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Electronics and Communications Engineering

Angle Modulation

1. FM and PM are both forms of Angle Modulation.


2. Angle modulation has several advantages over amplitude modulation such as noise
reduction, improved system fidelity and more efficient use of power.
3. The disadvantages of angle modulation over amplitude modulation are that it requires a
wider bandwidth, therefore it uses a greater spectrum space and it has a more complex
circuit.
4. Angle modulation was first introduced in 1931 as an alternative to amplitude modulation.
5. Major Edwin Howard Armstrong developed the first successful FM radio system in 1936. He
also developed the superheterodyne receiver.
6. He also developed the first successful radio system in June 17, 1936.
7. He played a jazz record over conventional AM radio then switched to an FM broadcast.
8. Armstrong spent the remainder of his life involved in lawsuits in an attempt to receive
royalties from his inventions, and finally, a broken man, he committed suicide in 1954.
9. FM is used extensively for radio broadcasting, for sound signal in television, for two-way
fixed and mobile radio systems, for satellite communications and for cellular telephone
systems.
10.PM is used in data communications.
11.In frequency modulation, the amplitude of the carrier does not change.
12.The amplitude and power of an FM or PM signal do not change with modulation.
13.An FM receiver does not have to respond to amplitude variations, thus, it can ignore noise
to some extent.
14.FM transmitters use class C amplifiers.
15.Angle modulation results whenever the phase angle of a sinusoid wave is varied with
respect to time.
16.Whenever the frequency of a carrier is varied, the phase is also varied and vice versa.
17.FM and PM must both occur whenever either form of modulation is performed.
18.The magnitude and direction of the frequency shift is proportional to the amplitude and
polarity of the modulating signal.
19.Modulation will cause the signal frequency to deviate from its resting value.
20.Frequency is the rate of change of phase.
21.The relative displacement of the carrier frequency in hertz in respect to its unmodulated
value is called frequency deviation.
22.Whenever the period of a sinusoidal carrier changes, its frequency and phase also change.
23.Phase modulation is the first integral of the frequency modulation.
24.With FM, the maximum frequency deviation occurs during the maximum positive and
negative peaks of the modulating signal.
25.With PM, the maximum frequency deviation occurs during the zero crossings of the
modulating signal.
26.Peak phase deviation is called the modulation index.
27.Frequency deviation is the change in frequency that occurs in the carrier when it is acted
on by a modulating-signal frequency.
28.The peak-to-peak frequency deviation is sometimes called carrier swing.
29.A phase modulator is a circuit in which the carrier is varied in such a way that its
instantaneous phase is proportional to the modulating signal.
30.A frequency modulator, often called frequency deviator is a circuit in which the carrier is
varied in such a way that its instantaneous phase is proportional to the integral of the
modulating signal.
31.In a frequency or phase modulator, a single frequency modulating signal produces and
infinite number of pairs of side frequencies and, thus, has an infinite bandwidth.
1

Prepared by: Jay Amiel Ajoc

2015

MSU General Santos City

Electronics and Communications Engineering

Angle Modulation

32.A practical rule of thumb is to ignore sidebands with a Bessel coefficient whose absolute
value is less than 0.01.
33.A side frequency is not considered significant unless it has amplitude equal to or greater
than 1% of the unmodulated carrier amplitude.
34.Carsons rule approximates the bandwidth necessary to transmit an angle-modulated
wave twice the sum of the peak frequency deviation and the highest modulating-signal
frequency.
35.Carsons rule is an approximation and gives transmission bandwidths that are slightly
narrower than the bandwidths determined using the Bessel table.
36.Deviation ratio is also called the worst-case modulation index. It produces the widest
output frequency spectrum.
37.It is impossible to distinguish FM from PM by changing the modulating signal amplitude. To
see the difference between two forms of angle modulation, the modulating signal
frequency must be changed.
38.FCC has assigned the commercial FM broadcast service a 20-MHz band of frequencies that
extends from 88 MHz to 108 MHz.
39.Larger values for the deviation result in an increased signal-to-noise ratio, while also
resulting in greater bandwidth.
40.To provide high-quality, reliable music, the maximum frequency deviation allowed is 75
kHz with a maximum modulating signal frequency of 15 kHz.
41.Adjacent channel interference occurs when the highest side frequencies form one channel
spills over into adjacent channels.
42.The total power in an angle-modulated wave is equal to the power of the unmodulated
carrier.
43.The noise voltage at the output of a PM demodulator is constant with frequency, whereas
the noise voltage at the output of an FM demodulator increases linearly with frequency.
44.The frequency of the noise interference is the difference between the carrier frequency
and the frequency of the single-frequency interfering signal.
45.The original reason for developing FM was to give improved performance in the presence
of noise.
46.The effect of noise can be reduced by making the signal voltage large as possible relative
to the noise voltage.
47.In phase modulation the angle is varied linearly with the message signal.
48.In frequency modulation the instantaneous frequency is varied linearly with message
signal.
49.A frequency modulated signal can be generated using a phase modulator by first
integrating m(t) and using it as an input to a phase modulator.
50.

Prepared by: Jay Amiel Ajoc

2015

MSU General Santos City