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Chapter -1

INTRODUCTION AND DESIGN OF THE STUDY


Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the set of forces that cause
people to behave in certain ways. A motivated employee generally is more quality
oriented. Highly motivated worker are more productive than apathetic worker one reason
why motivation is a difficult task is that the workforce is changing. Employees join
organizations with different needs and expectations. Their values, beliefs, background,
lifestyles, perceptions and attitudes are different. Not many organizations have understood
these and not many HR experts are clear about the ways of motivating such diverse
workforce.
Now days employees have been hired, trained and remunerated they need to be
motivated for better performance. Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the
set or forces that cause people to behave certain ways. People are motivated rewards
something they can relate to and something they can believe in. Times have changed
People wants more. Motivated employees are always looking for better ways to do a job.
It is the responsibility of managers to make employees look for better ways of doing their
jobs.
Individuals differ not only in their ability to do but also in their will to do, or
motivation Managers who are successful in motivating employees are often providing an
environment in which appropriate goals are available for needs satisfaction. Retaining
and motivating workers requires special attention and the responsibility falls squarely on
the shoulders of HR as well as managers and supervisors at all level. They have to create
a work environment where people enjoy what they do, feel like they have a purpose and
have pride in the mission of the organization. It requires more time, more skill, and
managers who care about people. It takes true leadership. By giving employees special
tasks, you make them feel more important. When your employees feel like they are being
trusted with added responsibilities, they are motivated to work even harder so they wont
let the company down. Motivation is essential for any company because employee is

Asset of company. Motivation is important for the growth of employees as well as growth
of the organization.
Any business activity basically require four Ms, viz. Men, Material, Money and
Machinery. Of all these resources people is the most important resource of production.
Today, the corporate world has started acknowledging the fact that it is people and money,
machinery or materials that run organizations. The burden of performance is no longer
on mechanically advanced systems, but on the resourcefulness, initiative and
responsibility of the people who are intrinsically the process owners.
There has always been a gap between the corporate visions and the ambitions of
individuals.

In the past, the human resource function did not try to bring about

compatibility between corporate needs and that of individuals.

But, todays the

managements have to ensure congruence between organizational objectives and


employees aspirations.
The task of coordinating all the other factors of production, except man is felt
easier, because man cannot be controlled fully at all times. He can act according to his
own desired. And most of the time human being will be manipulated by the work
environment and by the group.

Human behaviour is unpredictable.

One will act

according to ones own. Hence, only by providing more facilities to human factor, we
can motivate them to work. Then only it is possible to direct the combination of all
factors towards the goal.
There are numerous factors, which will influence the human factors. Among them
the levels of human relations in the organization play a significant role. In ancient days
it was felt that by using power and authority human relations in the organization could he
improved. Through this concept we cannot get workers co-operation and involvement at
their level best. But, they will work because of fear not without involvement.
The second concept is, only by providing monetary increments and incentives,
human relations can be improved in the organization. This concept also failed to achieve
is goal but at certain level it increased human relations.

Now, the recent human relations theory prescribes participatory management


according to which all are allowed to play their roles and the management will play a
participatory role.
By enhancing human relations we can improves the efficiency of the workers. If
they are fully satisfied, then they will give their full efforts. As a result, the achievement
of organizational goal becomes an easy one.
Therefore employee motivation and job satisfaction alone is responsible for the
attainment organizational goals. Hence, it is important to provide more facilities in the
form of work environment, improved human relations, and fair wages and welfare
measures. The management can improve them and satisfy the workers. By satisfying
workers they will reach their goal. The individual and the organizational goals will be
reached simultaneously. People see organization as a means to help them to reach their
goals while organization needs people to reach organizational objectives.
In the organizational setting the word Motivation is used to describe the drive
that impels an individual to work. A truly motivated person is one who wants to
work .Both employees and employers are interested in understanding motivation if
employees know what strengthens and what weakens their motivation, they can often
perform more effectively to find more satisfaction in their job. Employers want to know
what motivates their employees so that they can get them to work harder.
The increased attention towards motivation is justified by several reasons
Motivated employees are always looking for better ways to do a job. This
statement can apply to corporate strategists and to production workers. It is the
responsibility of managers to make employees look for better ways of doing their
jobs.
A motivated employee generally is more quality oriented. This is true whether we
are talking about a top manager spending extra time on data gathering and analysis
for a report or a clerk taking extra care when filing important document.
Highly motivated worker are more productive than apathetic worker .The high
productivity of Japanese worker and the fever worker are needed to produce an
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automobile in Japan than elsewhere is well known. An appreciation of the nature


of motivation is highly useful manager.
Every organization requires human resources in addition to financial and physical
resources for it to function .Three behavioral dimensions of HR are significant to
organizations (i) people must be attracted not only to join the organizations but
also to remain it (ii) people must perform he tasks for which they are hired and
must do so in a dependable manner and (iii) people must go beyond this
dependable role per performance and engage in some form of creative,
spontaneous, and innovative behavior at work.
Motivation as a concept represents a highly complex phenomenon that affects. and
is affected by .a multitude of factors in the organizational milieu .an understanding of the
topic of motivation is thus essential in order to comprehend more fully the effects of
variations in other reaction as they relate to the performance, satisfaction, and so forth .
Why increasing attention is paid towards motivation can be found in the present
and future technology required for production, as technology increases in complexity,
machines tend to become necessary, yet insufficient, vehicles of effective and efficient
operation .Consider the example of the highly technology-based space programmed in
our country.
CHALLENGES
The framework of motivation indicates that motivation is a simple process. But in
reality, the task is more daunting one reason why motivation is a difficult task is that the
workforce is changing. Employees join organizations with different needs and
expectations. Their values, beliefs, background, lifestyles, perceptions and attitudes are
different. Not many organizations have understood these and not many HR experts are
clear about the ways of motivating such diverse workforce.
Motivating employees is also more challenging at a time when firms have
dramatically changed the jobs that employees perform, reduced layers of hierarchy, and
jettisoned large numbers of employees in the name of right-sizing or down-sizing. These
actions have considerably damaged the level of trust and commitment necessary for
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employee to put in efforts above minimum requirements some organization have resorted
to hire and fire and pay for- performance strategies almost giving up motivational
efforts. Such strategies may have some effects (both positive and negative) but fail to
make and individual over reach him or her Third, motives can only be inferred, but not
seen. The dynamic nature of needs offend poses challenge to any manager in motivating
his or her subordinate. An employee, at any given time, has a various needs, desire, and
expectations. Employees who put in extra hours at work to fulfil their needs or
accomplishment may find that these extra hours conflict directly with needs for affiliation
and their desire to be with their families. However, there is no shortage of models,
strategies, and tactics for motivating employees.
Work motivation is a set of energetic force that originate both within as well as
beyond and individuals being, to initiate work related behavior, and to determine its
form, direction, intensity, and duration.
While general motivation is concerned with effort towards any goal, Stephen
Robbins narrow the focus to organizational goals in order to reflect singular interest in
work related behavior the effort element is a measure of intensity. The need means some
internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. And unsatisfied need creates
tension that stimulates drives within the individual. This drives general a search behavior
to find particular goals, if attend, will satisfied the needs and lead to the reduction of
tension
Mechanism of motivation
Motivation is the process that starts with physiological or psychological deficiency
or need that activate behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive.
Thus, the key to understanding motivation lies in the meaning of, and relationship
between needs, drives and goals,

Needs: Needs are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological

imbalance For example: A need exists when cells in the body are deprived of food and
water or when the personality is deprived of other people who serve friends or
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companions. Although psychological may be based on a deficiency, sometimes they are


not. For instant, and individuals with a strong need to get ahead may have a history of
consistent success

Drives: Drives (Or motives) are set up to alleviate needs. Psychological needs

can be simply defined as a deficiency with direction. Physiological or psychological


drives are action oriented and provide energizing thrust towards reaching an incentive
or goals. They are at the very heart of the motivational process. The needs for food and
water are translated into hunger and thrust drives, and the need for friend becomes a
drives affiliation. Thus, a drive is a psychological state which moves an individuals
satisfying needs.

Goals: At the end of the motivational cycle is the goal or incentive. It is anything

that wills that will alleviate a need and reduce a drive. Thus, attaining a goal will tend to
restore physiological or psychological balance and will reduce or cut off the drive. Eating
food, drinking water and obtaining friends will tend to restore the balance and reduce the
corresponding drives food, water and friends are the incentive are the goals.
Conceptual clarification: (motives, motivation and motivating)
The terms motives, motivation and motivating which are derived from the Latin
word
Mover (to move) are important concept which have distinct connotation. In order to
steer the energies of the employees towards organizational goals accomplishment, it is
essential to grasp the meaning and significance of this concept and also to learn how to
apply them intelligently
Motives: Motive is defined as a inner state that energizes, activates (Or moves)
and directs (or channels) the behavior of individuals towards certain goals the strong
motives or needs are fulfill. In order to minimize the restlessness, and keep it under
control, the individual is propelled into action. Thus motive induce individual to channel
their behavior towards such type of actions as would reduce their state of restlessness are
inner disequilibrium. Thus motives can be thought of as drives that energize people to
action.
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Motivation: while motives are energizers of action, motivation is the actual action
that is work behaviour itself. For instance, when a employee work hard, his level of
motivation may be consider as low. Thus, the level of motivation of employee is judged
by his actual work behaviour
Motivating: It is the term that implies one person induces another to engage in
action or work, behaviour by ensuring that, a channel to direct the motive of the
individuals become available and accessible to the individual.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The researcher carried out the study with the following objectives.

To know about the leather industry


To study the motivation for the employees in the study area
To analyze the factors influencing the incentives schemes in the company
To find the various benefits provided by the organization
To give the fruitful suggestion for the present study

SCOPE OF THE STUDY


Scope of the study is confined to, what are the various facets and reward system of
the organization, which are motivating the employees to stay with the organization. To
find out what aspects are satisfied and dissatisfied by the employees of the organization
and the difference in the performance level of executives of Non-executives.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN


A research design is the logical and systematic planning and directing a piece of
research the design according to her results from translating a general scientific model
into varied research procedures. A research design is a plan or scheme to carry out the
task in an orderly and systematic manner towards the study.
Research designs differ depending on the purpose of the research. The researcher
has chosen the descriptive study because description study is a fact finding investigation
with and it is the simplest type of research design.
The study adopted the case study approach for the purpose of conducting an
empirical investigation to the issue of Performance appraisal System at Technico
Laboratory Products Pvt. Ltd. and work environment. The study was conducted and data
were collected both through the primary and secondary source.
Primary data
Primary sources of data were derived from the questionnaire and in-depth
interview from employees of all departments in Technico Laboratory Products Pvt. Ltd.
like HR, Finance, Production, and Sales & Marketing.
Secondary data
Secondary source from company records, bulletins and other official documents.
The adoption of these tools helped to collect both quantitative and qualitative data.
Sample size
A sample of 60 employees out of 160 has been chosen for the study and simple
random sampling technique is used to select the sample for conducting the study.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


The study is related to only Technico Laboratory Products Pvt. Litd.
The sample size was 60 employees including executives and supervisors.
The results are based on information provided by the respondents.

STATISTICAL TOOLS
The following statistical tools were used for analyzing the data
Percentage
Pie diagram
Bar diagram
Table

SCHEME OF CHAPTERISATION
The following chapters have designed for study.
The first chapter is devoted to introduction and design of the study.
The second chapter brings about the profile of the study area.
The third chapter deals with review of related literature.
The fourth chapter highlights the motivation of the employees in the study area.
The last pieces were designed to present the important findings, suggestions and
conclusion of the study.