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NNormally protection CTs like 5P, 10P or 15P are used in almost all protection schemes.

But,
for Unit Protection Schemes like Differential, REF, etc., these CTs are not preferred. Why?
In unit protection schemes, it is very very important that the scheme operates only and only
for the internal faults and must remain stable for all external faults. That is, when the unit
protection scheme operates, one can be pretty sure that something is wrong within the
protected equipment.
Also, unit protection schemes are employed for very critical equipment in the network. As
such, whenever any unit protection scheme operates, all hell breaks loose. And one cannot
put back the equipment into service, without conducting an array of tests and ensuring that
the equipment is fit to be put back to service. But, this will take time and effort. And until
such time, the plant will be shut down.
So, it is all the more imperative that the unit protection scheme operates only for genuine
internal faults and NOT for any external faults.
Now, if we employ conventional protection class CTs like 5P or 10P for this application, let us
see what happens. Lets us assume that one has selected 5P10 Class CTs for a Unit
Protection Scheme. Let us say, the relay setting is 10%; this means that any differential
current of 10% will operate the relay. Now, a 5P10 CT means that the CT will maintain its
accuracy at least up to 10 times the rated current. This means that the CT will not saturate
at least up to 10 times the rated current.
This also means that the CT may saturate anywhere after 10 times its rated current. This
level will differ for different CTs. Among the same two 5P10 Class CTs, one may saturate at
12 times and the other may saturate at 13.5 times. In such a condition, during a through
fault condition, there will be differential current and the relay will operate for external faults
too. Even when both CTs are identically manufactured, the deterioration of its core
properties over time may differ and yet they may behave differently over time.
Also, even when the CTs may be supplying to unit protection scheme of the same
equipment, it is highly impossible that all the CTs of the scheme will be located at the same
place. The incoming side CTs or the outgoing side CTs may have to be located far away from
the relay location, thereby incurring extended lead lengths, thus imposing additional burden
on the CTs. This increased burden will also shift the saturation level.
Thus again, during a through fault condition, there will be differential current and the relay
will operate for external faults too.
There are many other similar factors contributing to the maloperation of unit protection
schemes, when conventional protection class CTs are employed. Thus, it has called for a
special class of CTs for such applications. That Special Class is called Class PS. (PS is the
abbreviation of the French Word "Protection Speciale")

Here, instead of generalising on the minimum saturation level of the CT, the users have to
exactly specify the saturation level of the CT. This is called the Knee Point Voltage (VKP), as it
appears as a human-knee in the CT Magnetisation Characteristics. This specification will
take into account the maximum through fault current, the actual lead burden, the relay
burden & the resistance of the CT secondary winding, as also a factor of safety.
The minimum Knee Point Voltage for a given PS Class CT is calculated by:
VKP = K * I(f)s (RCT + RB),
where,
If(s) = Maximum thro fault current as reflected at the CT secondary terminals ( = If(P) / CT
Ratio)
RCT = CT Secondary Winding Resistance
RB = Connected Burden, includes the relay burden & the burden of the connecting leads
K = Factor of Safety, normally taken as 2
VKP = Knee Point Voltage of the CT
As can be seen from the above formula, here the customer is specifying the level of
saturation, duly taking into account the maximum possible fault current in his network, the
actual burden connected to the CT, etc. If the factor of safety is taken as two, this means
that at least up to two times the maximum possible fault current the CTs will not saturate.
Which also means that at the maximum possible fault current, both the incoming and
outgoing side CT characteristics would exactly coincide. That is, their secondary currents
would match exactly and the scheme would not operate for any external fault.
Class PS is now referred as Class PX by IEC60044-1. These CTs are with low magnetising
current and high Vk values as required by high impedance circulating current differential
protection schemes.
Class 5P10 specification doesn't ask for CT secondary resistance and magnetising current
values for the CT unlike that for the Class PX ones.
While the Class 5P CTs are OK for biased (hence low impedance) differential protections, the
Class PX CTs are still the norm for High impedance protection schemes. Remember, since
the protection is based on circulating current, matching the parameters of all the CTs (and
the CT lead lengths to the extent possible) is important for reliable performance of the high
impedance protection scheme.