................................26
Film/Movie ....................................................................................................................26
Television broadcast ......................................................................................................27
Photographs on the Web ................................................................................................27
with name of creator ......................................................................................................27
No creator of the image given........................................................................................27
Facebook........................................................................................................................28
YouTube ........................................................................................................................28
Blog................................................................................................................................28
Wiki ...............................................................................................................................28
Online Dictionary entry .................................................................................................29

Plagiarism
Plagiarism is taking the ideas or expression of ideas of other people without proper
attribution or citation

Common forms of plagiarism include:

Quoting or paraphrasing material without proper attribution.


Omitting quotation marks -- even if you do cite something
Copying or using work done by another student.
Citing sources you didn't use.
Turning in the same paper for more than one class without the permission of both
teachers.

At the Perrotis College Student Handbook there is extensive reference regarding issues of
academic integrity. Please read the following excerpts:

ACADEMIC INTEGRITY
Students at Perrotis College are expected to demonstrate academic integrity in all
educational pursuits. Adherence to this principle means that each individual is
responsible for his or her own behavior in all activities connected to the Colleges
academic program and that such behavior is characterized by honesty, fairness
and forthrightness. Violations of academic integrity includebut are not limited
tothe following
Copying or using in any other way unauthorised materials or the work of any
other
examinee;
Engaging in plagiarism by using other people's work and submitting it as one's
own work;
Students caught violating principles of academic integrity will be immediately
reported to the College administration and are subject to dismissal, suspension,
loss of financial aid and/or other disciplinary actions

What is referencing?
When you write an assignment you are required to perform research and refer or cite to
the work of other authors and scholars. Each time you do, you must identify their work by
making reference /citation to it. The practice of acknowledging authors works is known
as referencing or citing.
Acknowledging the work of others is:

setting ones own work in context;


adding authority to a statement;
enabling readers to follow up a source and
enabling readers to check the accuracy of the quotation/information (University
of South Australia p.2).

Each reference must appear in two ways in your text. As


an acknowledgment of sources through brief parenthetical citations in the
text keyed to a works-cited list and
a compilation of an alphabetical list of Works Cited or References, appearing
at the end of the text

Works Cited or References

A Works Cited or References is a list of the resources used to complete a


research paper or assignment and it is ALWAYS found at the end of the
assignment.
It is arranged alphabetically by the authors family name,
It is a comprehensive list of all types of resources used such as books, journal
articles, electronic sources and
It includes the full details of your parenthetical references.

What is the difference between a list of References and a Bibliography?


The terms are often used synonymously, but there is a difference in meaning between
them:
References are the items you have read and specifically referred to (or cited) in
your assignment.
A bibliography is a list of everything you read in preparation for writing an
assignment. A bibliography will, therefore, normally contain sources that you have
cited and those you found to be influential but decided not to cite. A bibliography can
give a tutor an overview of which authors have influenced your ideas and arguments
even if you do not specifically refer to them.

When you do not need to reference


However, there are four situations when you do not need to reference sources. These
are:
1 When presenting historical overviews
2 When presenting your own experiences
3 In conclusions, when you are repeating ideas previously referenced
4 When summarizing what is regarded as common knowledge.

The following excerpt comes from a letter written by Dr. Taylor, Emeritus Professor
of Political Science, Oakton Community College, Des Plaines, Illinois to his students.
It gives a pretty good answer on Why do you need to reference
...Let me expand on this last point, since it applies to both you and me.
By its very nature, education and the accumulation of knowledge is a shared
enterprise. None of us has the time, let alone the background knowledge required, to
learn everything on our own. Virtually everything we know has come to us because
someone else has taken the time to think about something, research it, and then share
what s/he's learned with us in a class lecture or, more likely, in an article or book. This
is every bit as true for me as a teacher as it is for you as students. I'd have very little to
teach if all I could talk about is what I've learned solely on my own.
In a class lecture it would be too disruptive if I stopped to cite all of my sources, but I
know, and you need to know, that I am sharing with you the things I've learned from
hundreds of different authors. What I contribute is the way I bring their ideas together
into
a
coherent
whole
so
that
it
makes
sense
to
you.
If this is true for me, how much more so for you. I have many more years of education
and reading behind me than you do. I don't expect you to do original research. Instead,
I expect you to read about the research of others, and to bring together their ideas in
such a way that makes sense to you and will make sense to me. Therefore, it's
essential for you to cite your sources in any research paper you write. The academic
reasons for doing so are to give credit to those who have done the original research
and written the article or book, and to allow me to look at them if I needed to find out
if you have properly understood what the author was trying to say.
But at a practical level, citing your sources is a way to show that you've done the
assignment. If your paper contains no citations, the implication is that you have done
a piece of original research, but that wasn't the assignment. Citations (along with the
bibliography) show that you have consulted a variety of resources as the assignment
required. They're also an acknowledgement of your indebtedness to those authors.

Elements of the reference list


Book
For a book the document information is presented in the following order:

surname (family name) and initials of author(s)

year of publication

title of book always in italics and minimal capitalisation. It follows the year of
publication separated by comma

the edition, if not the original publication, for example, 4th edn

publisher

place of publication.

There should be commas between all elements except the initials of the author(s) and
the date.
Example

Authors surname
Title of book in
Year of
and initials
publication minimal
capitalisation

Publisher

Place (city) of
publication

Hornby, D 1998, About a boy, Riverhead Books, New York.

Italics for
book title

Commas between elements


except author(s) and date

Full stop at
the end

Journal article

For a journal article, the following elements should be presented in this order:

surname (family name) and initials of author(s)

year of publication

title of article in single quotation marks and minimal capitalisation

title of journal or periodical in italics and maximal capitalisation

volume number where applicable

issue number or other identifier where applicable, for example, Winter

page number(s) on which the article begins and ends.

Example

Authors surname
and initials

Year of publication

Title of article in
minimal capitalisation
and in single quotation
marks

O'Hara, MJ 2009, Flood basalts, basalt floods or topless bushvelds? Lunar


petrogenesis revisited, Journal of Petrology, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 15451651.

Italics and maximal


capitalisation for the
title of the journal

Page numbers
Volume and issue
number in lower case

Full stop at the end

Website

For a website article, the following elements should be presented in this order:

name of the author /sponsor/owner of the site

year of publication on the Web if no date use n.d.,

title of page/site in italics and minimal capitalisation*

date you viewed the site in full

URL address in brackets, no full stop.

Example
Name of
author/sponsor/owner of
the web site

Year of
publication on
the Web

Name of the page in


italics and minimal
capitalisation

Date you viewed


the site

American Farm School 2008, Library, viewed 12 July 2011,


<http://www.afs.edu.gr/page/default.asp?la=2&id=50>

URL address

Encyclopaedias and dictionaries

If there is an entry in an encyclopedia with author (s) the principles already described
can be applied. If no author is mentioned provide the necessary information in the
text. For example:

Oxford dictionary (2000) defines it

There is no need for an entry in the works cited or reference list.

Foreign Language Material


10

You have two options if you are writing an assignment in the English language but
you are using sources which are written in other languages:
Either give the source title exactly as it appears in the original language, or give an
English translation of it in square brackets with a language descriptor at the end, e.g.
Lansdale, E. 2010, : ,
, p. 110.
or
Lansdale, E. 2010. [My Metamorphosis: a tapestry of people, places and events].
: , , p. 110. (In Greek).

How to arrange entries in the reference list


1. In alphabetical order according to the authors surname.
2.

References that start with a number precede the alphabetical ones and are listed
numerically.

3. When there is more than one author keep the exact order of the authors names as
they appear on the title page of a publication.
5. When there is no author list alphabetically according to the title. When
alphabetising, ignore words such as The, A or An at the beginning of the
references title. For example, The acid rain controversy should be alphabetised
according to the A in acid.
6. If there are two or more references by the same author, then list them in order of
publication date with the oldest work first.
7. If references by the same author have been published in the same year, then list
them alphabetically according to the title of the book or article and add the letter
a after the first date, b after the second date, and so on (e.g., 2007a, 2007b,
2007c).

In text citations or references

11

The family name of the author and the year of the documents publication or
creation with no punctuation between the two items are inserted in the text in the
following ways:
The theory was first propounded in 1993 (Hamilton 1994).
Or
The theory was first propounded by Hamilton (1993).
If no author is given, cite the work by title. If the title is long, use a shortened
version in the in-text reference.
When citing a work by two or more authors, cite the names in the order in which
they appear on the title page and presented the parenthetical thus:
(Mainowksi, Miller & Gupta 1995)
Or
Mainowksi, Miller and Gupta (1995) disagreed with

Note: And or &?


Use an ampersand (&) for an in-text citation when enclosed in parentheses. Use and
when the authors names are incorporated in the text.

When a work has more than three authors, the in-text citation should show only the
name of the first listed author followed by the expression et.al
(Malinowksi et al 1999)
Or
Malinowksi et al. (1999) have found
Works for which no publication date can be established should be cited using the
abbreviation n.d. (no date). For example:
(Al Mahdi n.d.) or Al Mahdi (n.d.)
and in the reference list
Al Madhi, S n.d.
Works that do not bear the name of an author are cited by title in both the text and
the reference list. For example:

12

This was apparently not the case before about 1995 (The entrepreneurs guide
to the law 1999)
Or
In The entrepreneurs guide to the law (1999) it is claimed that This was
apparently not the case before about 1995.
and in the reference list
The entrepreneurs guide to the law 1999,
When you come across a citation of the work of one author in anothers work
provide both authors names. For example:
Ngu (cited in Larsen 1991) reported
Or
(Ngu, cited in Larsen 1991)
Page numbers are essential in the text if you are directly quoting someone elses
words. The abbreviations p. and pp. are used:
The initiative was proposed in 1996 (Tourism Taskforce 1996, p. 245)
Hamiliton (1994, pp. 145- 147) was the first to propound the theory.

Here is a list of proposed verbs you can use for the in-text citations
state

point out

describe

remark

add

suggest

maintain

assert

affirm

agree

claim

clarify

disagree

contest

contend

highlight

find

show

imply

theorise

offer

predict

question

dispute

justify

confirm

reason

13

Tables and Figures


If you include tables or figures from other sources you must make a reference - in-text
and at the end of your assignment - to the source so the readers can locate and identify
it. References to tables and figures do not differ from the instructions provided.
However, remember that tables or figures should be numbered and labelled with
captions. Captions should be small and simple to understand. After the caption you
use the in-text citation.
Example for a table
Note: Number tables and place captions and in-text citation above it.

Table 2: State minimum wages 2009 (Economic Policy Institute 2009)

Citation
Economic Policy Institute 2009, Issue Guide on Minimum Wage, digital table, viewed
3 July 2011, http://www.epi.org/publication/tables_figures_data/

14

Example for figure


Note: Number figures and place captions and in-text citation below it.

Figure 1: Questions on most used media (Simon & Blackman 2006, p. 8)

Citation
Simon F & Blackman C 2006, "Spectrum for the next radio revolution: the economic
and technical case for collective use", info, vol. 8 no: 2, pp: 6 17.

15

Hard copy books

Examples of in-text
citation

One author

Two authors

A recent study (Farkas


2007) found that gender

or
Farkas (2007, p. 179)
claims that .

Current research (Tyson &


York 2007) highlights
Or

Model to follow in the reference list

Farkas, M 2007, Social Software in Libraries, Information Today Medford, NJ.


Note: When an author has two or more initials, the entry looks like this:

Buck, PS 1958, The Good Earth, Washington Square Press, New York, N.Y.

Tyson, S & York, A 1996, Human Resource Management, 3rd edn, Butterworth - Heinemann, Oxford.

Tyson and York (2007, p.


27) suggest that .

16

Examples of in-text
citation

Model to follow in the reference list

Three authors

A recent study highlighted


the fact that (Hogget,
Edwards & Medlin 2003).
or
Hogget, Edwards &
Medlin (2003) stated that
.

Hogget, JR, Edwards, L, & Medlin, JF 2003, Accounting in Australia, 5th edn, John Wiley,
Milton,Qld.

Four or more
authors

Marketers need to
understand customer
needs (Armstronget al.
2009 p.7).
or
Armstrong et al. (2009, p.
34) suggested that
.

Armstrong, G, Kotler, P, Harker, M & Brennan, R 2009, Marketing: an introduction, Pearson


Education Limited, Essex.

17

Examples of in-text
citation

No author

Each institution has its


own guidelines
(Peterson's Annual
Guides to Graduate
Study 2010).

Model to follow in the reference list

Peterson's Annual Guides to Graduate Study 2010, Peterson's, Princeton, NJ.

or
According to Peterson's
Annual Guides to
Graduate Study (2010),
each institution has its
own

Several
sources are
cited at once
Note: Do not
overdo this!

Beck (2007), Roughley


(2007) and Solari (2009)
all agree
or
Recent studies (Beck
2007, Roughley 2007 and
Solari 2009) agree that

Beck, T. 2007, Web 2.0: User-Generated content in onlinecCommunities: a theoretical and empirical
investigation of its determinants, Diplomica Verlag, Hamburg
Roughley, I 2007, Practical Apache Struts: web 2.0 projects, Apress,
Berckeley
Solari, C. 2009, Security in a web 2.0 world, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
Note: Each author will appear as a separate entry in the reference list.

18

Examples of in-text
citation

Model to follow in the reference list

Second or later Marketers are always


edition
trying to spot cultural shift
(Kotler & Armstrong
2010, p.161).

Kotler, P & Armostrong, G 2010, Principles of marketing, 13th edn, Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey

Edited work

A recent work edited by


Reder (2000) suggests
or
A recent work (ed. Reder
2000) suggest

Reder, MR (ed.)2000, Conversations with Salman Rushdie, University Press of Mississippi

Greek presence in Iberia


... (Dominguez 1999, p.
301).

Dominguez, AJ 1999, Hellenization in Iberia?: The reception of Greek products and influences by the
Iberians, GR Tsetskhladze (ed), Ancient Greeks: west and east, Brill, Leiden

Chapter in
edited work

One volume of
multi-volume
work

Note: when referring to the collection of essays/articles as a whole

or
Dominguez (1999, p. 301)
believes that the presence
of Greeks n Iberia ...
The volume describes a
range of reading research
practices (eds Kamil et al
2011).

Stanford-Smith, B & Chiozza, E (eds) 2001, E-work and e-commerce, vol. 2, Business aspects and
considerations, IOS Press, Amsterdam.
Kamil, ML et al (eds) 2011, Handbook of reading research, vol. 4, Routledge, New York

19

Electronic books
Examples of how to
refer to the resource
in-text

Model to follow in the reference list


Ray, B 2006, Fundamental food microbiology, 3rd edn., e-book, CRC Press, Boca Raton, viewed 17 August
2011, <http://www.scribd.com/doc/52999892/Fundamental-Food-Microbiology>

E-book

The discovery
of microorganisms
(Ray 2006, p. 4).
or
According to Ray
(2006, p. 4), the
discovery of
microorganisms

Chapter in an
e-book

Bobish found blogs to Bobish G 2008, Discussing student engagement: information literacy course blog, in LB Cohen (ed.), Library
be highly interactive
2.0: Initiatives is academic libraries, e-book, ACRL, viewed 17 August 2011,
(2008)
<http://books.google.gr/books?id=kQblvBoSIj8C&lpg=PR11&dq=library%202.0%20editor&pg=PA100#v=on
epage&q=library%202.0%20editor&f=false>
Blogs are highly
interactive (2008)

20

Hard copy journal articles


Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

One or more authors

A good reputation must be built (Ashcroft 2010, p. 89).


or
Ashcroft (2010, p. 89) maintains that .

Ashcroft, J 2010, Marketing strategies for


visibility, Journal of Librarianship and
Information Science, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 89 96.

No author

Energy costs are major in mainstream agriculture


(Mainstream agriculture 2009).
or
Energy costs are a main constituent of total costs for nonorganic agriculture (Mainstream agriculture 2009, p. 11).

Mainstream agriculture? 2009, Organic Farming,


no. 101, p. 11

Magazine

Many new planets are being identified every week (Ferris


2009)
or
According to Ferris (2009, p. 91), astronomers have identified
more than 370 exoplanets worlds

Ferris, T 2009, Worlds apart: seeking new earths,


National Geographic, December 2009, pp. 91 - 93

21

Online or electronic journals


Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

Journal article from a


database

developments and trends need to be set within wider societal


and governmental perspectives (Broady - Preston 2009, p. 67).
or
Broady - Preston (2009, p. 67) recommends that developments
and trends need to be set within wider societal
and governmental perspectives

Broady-Preston, J 2009, The information


professional of the future: polymath or dinosaur?,
Library Management, vol. 31, no1/2, pp. 66- 78,
Available from: Emerald Insight database,
viewed 19 August 2011

Journal article from a


website

The overall goal of the Library Impact Data Project


(Stone, Ramsden & Pattern (2011).

Stone G, Ramsden B & Pattern, D 2011,


Looking for the Link between Library Usage and
Student Attainment, Ariadne, no 67, viewed 13
July 2011,
<http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue67/stone-et-al/>

Or

Stone, Ramsden & Pattern (2011) describe the overall goal


of the Library Impact Data Project

22

Hardcopynewspaper articles
Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

Newspaper article with an


author

The Hazzare crisis. Interrupted Gandhis coming out moment into


Indias politics (Yardley 2011).
or
In his analysis Yardley (2011, p. 2) reports that .

Yardley, J 2011, Activist upends Indian politics,


International Herald Tribune, 29 August, p.2

Newspaper article without


an author

In The International Herald Tribune (Ex-deputy prime minister


wins presidential election 2011, p. 6)

Ex-deputy prime minister wins presidential


election 2011, International Herald Tribune, 29
August, p.6

or
A former prime minister was elected as . (Ex-deputy
prime minister wins presidential election 2011, p. 6).

23

Electronic copynewspaper articles


Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

Newspaper article with an


author (website)

the quality and type of experiences in preschool can make a


difference in how a child's linguistic skills develop
(Park 2011).
or
Part (2011) writes that the quality and type of experiences in
preschool can make a difference in how a child's linguistic
skills develop

Park, A 2011, What makes some Preschools better


than other?, Time Healthland, 25 August, viewed
26 August 2001,
<http://healthland.time.com/2011/08/25/whatmakes-some-preschools-better-than-others/>

Newspaper article with no


author (website)

In the Guardian, it was stated that A huge underground


river appears to be flowing thousands of feet beneath the
Amazon river (2011)

Underground river discovered beneath Amazon


2011, Guardian, 26 August, viewed 26 August
2011,
<http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/aug/
26/underground-river-amazon?CMP=twt_fd>

24

Other documents on the World Wide Web (WWW)

Document on the World


Wide Web

Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

Honan (2011) is connecting personal branding with the rise of


social media.

Honan, D 2011, Ego check: you are not a brand,


Big Think, viewed 26 August 2011,
<http://bigthink.com/ideas/39496>

Or
We wouldn't be talking about personal branding if it weren't for
the rise of social media (Honan 2011)

Document on the WWW


no date

According to Greenpeace (n.d.), tuna overfishing is


Or

Greenpeace n.d., Canned tuna campaign catches a


big one,, viewed 31 August 2011,
<http://www.greenpeace.org/australia/en/news/ocea
ns/Canned-tuna-campaign-catches-a-big-one/>

Greenpeace (n.d.) refers that that This week Coles took an


important step forward to end its role in the overfishing crisis.

Document on the World


Wide Web no
author/sponsor
Conference paper from a
website

Note: The use of such sites is highly discouraged.

Avoid these sites.

According to the action model (Mello & Pires 2008).


or
Mello and Pires (2008) describe an action model to measure
the performance of libraries .

Mello, LB & Pires, C 2008, Performance


Evaluation of Academic Libraries: Implementation
Model, paper presented at the 17th Hellenic
Conference of Academic Libraries, 24 26
September, viewed 20 August 2011,
<http://17conf.lib.uoi.gr/files/b2.Melo_Pires.pdf>

25

Government sponsored websites


Page on a government
website

Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

The Ministry of Finance provides with updated information


(2011) of the financial

Hellenic Republic, Ministry of Finance, Budget


Execution Bulletins, January-July 2011, viewed 20
August 2011,
<http://www.minfin.gr/portal/en/resource/contentO
bject/contentTypes/..../contentObjectListAlternative
Template>

Referring to two primary sources within a secondary source

Books and journal articles

Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

Findings from studies (Heath 1989; Johnson 1972, cited in


Morris 1998) indicate that

Morris, M 1998, Corn production in the United


States, Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle
River, NJ.

Note: Morris is the author who will appear in the reference list

Note: the specific example above refers to a book

26

Specialized sources
Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

Conference proceedings
published

Companion animals continue to assume greater importance


(Garnsworthy & Wiseman 2002, p. vi).

Garnsworthy PC & Wiseman J, (eds) 2002, Recent


advances in animal nutrition, 36th University of
Nottingham Fed Conference, 2-4 January,
Nottingham University Press, Nottingham

DVD/Video

Similarly, in Sunset Boulevard (1950),


or
In the movie Buster Keaton is playing himself along with other
silent movie stars (Sunset Boulevard 1950).

Sunset Boulevard: special collectors edition 1950,

Similarly, in Sunser Boulevard (1950),


or
In the movie Buster Keaton is playing himself along with other
silent movie stars (Sunset Boulevard 1950).

Sunset Boulevard: special collectors edition 1950,

The episode of South Park (1997) was a satire on religion

South Park 1997, television program, Comedy


Central, 4 February

Film/Movie

Television broadcast

DVD recording, Paramount, Los Angeles.

motion picture, Paramount, Los Angeles.

27

Photographs on the Web


with name of creator

Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

Photographer Ansel Adams (1938) captures the grace of


Sonoma County Hills.

Adams, A (2011) 1938,Clearing Storm, Sonoma


County Hills, digital image, The Ansel Adams
Gallery, viewed 17 August 2011,
<http://www.anseladams.com/PhotoDetails.asp?S
howDESC=N&ProductCode=1701023105>
Note that in the reference above, the website
publication has a different date than the original
publication. In this case, the website publication
date is given first and the original publication
date is added in brackets. Only the website
publication date should be given in the in-text
reference.

No creator of the image


given

The falling man (2006) illustrates capture of motion.

The falling man 2006, digital image, Ananyah,


viewed 12 July 2010,
<http://ananyah.com/blog/2006/03/16/the-fallingman/>

28

Facebook

Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

In text (Learning for life n.d.)

Learning for life nd, in Facebook, group page, viewed


August 24 2011,
<http://www.facebook.com/LLLtoAFS>

Follow the format:


Username or Group Name n.d., in Facebook, page
type, viewed day month year,
http://www.facebook.com/specificpageURL
YouTube

Arthur Clarke predicted that people could be in instant elabjers channel 2009, Arthur C Clarke predicting
the future in 1964, video, 19 November, viewed 24
contact with each other (elabjers channel 2009)
August 2011,
<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AOaZspeSB
ZU&feature=youtu.be>

Blog

Data surplus is explored(Seths blog 2011).

Seths Blog 2011, The shower of data, blog post,


2 September, viewed 2 September 2011,
<http://sethgodin.typepad.com/seths_blog/2011/09/t
he-shower-of-data.html>

Wiki

The term agriculture means (Agriculture 2010).

Agriculture
2010,
Wikipedia:
the
Free
Encyclopedia, wiki, viewed 26 February 2010,
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculture>

29

Dissertations

Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

Research suggests that. (Stones 2001)

Author, Initials, Year of publication. Title of


dissertation. Level. Official name of University.
e.g. Stones, AR, 2001. Climate change: who does it
affect the most? B.Sc (Hons) Sustainable Rural
Development.
Perrotis
College,
Cardiff
Metropolitan University.

Interviews

During the interview, Mr. Tompson answered that (Tompson Interviewee's name. Year of interview. Title of
2010)
interview. Interviewed by ...name. [type of
medium/format]
e.g. John Tompson. 2010. Healthy Habits.
Interviewed by George Payton. [audiocassette]

Online Dictionary entry

The definition of biodiversity (Oxford Dictionaries 2011)

Oxford Dictionaries 2011, Biodiversity, viewed


24 August 2011,
<http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/biodiver
sity>

The Bible

These verses (Mark 7:11 9:17) r

Note: Bible references are not included in a


reference list.

30

European Union Documents


Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

Council Directive

According to the EU, each member state shall (Council Council Directive 2001/29/EC of 22 May 2001 on
Directive 2001/29/EC 2001)
the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright
and related rights in the information society.

EU Commission Decision

All member states should .. (Commission Decision Commission Decision 93/42/EEC of 21 December
93/42/EEC 1992)
1992 concerning additional guarantees relating to
infectious bovine rhinotracheitis for bovines
destined for Denmark.

EU Regulation

According to the EU Regulation (EEC 1408/71 1971) .

Council Regulation

that each worker who is a national of a Member State. Council Regulation (EEC) 1612/68[5] of 15
(Council Regulation 1612/68[5] 1968)
October 1968 on freedom of movement for workers
within the Community.

Judgement of the European


Court of Justice

The order of the Court stated that the total amount of costs to case number | case name | [year] | report
be reimbursed by Arne Mathisen AS. (Case T-340/99 2002, abbreviation | first page
p.12)
e.g. Case T-340/99 Arne Mathisen AS v
Council [2002] ECR II-2905

Act of Parliament

According to the Act of Supremacy of 1558 in England, .


(Act of Supremacy 1558)

REGULATION (EEC) No 1408/71 OF THE


COUNCIL of 14 June 1971 on the application of
social security schemes to employed persons and
their families moving within the Community.

short title | date


e.g. Act of Supremacy 1558

31

Examples of how to refer to the resource in-text

Model to follow in the reference list

EU Treaty

Based on the 2010 Treaty of the European Union, the legislation title | [year] | OJ series issue/first page
member state. (Treaty on European Union 2010, OJ e.g. Consolidated Version of the Treaty on
C83/13)
European Union [2010] OJ C83/13

Report or Consultation
Paper of Law Commission

The EU law on bribery clearly states that. (Law Com No 313 Law Commission, | title | (Law Com No | number, |
2008)
year)
e.g. Law Commission, Reforming Bribery (Law
Com No 313, 2008)

32