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analysis of spindle-bearing system

Ke Yan a, Jun Hong a, b, *, Jinhua Zhang b, Wei Mi b, Wenwu Wu b

a

b

Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Modern Design and Rotor-Bearing System, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China

State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing System Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 5 June 2015

Received in revised form

9 November 2015

Accepted 15 December 2015

Available online xxx

Transient analysis by thermal network method for complex structures like the spindle-bearing system is

essential but insufcient. In this paper, the network approach was developed for spindle transient

analysis in consideration of thermal-structure interaction. Firstly, the radial and axial deformation of

spindle system during assembling process, deformation by thermal extension and centrifugal effect were

all obtained. Then the transient analysis was deduced based on traditional steady model, the thermaldeformation coupling and some other time-varying parameters. Experiment results indicate that temperature by steady model is of large deviation, while by the transient model is much more accurate.

Finally, the temperature rising curves, the balance time of the spindle system and temperature rise

feature for continuous working conditions were all achieved and discussed.

2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Transient thermal analysis

Thermal-deformation coupling

Spindle-bearing system

1. Introduction

Transient thermal analysis and temperature rise monitoring for

spindle-bearing system, especially high precise system, is crucial in

the design and optimization stage. The rotating spindle is a thermal

time-varying system, in which the lubricant viscosity, heat sources

and boundary conditions are all variable, depends on its temperature distribution. Meanwhile, the complex structure deformation,

induced by thermal stress, centrifugal stress and other stresses

(such as stress induced during the installation process, hereinafter

referred to as assembling stress), affects the system thermal and

precise feature. The tolerance by thermal deformation is more than

50% of the total error [1]. Therefore, transient thermal analysis, in

consideration of the thermal-deformation coupling, is much

needed for spindle-bearing system.

Many contributions for spindle thermal analysis were conducted based on nite element method, such as J. Cao [2] and J. You

[3]. The steady thermal analysis of a mechanical spindle was

investigated by T. Holkup [4], the temperature distribution and

deformation for spindle in different bearing arrangement situation

was obtained. Thermal induced preload and spindle system

and Rotor-Bearing System, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

E-mail address: jhong@xjtu.edu.cn (J. Hong).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2015.12.007

1290-0729/ 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

stiffness were also discussed. Similarly, the work by J.F. Tu [5] gives

settlement ways, which were veried by experimental test, for

steady and transient analysis in condition of different thermal

boundary. In addition, E. Creighton [6] suggested the optimal

approach for spindle thermal characteristics and compensation

ways for thermal extension. Above all, for spindle thermal analysis

in both steady and transient conditions, the ways based on FEM

were theoretically well developed, but its application was limited,

due to its complicated meshing and contact pairs setting for polytropic and complex engineering problems. A thermal mechanical

coupling model was given by C.W. Lin [7] based on nite element

approach, and the stiffness change induced by centrifugal effect

was discussed. The insufcient is, the inuence of bearing stiffness

on its thermal feature was neglected. Another thermal mechanical

model by H.Q. Li and Y.C. Shin [8e11] contains three parts, the

nonlinear bearing, spindle and thermal model, which can be used

to predict the static and dynamic stiffness, temperature distribution and bearing contact load. However, the centrifugal effect and

bearing gyroscopic effect were lacked in their model. Y.Z. Cao and Y.

Altintas [12] analyzed the relationship between spindle stiffness

and preload, by integrating the Jones' bearing model and spindle

model via FEM. And the dynamic characteristics of spindle system

in both xed-pressure and xed-position pretension condition

were studied [13,14]. However, the extension and thermal deformation during spindle rotation were ignored in all the above

models. The spindle dynamic model and thermal model were all

Nomenclature

a,b,c..f

A

B

C

Db

D

d

d1

d2

E

Fa

h

L

K

p

q

Q

R

R

T

DT

u

V

Greek letters

a

contact angle/rad

b

thermal extension coefcient/K1

m

poisson ratio

l

thermal conductivity/W(mm K)1

v

viscosity/mm2 s1

r

density/kg m3

u

angular velocity/rad s1

s

stress component/Pa

d

deection/mm

strain component

j

tolerance

structural size/mm

area/mm2

bearing total curvature

specic heat/J$(kg K)1

bearing balls' diameter/mm

bearing external diameter/mm

bearing internal diameter/mm

inner ring external diameter/mm

outer ring internal diameter/mm

elasticity modulus/Pa

axial load/N

heat transfer coefcient/W$(mm2 K)1

bearing axial size/mm

axial displacement constant

assembling stress/Pa

heat ux/W m2

heat source/W

shaft radius/mm

thermal resistance/K W1

temperature/K

temperature difference/K

structural deformation/mm

volume/m3

coupling was not achieved. Based on the above simplication and

assumptions, H.Q. Li and Y.C. Shin [17], A. Zahedi [18] completed the

thermal mechanical model for rotating spindle, and the results

shown that, bearing arrangement condition has signicant inuence on its thermal feature. Similar work by X.A. Chen [19] through

spindle thermal experiment indicated that, thermal deformation of

rotating spindle greatly affects its dynamic and stiffness

characteristics.

Due to the limitation in meshing and boundary condition

treatment, the computation of FEM is complicated. By contrast, the

advantage of thermal network method in complex system analysis

is embodied [20]. Spindle temperature distribution, the effect of

bearing preload and rotation were investigated by D.Y. Huang [21]

via thermal network method. Besides, much steady analysis, such

as heat transfer resistance and equations by X.Q. Jiang [22], the

equivalent model by F. Benabid [23] for grinding cutter system, the

power loss and temperature rise in different resistance coefcients

by F. Pouly [24], the temperature contribution for deep groove ball

bearing system in different preload conditions by J. Takabi [25], was

analyzed by network approach. For comparison and validation, the

steady temperature eld of spindle system in normal oil lubrication

was solved by thermal network and FEM [26], physical property

parameter, heat transfer coefcient and thermal resistance were all

calculated. For steady case, the advantages of thermal network

method in computation time, accuracy and facility were apparent.

The two methods were also compared in steady temperature eld

analysis of high speed vehicle bearing-spindle system by L. Xin [27].

Currently, thermal network method is widely used in steady

system, the change of heat sources and heat transfer boundaries

were all ignored. Therefore, the study of transient thermal characteristic of spindle-bearing system by thermal network is lacking.

Besides, the calculation tolerance by steady method is relatively

large, transient temperature rise and thermal balance time of key

subassemblies, are all out of acquisition. In addition to this, stress

Subscript

0

i

o

l

r

h

b

g

s

balls'number

original

inner ring

outer ring

axial direction

radial direction

housing

bearing

grease

shaft

greatly inuent the deformation and thermal boundary, thereby

the system temperature distribution [28,29]. Above all, for spindlebearing transient thermal analysis in consideration of thermal

mechanical coupling, the methodology for irrelevant of FEM is

needed but absent.

In this paper, spindle system radial deformation, induced by

assembling stress, thermal and centrifugal stress, was calculated.

The effects of assemble tolerance and thermal extension on system

axial deformation were also considered. Based on the network

method for steady case, the transient thermal analysis equations

were deduced, and the coupling effect between temperature distribution and structure deformation was achieved during the iteration of transient analysis. For validation purpose, multiparameters of a spindle-bearing system rig from NSK were monitored and compared with the transient calculation results. In the

end, the transient thermal feature, such as the effects of different

stresses, thermal balance time, temperature rise process of the

spindle-bearing system, were all discussed.

2. Spindle system deformation

For a rotating spindle system, structure deformation by temperature rise and centrifugal effect is inherent. In radial direction,

deformation by assembling stress, such as stress between bearing

inner ring and shaft (always interference t), outer ring and

housing (always clearance t), are crucial. While for axial deformation, the installation error between rings and spacers, the

extension by preload and temperature rising, are also not

negligible.

2.1. Radial deformation

The schematic diagram of spindle-bearing system was shown in

Fig. 1. The shaft inner radius is a, the inner and outer radiuses of

bearing inner ring are b and c, for outer ring are d and e, respectively. The housing outer radius is denoted as f. The steady temperature values for the above subassemblies are T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6,

in sequence.

The radiuses of bearing rings are much larger than their axial

width, so the rings here were supposed to be hollow disks with

axisymmetric temperature distribution. According to the elastic

mechanics theory, the balance equation for a hollow disk in cylindrical coordinate system gives:

dsr sr sq

ru2 r 0

dr

r

(1)

du

dr

u

r

E

sr

r vq 1 mb$DT

1 m2

(3)

E

q vr 1 mb$DT

1 m2

(4)

radial and tangential direction, Pa, and r, q for strain components.

Substituting Eqs. (2)e(4) into Eq. (1), and yields,

d2 u 1 du u

dDT 1 m2 2

1 mb

ru r

dr

E

dr 2 r dr r 2

(5)

inner (outer) radius ri (ro) and steady temperature value Ti (To),

temperature distribution in radial direction follows the logistic

curve:

DT DTi

DTo DTi

lnr=ri

lnro =ri

3mru2 r 2

8

(8)

For interference t between inner ring and shaft with d1

magnitude, the assembling stress p1 during installation process can

be derived as follow:

p1

Ed1 c2 b2 b2 a2

2b3

c2 a2

(9)

For inner surface of inner ring, the stress in radial direction is p1,

and the outer surface is free face. So the boundary conditions for

bearing inner ring can be described as:

(10)

Substituting the above boundary conditions into Eq. (8), and one

obtains the constants C1 and C2:

C1

C2

i

1m h

8p1 b2 3mru2 c4 b4

2

2

8E c b

b1v 2k4n b2 c2 4k c2 lncb2 lnb

8 c2 b2

(11)

i

1 mc2 b2 h

8p1 3 mru2 c2 b2

2

2

8E c b

b2 c2 1 m

kbln c ln b

2 c 2 b2

(12)

system radial deformation, items with u mean the effect of centrifugal force. The effect of assembling stress is calculated in constants C1 and C2. So the total radial deformation of the spindle

system by the three stresses can be achieved by solving Eq. (7).

Substituting C1 and C2 into Eq. (7), one obtains the radial deformation of bearing inner ring at random radius r.

(6)

Substituting Eq. (6) into Eq. (5) and integrates, then one obtains

the expressions of radial deformation and stress:

bE

E

1m

nk$lnrk=2

C

1mC

1

2

2

1m2

r2

r b; sr p1 ; r c; sr 0

(2)

sq

sr

1 mb

C

1 m2 ru2 r 3

rn k$ln r k=2 C1 r 2

2

r

E

8

(7)

Similar to bearing inner ring, the radial deformation of outer

ring and housing can be equivalent to hollow disks. The difference

is, the outer ring and housing are all static in operation, so the

centrifugal effect should be excluded. To this end, substituting u 0

into Eqs. (7)e(8), then the expressions for radial deformation were

obtained.

magnitude, i.e. d2 magnitude for interference t, the assembling

stress p2 can be derived from the following equation:

Ed f 2 e2 e2 d2

p2 23

2e

f 2 d2

(13)

For outer surface of bearing outer ring, the stress in radial direction is p2, and the inner surface is free face. So the boundary

conditions can be described as:

r d; sr 0; r e; sr p2

(14)

r e; sr p2 ; r f ; sr 0

(15)

Based on the stress expressions in Eqs. (11) and (12), the corresponding constants can be derived by the above boundary expressions. Then similarly, the radial deformation of outer ring and

housing can be calculated by Eq. (7).

2.1.3. Shaft neck

The axial length of spindle shaft is much larger than the sizes of

its cross section, so the radial deformation of spindle shaft is

equivalent to a beam with uniform cross section. Based on the

equations for plane stress problem, replace the constants E, b, m

with E/(1m2), b(1m) and m(1m), then one obtains the corresponding plane strain equations.

Based on Eqs. (7)e(8), the radial deformation and stress for

plane stress problem can be achieved via the above transformation:

u2

1 mb

C

rn2 k2 $ln r k2 =2 C3 r 4

21 m

r

sr2

1 m1 2m ru2 r 3

E1 m

8

bE

E

C3

C

n2 k2 $lnrk2 =2

24

21m

1m 12m r

32mru2 r 2

81m

(16)

(17)

For interference t between inner ring and shaft, the assembling

stress equals p1, seen in Eq. (9). The boundary conditions are:

r a; sr 0; r b; sr p1

(18)

expressed as follow:

C3

Substituting C3 and C4 into Eq. 16 and 17, one obtains the total

radial deformation of spindle shaft.

2.2. Bearing preload and axial deformation

As known to all, system axial deformation and preload inuent

each other. The installation process affects bearing initial preload,

and the preload affects axial deformation and bearing frictional

heat. Then thermal deformation by frictional heat alters its preload,

vice versa. Hence the interaction between preload and axial

deformation should be calculated in spindle-bearing system transient thermal analysis.

2.2.1. Axial assembling deformation on additional preload

For a given spindle system with two front and two rear bearings,

back to back installation with xed-position pre-tightening (the

spindle structure will be illustrate in the sections below). The

preload was adjusted by high precise and high stiffness spacers. The

interaction of the two bearings in the same end can be treated as

tandem bearings, seen in Fig. 2. The total preload force is Fa, while

for the rear bearing is Fa2. During the installation process, bearing

rings width size and deviation are W, J1 and J2, for spacer bush

they are L, J3 and J4, respectively. During the preloading

procedure, in case the rear bearing is preloaded rst, and its out

ring axial deformation equals Dd. Because the deformation is

induced by tolerance between outer ring and spacer bush, the

deformation is among the follow range:

a1m12m2k 4n b2 a2 4k a2 lnab2 lnb

1m12m

32m 2 4

2

2

4

2

8p1 b2

ru

b

a

1m

8E b2 a2

8 a2 b2 1m

0 Dd 2j1 j2 j3 j4 Dd sin a

C4

1 ma2 b2

3 2m 2 2

2

8p1

ru

b

a

1m

8E b2 a2

a2 b2 1 m

2

k2 bln a ln b

2 a b2 1 m

(20)

(19)

(21)

Suppose the axial displacement between inner and outer rings,

for front and rear bearings, are respectively da1 and da2. In case the

rear bearing is preloaded rst, one obtains,

da2 Dd da1

(22)

derived as follow [30]:

Fa2

ZKn2 Bf2 1:5

da2

sin a2

1:5

cos a02

1

cos a2

(23)

cos a2

(24)

can be solved with the following iteration item:

an1

2

Fp1

1:5

ZKn1 n Bf2

an2

sin an2

!2 "

cos a02

cos an2 1

sin 2an2

cos a02

cos an2 1

!

cos a02

cos an2 1

gradient are all variable around and inside the contact area, and the

transient thermal feature is directly affected. In order to consider

these factors in transient analysis, nodes distribution was modied

in this paper, seen in Fig. 3(b) and (c).

In Fig. 3(b), a ve-node model was proposed to consider temperature difference of rings, and in Fig. 3(c), a seven-node model

was presented to study the thermal difference of subassemblies

and also the vicinal lubricant. For the three-node model, the

resistance, i.e. the contact thermal resistance [31], between balls

and rings can be written as:

#

2

deformation can be derived similarly.

2.2.2. Thermal extension on additional preload

In condition of initial and additional preload above, the initial

axial displacement u0 of inner ring can be denoted as:

(26)

ring can be written as:

(27)

where us means thermal deformation difference, mm, T is temperature rise, K, l denotes the axial sizes of bearing inner/outer

rings, mm.

Bearing installation given in this paper is back to back

arrangement, so the difference of thermal deformation is contrary

to the initial displacement. Hence the total axial displacement is,

ua u0 us

(28)

Figure out balls' diameter Db1 and total curvature B1 after thermal extension, substituting them into the thermal displacement

equation, and the real contact angle a0 can be obtained:

B D sina0 a0

ua 1 b1

cos a0

(29)

be written as follow:

1:5

cos a

Fa

0

1

sin a0

2

cos a0

ZDb1 K

lnD=d2

Ro

2plb l

(31)

Rsi

(25)

Rbo

sin an

Bf sina a0

u0

cos a

lnd1 =d

Ri

2plb l

Rib

!3

!2

(30)

lnd1 =d

Rib

2plb l

Rbo Ro

Roh

lnD=d1

2plb l

Rib Ri

(32)

(33)

For the seven-node model, heat resistance Rs-i, Ro-h are the same

with the above model, and other resistance can be expressed as:

Rig Ri

Rgo Ro

(34)

the seven-node model:

Rgb

lnd2 =d1

2plg l

(35)

The principle of thermal network method assimilates heat

transfer to current ow, using network topology for thermal analysis. First, plots the object into gridding and supposes heat sources

concentrating on certain nodes. By connecting adjacent nodes with

heat resistance, an equivalent network model for thermal analysis

forms. When thermal parameters such as heat sources, resistance

and boundary conditions of certain object are decided, thermal

balance equations of the system can be established according to the

Kirchhoff's law of electricity.

3.2.1. Thermal resistance

Based on heat transfer principle of one-dimensional steady heat

transfer process, thermal resistance for heat conduction and

transfer can be written as:

Rc d=lA

Rv 1=hA

(36)

means heat conductivity, W(mm K)1, h denotes heat transfer coefcient, W$(mm2 K)1.

Generally, system subassemblies such as hollow shaft, bearing

rings and spacers, are all equivalent to hollow cylinder. Hence heat

resistance can be derived according to the above equations. The axial

and radial resistance for heat conduction of a hollow cylinder gives:

In traditional steady analysis, always three nodes for bearing:

inner ring, outer ring and the ball, seen in Fig. 3(a). Thermal

resistance of grease is ignored. In some models, grease resistance is

added into the total resistance. While in real transient work condition, grease property and its heat resistance, the temperature

RL

4L

lp D2 d2

Rr

lnD=d

2plL

(37)

external and internal diameter, mm, respectively.

Similarly, the axial and radial resistance for heat transfer writes:

Rhl

4

hp D2 d2

Rhr

1

hpDL

(38)

bearing thermal characteristic. According to Jiang's work [22],

grease resistance near inner and outer rings can be calculated as

follow:

Ri

Ro

plg

Db

.

d1 l ZD2b 4

Db

.

2plg d2 l ZD2b 4

(39)

(40)

suppose the frictional heat Qf of node O ows out to the adjacent

nodes, seen in Fig. 4. Then the general thermal balance equation for

steady case can be written as:

To T1 To T2 To T3 To T4

Qf

Ro1

Ro2

Ro3

Ro4

(42)

adjacent nodes temperature, K, Ro-i is thermal resistance between

adjacent nodes, K W1, and Qf is the frictional heat of the node, W.

For certain nodes of the system, such as nodes of contact area between balls and rings, the frictional heat source Qf can be calculated

by bearing quasi-dynamic analysis.

By developing the above expression, yields,

inner (outer) ring, mm.

4

4

X

X

1

1

To

Ti Qf

R

R

i1 oi

i1 oi

As just mentioned, heat transfer is assimilated to current ow,

the relationship between heat and temperature difference can be

derived based on Ohm's law.

distribution for a given spindle-bearing system was shown in Fig. 5.

Here the ve-node model for bearing was chose to illustrate thermal nodes distribution, and the number of nodes is 46 (For the

three-node model and seven-node model is 38 and 54,

respectively).

Based on Eq. (43), thermal balance equations of the whole heat

transfer system can be written in matrix form:

Q DT=R

(41)

GfTg fQ g

(43)

(44)

need to be solved, {Q} is the matrix of heat source. For the given

spindle-bearing system, the frictional heats {Q} are all from bearing

nodes, which can be obtained by quasi-dynamic analysis. Heat

sources of the other nodes are zero.

Fig. 4. Heat transfer mechanism of a thermal node and its adjacent nodes.

For steady analysis, all the thermal parameters are supposed to

be constant, and heat transfers immediately from the source nodes

to the other nodes in the system. In real operating condition,

temperature of one node increases gradually from the environment

temperature to its balance value. During this period, the system

heat sources, heat transfer coefcient and thermal resistance are all

variable. The thermal-deformation coupling, temperature-viscosity

effect of the lubricant, heat transfer boundary conditions between

spindle system and the vicinal air ow, and the change of thermal

capacity and resistance are all need to be considered. Based on the

above steady model, a transient model was developed via

discretization-iteration method.

any moment equals to its internal energy variation. Therefore, the

heat of the ith node and its temperature increment obey to the

following relationship:

dT

qi Ci ri Vi i

dt

(45)

In which dTi/dt means the temperature rise rate at the ith node.

According to the energy conversation principle, transient thermal balance equation of a node in two-dimensional system can be

developed:

To T1 To T2 To T3 To T4

dTo

Qfo Co ro Vo

Ro1

Ro2

Ro3

Ro4

dt

(46)

In order to achieve the transient temperature eld, the continuous value t was discretized by time series of certain step size Dt:

tk1 tk Dtk

(47)

fore temperature eld at tk moment,

Tik1 Tik

dTik

Dtk

dt

(48)

Substituting Eq. (48) into Eq. (46), one obtains the arithmetic

solution of the transient thermal balance equation for one node:

Ro1

Ro2

Ro3

Ro4

Qfo Co ro Vo

Tok1 Tok

Dtk

(49)

Fig. 5, one obtains the transient analysis model. During the transient calculation with different models, the number of the system

nodes changes accordingly. The computation of the transient model

can be seen in Fig. 6.

Taking the environment temperature as the initial value for all

nodes in the system, heat source, heat transfer coefcient, thermal

capacity and resistance of the system in initial work condition were

calculated. Then the transient equations were solved and thus the

temperature distribution was obtained. Based on the temperature

distribution, balls' temperature was used to estimate computation

convergence at the end of each iteration. If not, then the lubricant

temperature and boundary nodes parameters were used to modify

the thermal sources and boundary conditions. Meanwhile, thermal

deformation was calculated to modify bearing structural sizes and

preload, then the renewed data was employed as initial condition

for the next iteration. Finally, when balls' temperature difference of

the last two iterations is smaller than the given precision value, the

computation stopped.

4. Experiment

4.1. The experimental rig

The experiment was conducted in the United Laboratory of NSK

and Xi'an Jiaotong University. The machine tool spindle system,

WZ15B90-30SE mechanical spindle, was shown in Fig. 7. The

schematic view of the spindle can be seen in Fig. 5. The rotation

range is from 2000 to 8000 r/min. The NSK 7014CTYNSULP4

bearing was used, two front and two rear with back to back

arrangement. The lubricant is grease NSK MTE. The xed-position

pre-tightening was chose with an initial preload 1400 N. Before

installation, the relationship between spacer's position/size/length

and bearing's contact angle/preload was deduced. During the pretightening process, the position of the spacers was adjusted to

obtain proper bearing preload.

During the testing, the thermal balance criterion is: temperature

variation in one minute is less than 0.2 C. The temperature of

bearing outer ring was captured by a thermocouple sensor MISUMI

every two seconds, the resolution is 0.1 C. The thermocouple

sensor was contact with bearing outer ring through an axial

clearance hole of the front end cover. The MISUMI thermocouple

sensor is a closed circuit composed of two different conductor

materials. When temperature gradient exists, current and electromotive force inside the circuit occur, which reect temperature

value via certain relationship. The displacement of housing was

monitored by capacitive sensor C8-2.0, which standard measuring

range is 250 mm. Three displacement sensors were used (two for

radial and the other for axial displacement) and the monitoring

data was output by Lion data acquisition system.

For thermal analysis, heat transfer coefcient is crucial in the

calculation. The empirical equation for heat transfer coefcient is

proved to be much deviated from the real value, hence the natural

heat transfer coefcient of the spindle surface was measured by

temperature-gradient heat ux sensor. Then the testing data was

used instead of the empirical equation during the above calculation. The Capter ultrathin sensor HS-9010 was chose because the

spindle surface is curved. The monitoring data was output by

MX100 data acquisition system. The sensor resolution is

8.2 mV (W m2)1, its responding time and operating temperature

are respectively 0.3 s and 180 to 200 C.

4.2. Testing procedure

After the arrangement process and run-in period, the radial play

eccentricity of the shaft was adjusted rst. Then the spindle was set

a given rotation speed and started. The natural heat transfer coefcient and housing temperature were all monitored until thermal

equilibrium (The criterion is: temperature variation in the same

place is less than 0.2 C in a minute). When the testing in a given

speed is completed, the spindle system was shut down to the room

temperature, and then the next step was carried out. During the

measurement, outer ring temperature, natural heat transfer

all captured.

5. Discussion

5.1. Bearing network model verication

Firstly, in order to verify the new network model in Fig. 3, the

outer ring temperature of the experimental spindle was tested and

then compared with the calculation results. From Fig. 8, the deviations of the rst two models and the experimental result are

about 10% at 2000 r/min (9.6% and 13.4%, respectively). When the

rotation speed rise, the deviations increase up to 30% (30% and 38%

at 6000 r/min, 25.7% and 33.4% at 8000 r/min). That's because,

during the calculation, heat dissipation by lubrication and air ow

inside bearing cavity was ignored, which plays an important role in

bearing heat transfer, especially at relatively higher speed. The

result by ve-node model is even larger than the traditional threenode model, due to the enhancement of heat transfer but ignorance

of heat dissipation. In the seven-node model, the grease characteristic was considered, and the result is more close to the real one,

the tolerance is less than 12% (11.6% and 12% for rotation speed

experimental testing include not only the deformations by stresses

effect mentioned above, but also spindle radial run-out and vibrations. The latter was not considered during the theoretical

calculation.

5.3. Comparison of the two models

was employed during the inside heat dissipation analysis, which is

known as insufcient for complicated heat transfer calculation inside bearing cavity. However, the new seven-node model reduces

the temperature difference by about 25% (14 C), so it was chose in

the following calculation.

5.2. Radial deformation and stiffness

The radial deformation is crucial to bearing frictional heat

generation, and it was calculated both by the traditional steady

model and the new transient model in this paper. From Fig. 9 it can

be derived that, the radial deformation by transient model is much

smaller than by the steady way. Among all the deformations by

thermal effect, centrifugal effect and assembling stress, thermal

deformation is the major part (seen in the following discussion).

The temperature by steady method is much larger than the transient analysis, hence the thermal deformation and total radial

deformation by the steady analysis is much larger than by transient

approach.

The radial displacement of the given spindle at different rotation

speed was listed is Table 1. Compared to the experimental data, the

calculated radial deformation is smaller but approximate. The

Based on the seven-node bearing model, the thermal characteristics by steady and transient approaches were compared to the

experimental data, seen in Fig. 10. During the transient calculation,

three different procedures were carried out in order to understand

the inuence of different factors: 1) iteration calculation, during

this process only the iteration method was considered. That is, the

thermal deformation and viscosity effect were all ignored; 2)

temperature viscosity feature was added into the iteration calculation; 3) complete transient analysis process, thermal deformation

and viscosity were all discussed during the transient iteration

computation. From Fig. 9, temperature by steady model is much

higher than experiment data. For transient model, the inuence of

iteration and viscosity are most obvious because their large deviation to the steady results. So it can be derived that, the tolerance by

steady method is mostly due to its constant parameter in heat

transfer calculation. Based on different procedure of transient

analysis, the inuence of thermal parameter on temperature is

small at low rotation speed. In the other hand, when the rotation

speed increasing, the temperatureeviscosity effect and thermal

deformation increase, hence their inuence on spindle temperature increases.

5.4. Stress effect on deformation

In order to understand the effects of thermal stress, assembling

stress and centrifugal stress on spindle radial deformation, the inner ring deformation was calculated in different rotation speed and

arrangement magnitude. The radial deformation of inner ring under individual effect of the three stresses was shown in Figs. 11 and

12.

From Fig. 11, deformation induced by assembling process remains the same at different rotation speed, that's because the

deformation occurs only in the spindle arrangement process.

Conversely, Thermal and centrifugal effects increase greatly at high

rotation value, because the spindle temperature and centrifugal

force grow as well. Thermal and centrifugal deformation here

means structural deformation induced thermal extension and

centrifugal force, respectively. For different arrangement magnitude in Fig. 12 at rotation speed 6000 r/min, the centrifugal force

remains unchanged due to its inherent feature with subassemblies

motions. Therefore the centrifugal deformation keeps constant at

certain rotation speed. In the design stage of spindle-bearing system, a smaller interference t magnitude is benet to its deformation. However, due to the thermal and centrifugal effects, the

interference t magnitude between shaft and inner ring decreases,

so a small magnitude may lead to loosening problem. Hence the

choice of spindle-bearing interference magnitude is important.

Among the three effects, thermal stress contributes the most to

the total deformation. Therefore, thermal extension is the major

factor for spindle deformation. For centrifugal effect and assembling deformation, the effects depend on spindle rotation speed

and arrangement conditions.

5.5. Balance time

Ka 500 N, radial load Fr 0 and environment temperature

10

Table 1

Comparison of radial deformation of bearing housing.

Rotation speed (r/min)

2000

4000

6000

8000

Environment temperature ( C)

16.5

18.5

16.8

17.1

2.40

5.10

7.92

11.42

Tolerance (%)

Transient

Steady

Transient

Steady

2.26

4.87

7.07

9.27

3.75

6.85

11.03

15.24

5.8

4.5

10.7

18.8

56.0

34.3

39.3

33.5

thermal feature of the given spindle can be solved via Matlab

software. The transient temperature rise curve at different rotation

speed was shown in Fig. 13.

At a given speed, temperature increases while its rate decreases

gradually as time goes by, until the spindle reaches a thermal balance status. The balance time for different rotation speed can be

seen in Table 2. That is, for a relatively higher rotation case, the

period between initial status and the nal balance is shorter.

Comparing the balance time and temperature at same rotation

speed, 2000 r/min for instance, the balance time and temperature

change in different environment conditions. It can be derived that,

for a higher environment temperature, the balance time is shorter.

difference for beginning and end is smaller. This illustrates that, the

spindle thermal balance is steady and independent of the environment temperature.

In order to verify the transient network model, the outer ring

temperature rise curves at different rotation speed were compared

to the real monitoring curves. During the calculation, the

11

Table 2

Balance time and bearing outer ring temperature at different rotation speed.

Rotation speed (r/min)

Environment temperature ( C)

Balance temperature ( C)

Temperature rising ( C)

2000

2000

4000

4000

6000

6000

8000

8000

16.5

19.8

18.5

18.9

17.9

18.4

17.1

21.6

18.9

22.0

22.8

22.8

26.8

27.0

30.9

34.6

2.4

2.2

4.3

3.9

8.9

8.6

13.8

13

67

63

56

55

50

48

38

29

and preload were all set the same with experimental condition. In

addition, the natural heat transfer coefcient of housing by testing

was employed in the calculation. The comparisons were shown in

Fig. 14.

According to these curves, the processes of temperature rise by

calculation basically agree well with experimental data, although

the theoretical balance temperature is a little lower. Deviation exists at the initial stage and also the decreasing stage. The reason is,

theoretical prediction was affected by the iteration step size, which

was limited due to the computation capacity. Strictly, thermal

parameter varies in time in real working condition. However, the

calculation. Besides, the thermophysical of spindle material, the

machining accuracy of the subassemblies and the thermal radiation

were all ignored during the calculation.

Temperature rise curve in continuous rotating was shown in

Fig. 15. It can be derived that, the transient thermal curve by

calculation in this paper ts well with the monitored curve. At

relatively higher rotation speed, the tolerance is obvious, 10%e15%

lower at 8000 r/min for instance. Because heat generation model

for bearing used in this paper is the general heat approach, which is

suitable to low working condition. Due to the computation efciency, the local approach for bearing heat generation is not

employed in the above calculation.

6. Conclusion

In this paper, the network approach was developed for spindle

transient analysis in consideration of thermal-structure interaction.

The improved models for bearing and system were studied and the

tested natural heat transfer parameter was employed in the

calculation. Based on experimental verication, the transient

model was proved to be more superior to the steady approach. The

conclusions of the article are as follow:

1) A transient thermal network model was developed for complex

structure analysis, such as spindle-bearing system. The thermalstructure coupling (time-varying parameters like deformation,

viscosity, etc.) was considered in transient analysis.

2) Compared to the steady model, the inuence of iteration and

viscosity in transient analysis are dominating. Hence the tolerance by steady method is mostly due to its constant parameters

in heat transfer calculation.

12

force on spindle performance were all discussed, and the thermal effect is proved to be primary.

4) The presented seven-node model and transient analysis method

indicate that, local heat transfer among subassemblies for

bearing and time-varying thermal parameters for spindle system analysis is of importance and necessary.

Acknowledgment

The authors would like express their gratitude to the United

Laboratory of NSK and Xi'an Jiaotong University. The research work

is nancially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation

of China (Grant No. 51405375) and the Key Laboratory of Road

Construction

Technology

and

Equipment

(Grant

No.

310825151131).

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