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Training Report

Introduction to Active and Passive Components


It is the branch of science and technology which
makes use of the controlled motion of electrons through
different media and vacuum. The ability to control
electron flow is usually applied to information handling
or device control. Electronics is distinct from electrical
science and technology which deals with the generation,
distribution, control and application of electrical power.
Most electronic devices today, use semiconductor
components to perform electron control. The study of
semiconductor devices are related technology is
considered as a branch of physics whereas the design and
construction of electronic circuit to solve practical
problems come under electronic engineering.
Components of Electronics:1. Active Components:- The components which
generate their own power for their operation are
known as active component. In these a voltage
or current is produced propositional to the
measured. The generated voltage as current is
then measured which in turn shows the value of
quantity under measurement.
Eg. Thermocouple and thermopile, moving coil
generator, photovoltaic cell.
2. Passive Components:- The components which
require external power for their operation are
known as passive component. In these the
variation in some electrical parameter is

produced which in turn can be measured as a


voltage or current.
Eg. Resistance, resistor, capacitor, inductor.

Resistors
When a charge(Current) passing through any material
generates an opposing force. This opposing Force is Called
Resistance of a Material. Resistance is measured in Ohms. The
device which is used in a Circuit to get a required amount of
resistance
is
called
a
resistor.
Fixed Resistors:The most common fixed resistors are carbon composition
resistor. The resistive Material is of carbon clay of type. The
leads
are made of Tinned Copper. The value of these type of
resistors range from few ohms to 22 M ohms. The tolerance
ranges from 5-20%.The size changes with
the wattage
rating.
Another Carbon Composition resistors is of meterialized
type. These types of resistors are made up by depositing a thin
film of carbon
over a glass, ceramic or other insulating core.
Desired values are obtained by trimming the layer thickness or
cutting the grooves along its lengths. These type of
resistors
are called Precision Resistors. This has an accuracy of +/1%.
Another type of fixed resistor is Wire wound Resistor. On
a porcelain core a nicrome
wire is wound. The ends of the
windings are attached to metallic pieces. Then the assembly is
coated with enamel containing powdered glass. This is then
heated
to develop a coating known as Vitreous enamel. The
resistance ranges from 1ohm to 100 K ohm, the wattage is up to
200 W.

Colour Coding:Some resistors are large enough to print their values on


their body. But some are too short. So the colour bands are
printed on
the body of the small resistors. The colour bands
should be read from the l ft side that has the band closes to
it. The first two bands represent the resistance
value. The
third band is the multiplier. In case the third band is Gold the
multiplying factor is 0.1 and for Silver it is 0.01. The fourth
band denotes the tolerance.
If there is no fourth band the
tolerance is assumed to be +/-20%. The figure 1.1 is the Colour
Coding Chart.
Colour
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Violet
Grey
White

Number
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Multiplier
1
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109

Tolerance Level:Gold Band :- + 5%


Silver Band:- + 10%
No Band:- + 20%
Variable Resistors:To adjust the voltage/current in a circuit, we use variable
resistors. For example to change the volume. Some variable
resistors are called Rheostat some are called Potentiometer. The
moving contact determines the resistance.The wire wound

potentiometer has three terminals.


The outer two are the end
point of the resistive element and the middle lead is connected
to the rotating contact.

CAPACITOR
Capacitor is a device which is capable of storing electric
energy in the form of charge. Capacitance is the measure of
capacitor. The unit in which the capacitance is measured is
called Farad. We use micro Farad and Pico Farad more
commonly.
Capacitor offers very low impedance to alternating current
signals and high impedance to direct current signals.
It forms a tune circuit in series on parallel with a Inductor.
There are two types of capacitors:1. Fixed Capacitor
2. Variable Capacitor.
1. Fixed Capacitor :(a) Mica :- It is a transparent high dielectric mineral which
has high breakdown voltage. It is very stable under
temperature and electric stress and passage of time. It
can be in any shape such as circle, square, etc.
Its Range:- 1pF 0.1 micro F with + 1to 20% tolerance
level.
(b)

(c)

Ceramic Capacitor :- It is suitable for generating large


power but its value varies due to temp, DC voltage and
frequency. It can be disc type or tabular type. It is a
dielectric material made from earth fired under extreme
heat and no voltage polarity matters.
Paper Capacitor :- It is the most popular capacitor due
to its low cost.
Its Range :- 500pF to 50 micro F with + 10 to 20 &
tolerance level.

(d) Plastic Film Capacitor :- Film Capacitors are the most


commonly available of all types of capacitors, consisting

of a relatively large family of capacitors with the


difference being in their dielectric properties. These
include polyester (Mylar), polystyrene, polypropylene,
polycarbonate, metallized paper, teflon etc. Film type
capacitors are available in capacitance ranges from
5pF to 100uF depending upon the actual type of capacitor
and its voltage rating.
(e)Electrolytic Capacitor :- Electrolytic Capacitors are
generally used when very large capacitance values are required.
Here instead of using a very thin metallic film layer for one of
the electrodes, a semi-liquid electrolyte solution in the form of a
jelly or paste is used which serves as the second electrode
(usually the cathode). The dielectric is a very thin layer of oxide
which is grown electro-chemically in production with the
thickness of the film being less than ten microns. This insulating
layer is so thin that it is possible to make large value capacitors
of a small size.
Electrolytic Capacitors are generally used in DC power
supply circuits to help reduce the ripple voltage or for coupling
and decoupling applications.
2.Variable Capacitors:In some circuits the capacitance should be varried(tuned).
In this application We use Variable Capacitor. Usulally the
Variable capacitor is Air Gang Capacitor. The dielectgric is
Air. When we rotate the common shaft, the common area of
the movable and fixed plates canges accordingly. The grater
the common area the larger the capacitance.
In some
circuits there is no need to change the capacitance frequently.
In that circuits, the we use Trimmer/Padder. Both are mica
and ceramic are used as dielectric.

Inductor
It is an effort resulting from the magnetic field that forms
around a current carrying conductor which tends to resist
changes in the current.
An inductor is usually constructed as a coil of conducting
materials typically copper wire wrapped around a core either
of air or of ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic material core with
a high permeable than air increases the inductance. Low
inductance are constructed like transformers which are of
electrical steel laminated to prevent eddy current and ferrites
are widely use for core above inductor. Most are constructed
as enamel coated wire wrapped around a ferrite. With wire
exposed on the outside while some enclose the wie
completely in ferrite of are called shielding. Some inductors
have an adjustable core, which inables changing of
inductance.

Types:1. Radio inductor


2. Laminated core inductor
3. Ferrite core inductor
4. Torroidial core coil
5. Variable inductor
Applications:1. Inductors are also employed in electrical transmission
system where they are used to depress voltahe from
lightning strikes and to limit switching currents are faults
currents.

2. Inductor is used as and energy storage device in some


switches mode power supply
3. These are used for analog circuit and signal processing.
4. Application range from the use of large inductor in power
supplies which in conjuction wit filter capacitor and
remove residual known as main turn.

Diode
In electronics diode is a two terminal electronic
component that conduct electric current in only one direction.
The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric
current to pass in one direction while blocking current in
opposite direction.
These are made from semiconductor material like silicon
and germanium semi conductor diodes are small, reliable and
robust. The silicon diode is particularly suited to high current
applications. They can have high working temperature and
can withstand reverse bias voltage of several hundred volts.
Like semiconductor they can go into thermal non-way. If
the current is too heavy in semi conductor the resistance falls
with higher temperature. Therefore the current get bigger stell
and diode gets hotter.
Also a higher reverse voltage will destroy a diode
completely. The whole component is sealed to prevent the
entry of moisture of light that could after the crystal
properties which would turn after functioning of diodes.

Types of Diodes:1. Thermonil of gaseous state diode.


2. Semiconductor diode.
3. Avalanche diode.
4. Zener diode.
5. Light emitting diode

6. Crunnel diode.

Applications:1. Radio Demodulation:- The first use of diode was the


demodulation of amplitude modulated radio broadcasts.
The diode rectifies the A-M radio signal, leaving an audio
signal.
2. Power conversion:- Rectifiers are constructed from diode,
where they are used to convert alternating current
electricity into D.C automatic alternates are common.
3. Logic Gates:- Diode can be combined with other
components to construct with AND or OR logic gates.
This is referred to as diode logic.

Transistor
It is an active component. A transistor is a semiconductor
device used to amplify and switch electronic signals. It is made
of a solid piece semiconductor material with at least three
terminals for connection to an external circuit.
Basically the transistor is the fundamental building block of
modern electronic devices.
It is a semiconductor device. The first BJT was first made
from germanium and silicon type currently predominate but
certain advanced microwave and high performance versions
none employ the compound semiconductor material.
The jXn forward voltage applied to the emitter base of the
BJT in order to mark base current specified. The current
increases exp as forward bias voltage is increased.
The electron mobility and hole mobility atoms show the
average speed that electrons and hole diffuses through a
semiconductor material with an electric field of 1v per meter
applied across the material.
Types of Transistor:There are some different types of transistor which are as
follows:1.

B.J.T:- Bipolar junction Transistor. It is called so


because they conduct by using both majority carriers
and minority carriers.

2.

F.E.T:- Field Effect Transistor. It is also known as


unipolar transistor uses either electron(N-channel FET)
or proton(P-channel FET)
There are two type of FETs
(a)
(b)

JFET
MOSFET

3.

Schottkey Transistor.

4.

Surface Barrier Transistor

5.

Avlanche transistor

6.

Alloy junction Transistor

7.

Micro Alloy Transistor.

Applications:1.
2.

Switch:- It is used as an switch when both junctions are


reverse bias forward bias.
Amplifier:- It amplifies signal alternating current to
direct current.

Multimeter
A multimeter or a multitester, also known as a volt/ohm
meter or VOM, is an electronic measuring instrument that
combines several measurement functions in one unit. A typical
multimeter may include features such as the ability to measure
voltage, current and resistance. There are two categories of
multimeters, analog multimeters and digital multimeters (often
abbreviated DMM or DVOM.)
A multimeter can be a hand-held device useful for basic
fault finding and field service work or a bench instrument which
can measure to a very high degree of accuracy. They can be used
to troubleshoot electrical problems in a wide array of industrial
and household devices such as batteries, motor controls,
appliances, power supplies, and wiring systems.
Quantities measured
Contemporary multimeters can measure many quantities. The
common ones are:
Voltage in volts.
Current in amperes.
Resistance in ohms.
Additionally, multimeters may also measure:
Capacitance in farads.

Conductance in siemens.
Decibels.
Duty cycle as a percentage.
Frequency in hertz
Inductance in henrys
Temperature in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit.
Digital multimeters may also include circuits for:
Continuity that beeps when a circuit conducts.
Diodes (measuring forward drop and/or polarity) and
transistors (measuring current gain and other parameters)
"Battery Check" for simple 1.5 and 9V batteries. This is a
current loaded voltage scale. Battery checking can be done
less accurately using a DC Voltage scale.
Various sensors can be attached to multimeters to take
measurements such as:
Light level
Acidity/Alkalinity(pH)
Wind speed
Relative humidity
Resolution
Digital
The resolution of a multimeter is often specified in "digits"
of resolution. For example, the term 5 digits refers to the
number of digits displayed on the readout of a multimeter.
By convention, a half digit can display either a zero or a
one, while a three-quarters digit can display a numeral higher
than a one but not nine. Commonly, a three-quarters digit refers
to a maximum value of 3 or 5. The fractional digit is always the
most significant digit in the displayed value. A 5 digit
multimeter would have five full digits that display values from 0
to 9 and one half digit that could only display 0 or 1.[3] Such a

meter could show positive or negative values from 0 to 199,999.


A 3 digit meter can display a quantity from 0 to 3,999 or
5,999, depending on the manufacturer.
While a digital display can easily be extended in precision,
the extra digits are of no value if not accompanied by care in the
design and calibration of the analog portions of the multimeter.
Meaningful high-resolution measurements require a good
understanding of the instrument specifications, good control of
the measurement conditions, and traceability of the calibration
of the instrument.
Specifying "display counts" is another way to specify the
resolution. Display counts give the largest number, or the largest
number plus one (so the count number looks nicer) the
multimeter' display can show, ignoring a decimal separator. For
example, a 5 digit multimeter can also be specified as a
199999 display count or 200000 display count multimeter. Often
the display count is just called the count in multimeter
specifications.
Analog
Resolution of analog multimeters is limited by the width of
the scale pointer, vibration of the pointer, the accuracy of
printing of scales, zero calibration, number of ranges, and errors
due to non-horizontal use of the mechanical display. Accuracy
of readings obtained is also often compromised by miscounting
division markings, errors in mental arithmetic, parallax
observation errors, and less than perfect eyesight. Mirrored
scales and larger meter movements are used to improve
resolution; two and a half to three digits equivalent resolution is
usual (and is usually sufficiently adequate for the limited
precision actually necessary for most measurements).
Resistance measurements, in particular, are of low
precision due to the typical resistance measurement circuit
which compresses the scale heavily at the higher resistance
values. Inexpensive analog meters may have only a single
resistance scale, seriously restricting the range of precise
measurements. Typically an analog meter will have a panel

adjustment to set the zero-ohms calibration of the meter, to


compensate for the varying voltage of the meter battery

Digital Multimeters (DMM or DVOM)


Modern multimeters are often digital due to their accuracy,
durability and extra features. In a digital multimeter the signal
under test is converted to a voltage and an amplifier with
electronically controlled gain preconditions the signal. A digital
multimeter displays the quantity measured as a number, which
eliminates parallax errors.
Modern digital multimeters may have an embedded
computer, which provides a wealth of convenience features.
Commonly available measurement enhancements include:
Auto-ranging, which selects the correct range for the
quantity under test so that the most significant digits are
shown. For example, a four-digit multimeter would
automatically select an appropriate range to display 1.234
instead of 0.012, or overloading. Auto-ranging meters
usually include a facility to 'freeze' the meter to a
particular range, because a measurement that causes
frequent range changes is distracting to the user. Other
factors being equal, an auto-ranging meter will have more
circuitry than an equivalent, non-auto-ranging meter, and
so will be more costly, but will be more convenient to use.
Auto-polarity for direct-current readings, shows if the
applied voltage is positive (agrees with meter lead labels)
or negative (opposite polarity to meter leads).
Sample and hold, which will latch the most recent
reading for examination after the instrument is removed
from the circuit under test.
Current-limited tests for voltage drop across
semiconductor junctions. While not a replacement for a
transistor tester, this facilitates testing diodes and a variety

of transistor types.[8][9]
A graphic representation of the quantity under test, as a
bar graph. This makes go/no-go testing easy, and also
allows spotting of fast-moving trends.
A low-bandwidth oscilloscope.[10]
Automotive circuit testers, including tests for automotive
timing and dwell signals.[11]
Simple data acquisition features to record maximum and
minimum readings over a given period, or to take a
number of samples at fixed intervals.[12]
Integration with tweezers for surface-mount technology.
[13]
A combined LCR meter for small-size SMD and throughhole components.[14]
Modern meters may be interfaced with a personal computer
by IrDA links, RS-232 connections, USB, or an instrument bus
such as IEEE-488. The interface allows the computer to record
measurements as they are made. Some DMMs can store
measurements and upload them to a computer.[15]
The first digital multimeter was manufactured in 1955 by Non
Linear Systems.[16][17]
Analog multimeters
A multimeter may be implemented with a galvanometer
meter movement, or with a bar-graph or simulated pointer such
as an LCD or vacuum fluorescent display. Analog multimeters
are common, although a quality analog instrument will be about
the same cost as a digital multimeter. Analog multimeters have
the precision and reading accuracy limitations described above,
and so are not built to provide the same accuracy as digital
instruments.
Analog meters are sometimes considered better for
detecting the rate of change of a reading; some digital
multimeters include a fast-responding bar-graph display for this
purpose. A typical example is a simple "good/no good" test of a

filter capacitor, which is quicker and easier to read on an analog


meter (though somewhat less accurate than with a digital meter).
The ARRL handbook also suggests that analog multimeters are
often less susceptible to radio frequency interference.[18]
The meter movement in a moving pointer analog
multimeter is practically always a moving-coil galvanometer of
the d'Arsonval type, using either jeweled pivots or taut bands to
support the moving coil. In a basic analog multimeter the
current to deflect the coil and pointer is drawn from the circuit
being measured; it is usually an advantage to minimize the
current drawn from the circuit. The sensitivity of an analog
multimeter is given in units of ohms per volt. For example, an
inexpensive multimeter would have a sensitivity of 1000 ohms
per volt and would draw 1 milliampere from a circuit at the full
scale measured voltage.[19] More expensive, (and more
delicate) multimeters would have sensitivities of 20,000 ohms
per volt or higher, with a 50,000 ohms per volt meter (drawing
20 microamperes at full scale) being about the upper limit for a
portable, general purpose, non-amplified analog multimeter.
To avoid the loading of the measured circuit by the current
drawn by the meter movement, some analog multimeters use an
amplifier inserted between the measured circuit and the meter
movement. While this increased the expense and complexity of
the meter and required a power supply to operate the amplifier,
by use of vacuum tubes or field effect transistors the input
resistance can be made very high and independent of the current
required to operate the meter movement coil. Such amplified
multimeters are called VTVMs (vacuum tube voltmeters),[20]
TVMs (transistor volt meters), FET-VOMs, and similar names.

Cathode Ray Oscilloscope


An oscilloscope is a test instrument which allows us to look
at eh shape of electrical signal by displaying a graph of voltage
against time on its screen. A gratitude with a 1 cm grid enables
us to take measure.
What does an oscilloscope do?

An oscilloscope is easily the most useful instrument


available for testing circuits because it allows you to see the
signals at different points in the circuit. The best way of
investigating an electronic system is to monitor signals at the
input and output of each system block, checking that each block
is operating as expected and is correctly linked to the next. With
a little practice, you will be able to find and correct faults
quickly and accurately.
An oscilloscope is an impressive piece of kit:

The diagram shows a Hameg HM 203-6 oscilloscope, a


popular instrument in UK schools. Your oscilloscope may look
different but will have similar controls.
Faced with an instrument like this, students typically
respond either by twiddling every knob and pressing every
button in sight, or by adopting a glazed expression. Neither
approach is specially helpful. Following the systematic
description below will give you a clear idea of what an
oscilloscope is and what it can do.
The function of an oscilloscope is extremely simple: it
draws a V/t graph, a graph of voltage against time, voltage on
the vertical or Y-axis, and time on the horizontal or X-axis.

As you can see, the screen of this oscilloscope has 8


squares or divisions on the vertical axis, and 10 squares or
divsions on the horizontal axis. Usually, these squares are 1 cm
in each direction:
Many of the controls of the oscilloscope allow you to

change the vertical or horizontal scales of the V/t graph, so that


you can display a clear picture of the signal you want to
investigate. 'Dual trace' oscilloscopes display two V/t graphs at
the same time, so that simultaneous signals from different parts
of an electronic system can be compared.
Setting up
1.
Someone else may have been twiddling knobs and
pressing buttons before you. Before you switch the oscilloscope
on, check that all the controls are in their 'normal' positions. For
the Hameg HM 203-6, this means that:
all push button switches are in the OUT position
all slide switches are in the UP position
all rotating controls are CENTRED
the central TIME/DIV and VOLTS/DIV and the HOLD
OFF controls are in the calibrated, or CAL position
2.

Set both VOLTS/DIV controls to 1 V/DIV and the


TIME/DIV control to 0.2 s/DIV, its slowest setting:

3.
Switch ON, red button, top centre:
The green LED illuminates and, after a few moments, you
should see a small bright spot, or trace, moving fairly slowly
across the screen.
4.
Find the Y-POS 1 control:
What happens when you twiddle this?
The Y-POS 1 allows you to move the spot up and down the
screen. For the present, adjust the trace so that it runs
horizontally across the centre of the screen.

5.
Now investigate the INTENSITY and FOCUS controls:
When these are correctly set, the spot will be reasonably bright
but not glaring, and as sharply focused as possible. (The TR
control is screwdriver adjusted. It is only needed if the spot
moves at an angle rather than horizontally across the screen with
no signal connected.)
6.
The TIME/DIV control determines the horizontal scale of
the graph which appears on the oscilloscope screen.
With 10 squares across the screen and the spot moving at 0.2
s/DIV, how long does it take for the spot to cross the screen?
The answer is 0.2 x 10 = 2 s. Count seconds. Does the spot take
2 seconds to cross the screen?
Now rotate the TIME/DIV control clockwise:
With the spot moving at 0.1 s/DIV, it will take 1 second to cross
the screen.
Continue to rotate TIME/DIV clockwise. With each new setting,
the spot moves faster. At around 10 ms/DIV, the spot is no
longer separately visible. Instead, there is a bright line across the
screen. This happens because the screen remains bright for a
short time after the spot has passed, an effect which is known as
the persistence of the screen. It is useful to think of the spot as
still there, just moving too fast to be seen.
Keep rotating TIME/DIV. At faster settings, the line becomes
fainter because the spot is moving very quickly indeed. At a
setting of 10 s/DIV how long does it take for the spot to cross
the screen?
7.
The VOLTS/DIV controls determine the vertical scale of
the graph drawn on the oscilloscope screen.
Check that VOLTS/DIV 1 is set at 1 V/DIV and that the adjacent
controls are set correctly:
The Hameg HM 203-6 has a built in source of signals which
allow you to check that the oscilloscope is working properly. A

connection to the input of channel 1, CH 1, of the oscilloscope


can be made using a special connector called a BNC plug.

Function Generator
A function generator is a piece of electronic test
equipment or software used to generate electrical waveforms.
These waveforms can be either repetitive, or single-shot in
which case some kind of triggering source is required (internal
or external).
Another type of function generator is a sub-system that
provides an output proportional to some mathematical function
of its input; for example, the output may be proportional to the
square root of the input. Such devices are used in feedback

control

systems

and

in

analog

computers.

Explanation
Analog function generators usually generate a triangle
waveform as the basis for all of its other outputs. The triangle is
generated by repeatedly charging and discharging a capacitor
from a constant current source. This produces a linearly
ascending or descending voltage ramp. As the output voltage
reaches upper and lower limits, the charging and discharging is
reversed using a comparator, producing the linear triangle wave.
By varying the current and the size of the capacitor, different
frequencies may be obtained. Saw tooth waves can be produced
by charging the capacitor slowly, using a current, but using a
diode over the current source to discharge quickly - the polarity
of the diode changes the polarity of the resulting sawtooth, i.e.
slow rise and fast fall, or fast rise and slow fall.
A 50% duty cycle square wave is easily obtained by noting
whether the capacitor is being charged or discharged, which is
reflected in the current switching comparator's output. Other
duty cycles (theoretically from 0% to 100%) can be obtained by
using a comparator and the sawtooth or triangle signal. Most
function generators also contain a non-linear diode shaping
circuit that can convert the triangle wave into a reasonably
accurate sine wave. It does so by rounding off the hard corners
of the triangle wave in a process similar to clipping in audio
systems.
The type of output connector from the device depends on
the frequency range of the generator. A typical function

generator can provide frequencies up to 20 MHz and uses a


BNC connector, usually requiring a 50 or 75 ohm termination.
Specialised RF generators are capable of gigahertz frequencies
and typically use N-type output connectors.
Function generators, like most signal generators, may also
contain an attenuator, various means of modulating the output
waveform, and often the ability to automatically and repetitively
"sweep" the frequency of the output waveform (by means of a
voltage-controlled oscillator) between two operator-determined
limits. This capability makes it very easy to evaluate the
frequency response of a given electronic circuit.
Some function generators can also generate white or pink
noise.