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EARLY QUANTUM THEORY AND MODELS OF THE ATOM

27

Responses to Questions
1.

The lightbulb will not produce light as white as the Sun, since the peak of the lightbulbs emitted light
is in the infrared. The lightbulb will appear more yellowish than the Sun. The Sun has a spectrum that
peaks in the visible range.

2.

The difficulty with seeing objects in the dark is that although all objects emit radiation, only a small
portion of the electromagnetic spectrum can be detected by our eyes. Usually objects are so cool that
they only give off very long wavelengths of light (infrared), which our eyes are unable to detect.

3.

Bluish stars are the hottest, whitish-yellow stars are hot, and reddish stars are the coolest. This follows
from Wiens law, which says that stars with the shortest wavelength peak in their spectrum have the
highest temperatures. Blue is the shortest visible wavelength and red is the longest visible wavelength,
so blue is the hottest and red is the coolest.

4.

The red bulb used in black-and-white film darkrooms is a very cool filament. Thus it does not emit
much radiation in the range of visible wavelengths (and the small amount that it does emit in the
visible region is not very intense), which means that it will not develop the black-and-white film but
will still allow a person to see whats going on. A red bulb will not work very well in a darkroom that
is used for color film. It will expose and develop the film during the process, especially at the red end
of the spectrum, ruining the film.

5.

If the threshold wavelength increases for the second metal, then the second metal has a smaller work
function than the first metal. Longer wavelength corresponds to lower energy. It will take less energy
for the electron to escape the surface of the second metal.

6.

According to the wave theory, light of any frequency can cause electrons to be ejected as long as the
light is intense enough. A higher intensity corresponds to a greater electric field magnitude and more
energy. Therefore, there should be no frequency below which the photoelectric effect does not occur.
According to the particle theory, however, each photon carries an amount of energy which depends
upon its frequency. Increasing the intensity of the light increases the number of photons but does not
increase the energy of the individual photons. The cutoff frequency is that frequency at which the
energy of the photon equals the work function. If the frequency of the incoming light is below the
cutoff, then the electrons will not be ejected because no individual photon has enough energy to eject
an electron.

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27-1

27-2

Chapter 27

7.

Individual photons of ultraviolet light are more energetic than photons of visible light and will deliver
more energy to the skin, causing burns. UV photons also can penetrate farther into the skin and, once
at the deeper level, can deposit a large amount of energy that can cause damage to cells.

8.

Cesium will give a higher maximum kinetic energy for the ejected electrons. Since the incident
photons bring in a given amount of energy, and in cesium less of this energy goes to releasing the
electron from the material (the work function), it will give off electrons with a higher kinetic energy.

9.

(a)

(b)

(c)

10.

A light source, such as a laser (especially an invisible one), could be directed on a photocell in
such a way that as a burglar opened a door or passed through a window, the beam would be
blocked from reaching the photocell. A burglar alarm could then be triggered to sound when the
current in the ammeter went to 0.
A light source could be focused on a photocell in a smoke detector. As the density of smoke
particles in the air becomes thicker and thicker, more and more of the light attempting to reach
the photocell would be scattered away from the photocell. At some set minimum level the alarm
could be triggered to sound.
The amount of current in the circuit with the photocell depends on the intensity of the light, as
long as the frequency of the light is above the threshold frequency of the photocell material.
The ammeter in the light meters circuit could be calibrated to reflect the light intensity.

(a)

No. The energy of a beam of photons depends not only on the energy of each individual photon
but also on the total number of photons in the beam. It is possible that there could be many more
photons in the IR beam than in the UV beam. In this instance, even though each UV photon has
more energy than each IR photon, the IR beam could have more total energy than the UV beam.

(b)

Yes. A photons energy depends on its frequency: E = hf . Since infrared light has a lower
frequency than ultraviolet light, a single IR photon will always have less energy than a single UV
photon.

11.

No, fewer electrons are emitted, but each one is emitted with higher kinetic energy, when the 400-nm
light strikes the metal surface. The intensity (energy per unit time) of both light beams is the same,
but the 400-nm photons each have more energy than the 450-nm photons. Thus there are fewer
photons hitting the surface per unit time. This means that fewer electrons will be ejected per unit time
from the surface with the 400-nm light. The maximum kinetic energy of the electrons leaving the metal
surface will be greater, though, since the incoming photons have shorter wavelengths and more energy
per photon, and it still takes the same amount of energy (the work function) to remove each electron.
This extra energy goes into higher kinetic energy of the ejected electrons.

12.

Yes, an X-ray photon that scatters from an electron does have its wavelength changed. The photon
gives some of its energy to the electron during the collision and the electron recoils slightly. Thus, the
photon has less energy and its wavelength is longer after the collision, since the energy and wavelength
are inversely proportional to each other ( E = hf = hc / ).

13.

In the photoelectric effect, the photons (typically visible frequencies) have only a few eV of energy,
whereas in the Compton effect, the energy of the photons (typically X-ray frequencies) is more than
1000 times greater and their wavelength is correspondingly smaller. In the photoelectric effect, the
incident photons eject electrons completely out of the target material, while the photons are completely
absorbed (no scattered photons). In the Compton effect, the photons are not absorbed but are scattered
from the electrons.

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Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom

27-3

14.

Light demonstrates characteristics of both waves and particles. Diffraction, interference, and
polarization are wave characteristics and are demonstrated, for example, in Youngs double-slit
experiment. The photoelectric effect and Compton scattering are examples of experiments in which
light demonstrates particle characteristics. We cant say that light IS a wave or a particle, but it has
properties of each.

15.

We say that electrons have wave properties since we see them act like waves when they are diffracted
or exhibit two-slit interference. We say that electrons have particle properties since we see them act
like particles when they are bent by magnetic fields or accelerated and fired into materials where they
scatter other electrons.

16.

Both a photon and an electron have properties of waves and properties of particles. They can both be
associated with a wavelength and they can both undergo scattering. An electron has a negative charge
and has mass, obeys the Pauli exclusion principle, and travels at less than the speed of light. A photon is
not charged, has no mass, does not obey the Pauli exclusion principle, and travels at the speed of light.
Property

Photon

Electron

Mass

None

9.11 1031 kg

Charge

None

1.60 1019 C

Speed

3 108 m/s

< 3 108 m/s

There are other properties, such as spin, that will be discussed in later chapters.
17.

The proton will have the shorter wavelength, since it has a larger mass than the electron and therefore a
larger momentum for the same speed ( = h /p).

18.

The particles will have the same kinetic energy. But since the proton has a larger mass, it will have a
larger momentum than the electron (KE = p 2 /2m). Wavelength is inversely proportional to momentum,
so the proton will have the shorter wavelength.

19.

In Rutherfords planetary model of the atom, the Coulomb force (electrostatic force) keeps the
electrons from flying off into space. Since the protons in the center are positively charged, the
negatively charged electrons are attracted to the center by the Coulomb force and orbit the center just
like the planets orbiting a sun in a solar system due to the attractive gravitational force.

20.

At room temperature, nearly all the atoms in hydrogen gas will be in the ground state. When light
passes through the gas, photons are absorbed, causing electrons to make transitions to higher states and
creating absorption lines. These lines correspond to the Lyman series since that is the series of
transitions involving the ground state or n = 1 level. Since there are virtually no atoms in higher
energy states, photons corresponding to transitions from n 2 to higher states will not be absorbed.

21.

To determine whether there is oxygen near the surface of the Sun, you need to collect light coming
from the Sun and spread it out using a diffraction grating or prism so you can see the spectrum of
wavelengths. If there is oxygen near the surface, then there will be dark (absorption) lines at the
wavelengths corresponding to electron transitions in oxygen.

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27-4

22.

Chapter 27

(a)

(b)

The Bohr model successfully explains why atoms emit line spectra; it predicts the wavelengths
of emitted light for hydrogen; it explains absorption spectra; it ensures the stability of atoms (by
decree); and it predicts the ionization energy of hydrogen.
The Bohr model did not give a reason for orbit quantization; it was not successful for multielectron atoms; it could not explain why some emission lines are brighter than others; and it
could not explain the fine structure of some very closely spaced spectral lines.

23.

The two main difficulties of the Rutherford model of the atom were that (1) it predicted that light of a
continuous range of frequencies should be emitted by atoms and (2) it predicted that atoms would be
unstable.

24.

It is possible for the de Broglie wavelength ( = h /p ) of a particle to be bigger than the dimension of
the particle. If the particle has a very small mass and a slow speed (like a low-energy electron or
proton), then the wavelength may be larger than the dimension of the particle. It is also possible for the
de Broglie wavelength of a particle to be smaller than the dimension of the particle if it has a large
momentum and a moderate speed (like a baseball). There is no direct connection between the size of a
particle and the size of the de Broglie wavelength of a particle. For example, you could also make the
wavelength of a proton much smaller than the size of the proton by making it go very fast.

25.

Even though hydrogen only has one electron, it still has an infinite number of energy states for that one
electron to occupy, and each line in the spectrum represents a transition between two of those possible
energy levels. So there are many possible spectral lines. And seeing many lines simultaneously would
mean that there would have to be many hydrogen atoms undergoing energy level transitionsa sample
of gas containing many H atoms, for example.

26.

The closely spaced energy levels in Fig. 2729 correspond to the different transitions of electrons from
one energy state to anotherspecifically to those that start from closely packed high energy levels,
perhaps with n = 10 or even higher. When these transitions occur, they emit radiation (photons) that
creates the closely spaced spectral lines shown in Fig. 2724.

27.

On average, the electrons of helium are closer to the nucleus than are the electrons of hydrogen. The nucleus
of helium contains two protons (positive charges) so attracts each electron more strongly than the single
proton in the nucleus of hydrogen. (There is some shielding of the nuclear charge by the other electron,
but each electron still feels an average attractive force of more than one protons worth of charge.)

28.

The Balmer series spectral lines are in the visible light range and could be seen by early experimenters
without special detection equipment. It was only later that the UV (Lyman) and IR (Paschen) regions
were explored thoroughly, using detectors other than human sight.

29.

When a photon is emitted by a hydrogen atom as the electron makes a transition from one energy state
to a lower one, not only does the photon carry away energy and momentum, but to conserve
momentum, the atom must also take away some momentum. If the atom carries away some
momentum, then it must also carry away some of the available energy, which means that the photon
takes away less energy than Eq. 2710 predicts.

30.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

continuous
line, emission
continuous
line, absorption
continuous with absorption lines (like the Sun)

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Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom

31.

27-5

No. At room temperature, virtually all the atoms in a sample of hydrogen gas will be in the ground
state. Thus, the absorption spectrum will contain primarily the Lyman lines, as photons corresponding
to transitions from the n = 1 level to higher levels are absorbed. Hydrogen at very high temperatures
will have atoms in excited states. The electrons in the higher energy levels will fall to all lower energy
levels, not just the n = 1 level. Therefore, emission lines corresponding to transitions to levels higher
than n = 1 will be present as well as the Lyman lines. In general, you would expect to see only Lyman
lines in the absorption spectrum of room temperature hydrogen, but you would find Lyman, Balmer,
Paschen, and other lines in the emission spectrum of high-temperature hydrogen.

Responses to MisConceptual Questions


1.

(b)

A common misconception is that the maximum wavelength increases as the temperature


increases. However, the temperature and maximum wavelength are inversely proportional.
As the temperature increases, the intensity increases and the wavelength decreases.

2.

(a)

A higher work function requires more energy per photon to release the electrons. Blue light has
the shortest wavelength and therefore the largest energy per photon.

3.

(b)

The blue light has a shorter wavelength and therefore more energy per photon. Since the beams
have the same intensity (energy per unit time per unit area), the red light will have more photons.

4.

(d)

A common misconception is that violet light has more energy than red light. However, the
energy is the product of the energy per photon and the number of photons. A single photon of
violet light has more energy than a single photon of red light, but if a beam of red light has more
photons than the beam of violet light, then the red light could have more energy.

5.

(d)

The energy of the photon E is equal to the sum of the work function of the metal and the kinetic
energy of the released photons. If the energy of the photon is more than double the work
function, then cutting the photon energy in half will still allow electrons to be emitted. However,
if the work function is more than half of the photon energy, then no electrons would be emitted if
the photon energy were cut in half.

6.

(b)

The momentum of a photon is inversely proportional to its wavelength. Therefore, doubling the
momentum would cut the wavelength in half.

7.

(d)

A commons misconception is that only light behaves as both a particle and a wave. De Broglie
postulated, and experiments have confirmed, that in addition to light, electrons and protons (and
many other particles) have both wave and particle properties that can be observed or measured.

8.

(d)

A thrown baseball has a momentum on the order of 1 kg m/s. The wavelength of the baseball is
Plancks constant divided by the momentum. Due to the very small size of Plancks constant, the
wavelength of the baseball would be much smaller than the size of a nucleus.

9.

(d)

This Chapter demonstrates the wave-particle duality of light and matter. Both electrons and
photons have momentum that is related to their wavelength by p = h / . Youngs double-slit
experiment demonstrated diffraction with light, and later experiments demonstrated electron
diffraction. Therefore, all three statements are correct.

10.

(a, c, d) Alpha particles are positive. To produce large angle scattering, the nucleus of the atom would
have to repel the alpha particle. Thus the nucleus must be positive. If the nuclear charge was
spread out over a large area, then there would be more small-angle scattering but insufficient

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27-6

Chapter 27

force to create large-angle scattering. With a small nucleus, large scattering forces are possible.
Since most of the alpha particles pass through the foil undeflected, most of the atom must be
empty space. The scattering does not require quantized charge, but it would be possible with a
continuous charge distribution. Therefore, answer (b) is incorrect.
11.

(d)

A photon is emitted when the electron transitions from a higher state to a lower state. Photons are
not emitted when an electron transitions from 2 5 or from 5 8. The other two transitions
are to states that are three states below the original state. The energy levels change more rapidly
for lower values of n, so the 5 2 transition will have a higher energy and therefore a shorter
wavelength than the 8 5 transition.

12.

(b)

The lowest energy cannot be zero, if zero energy has been defined as when the electron and
proton are infinitely far away. As the electron and proton approach each other, their potential
energy decreases. The energy levels are quantized and therefore cannot be any value. As shown
in the text after Eq. 2715b, the lowest energy level of the hydrogen atom is 13.6 eV.

13.

(d)

The current model of the atom is the quantum mechanical model. The plum-pudding model was
rejected, as it did not explain Rutherford scattering. The Rutherford atom was rejected, as it did
not explain the spectral lines emitted from atoms. The Bohr atom did not explain fine structure.
Each of these phenomena are explained by the quantum mechanical model.

14.

(a)

Light is a massless particle. Even though it has no mass, it transports energy and therefore has
kinetic energy and momentum. Light is also a wave with frequency and wavelength.

Solutions to Problems
In several problems, the value of hc is needed. We often use the result of Problem 29, hc = 1240 eV nm.
1.

This scenario fits the experiment that results in Eq. 271.

e
E
(640 V/m)
= 2 =
= 6.2 104 C/kg
m rB
(14 103 m)(0.86 T) 2
2.

(a)

The velocity relationship is given right before Eq. 271 in the text.

=
(b)

For the radius of the path in the magnetic field, use an expression derived in Example 206.
r=

3.

E (1.88 104 V/m)


=
= 7.23 106 m/s
3
B
(2.60 10 T)

m (9.111031 kg)(7.23 106 m/s)


=
= 1.58 102 m = 1.58 cm
qB
(1.60 1019 C)(2.90 103 T)

The force from the electric field must balance the weight, and the electric field is the potential
difference divided by the plate separation.
qE = ne

V
= mg
d

n=

dmg (1.0 102 m)(2.8 1015 kg)(9.80 m/s 2 )


=
= 5.04 5 electrons
eV
(1.60 1019 C)(340 V)

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Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom

4.

Use Wiens law, Eq. 272, to find the temperature.


T=

5.

6.

7.

27-7

(2.90 103 m K)

(2.90 103 m K)
(520 109 m)

= 5577 K 5600 K

Use Wiens law, Eq. 272.


(a)

P =

(2.90 103 m K) (2.90 103 m K)


=
= 1.06 105 m = 10.6 m, far infrared
T
(273 K)

(b)

P =

(2.90 103 m K) (2.90 103 m K)


=
= 9.354107 m 940 nm, near infrared
T
(3100 K)

(c)

P =

(2.90 103 m K) (2.90 103 m K)


=
= 7.25 104 m 0.7 mm, microwave
T
(4 K)

Use Weins law, Eq. 272.


(2.90 103 m K)

(a)

T=

(b)

P =

(2.90 103 m K)
(18.0 10

m)

= 1.61 105 K

(2.90 103 m.K) (2.90 103 m K)


=
= 1.318 106 m 1.3 m
T
(2200 K)

Because the energy is quantized according to Eq. 273, the difference in energy between adjacent
levels is simply E = hf .
E = hf = (6.63 1034 J s)(8.11013 Hz) = 5.37 1020 J 5.4 1020 J

1 eV
5.37 1020 J
1.60 1019

8.

9.

The potential energy is quantized in units of mgh.


(a)

PE1

= mgh = (62.0 kg)(9.80 m/s 2 )(0.200 m) = 121.52 J 122 J

(b)

PE 2

= mg 2h = 2PE1 = 2(121.52 J) = 243 J

(c)

PE 3

= mg 3h = 3PE1 = 3(121.52 J) = 365 J

(d)

PE n

= mgnh = nPE1 = n(121.52 J) = (122n) J

(e)

E = PE 2 PE 6 = (2 6)(121.52 J) = 486 J

Use Eq. 272 with a temperature of 98F = 37C = (273 + 37)K = 310 K (3 significant figures).

P =
10.

= 0.34 eV
J

(2.90 103 m K) (2.90 103 m K)


=
= 9.35 106 m = 9.35 m
T
(310 K)

We use Eq. 274 to find the energy of the photons.


E = hf = (6.626 1034 J s)(91.7 106 Hz) = 6.08 1026 J

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27-8

11.

Chapter 27

We use Eq. 274 along with the fact that f = c / for light. The longest wavelength will have the
lowest energy.
E1 = hf1 =

E2 = hf 2 =

hc

1
hc

(6.63 1034 J s)(3.00 108 m/s)

(400 10

m)

1 eV
= 4.97 1019 J
1.60 1019

(6.63 1034 J s)(3.00 108 m/s)


(750 109 m)

1 eV
= 2.65 1019 J
1.60 1019

= 3.11 eV
J

= 1.66 eV
J

Thus the range of energies is 2.7 1019 J < E < 5.0 1019 J , or 1.7 eV < E < 3.1 eV .
12.

Use Eq. 274 with the fact that f = c / for light.

c hc (6.63 1034 J s)(3.00 108 m/s)


=
=
= 3.88 1012 m 3.9 103 nm
f
E (1.60 1019 J/eV)(320 103 eV)

Significant diffraction occurs when the opening is on the order of the wavelength. Thus there would be
insignificant diffraction through the doorway.
13.

Use Eq. 276.


p=

14.

16.

(6.63 1034 J s)
(5.80 107 m)

= 1.14 1027 kg m/s

The momentum of the photon is found from Eq. 276.


p=

15.

(6.63 1034 J s)
(0.014 10

m)

= 4.7 1023 kg m/s

Particle Theory

Wave Theory

(1) If the light intensity is increased, the


number of electrons ejected should increase.

(1) If the light intensity is increased, the number


of electrons ejected should increase.

(2) If the light intensity is increased, the


maximum kinetic energy of the electrons ejected
should not increase.

(2) If the light intensity is increased, the


maximum kinetic energy of the electrons ejected
should increase.

(3) If the frequency of the light is increased, the


maximum kinetic energy of the electrons should
increase.

(3) If the frequency of the light is increased, the


maximum kinetic energy of the electrons should
not be affected.

(4) There is a cutoff frequency, below which


no electrons will be ejected, no matter how
intense the light.

(4) There should be no lower limit to the


frequencyelectrons will be ejected for all
frequencies.

We use Eq. 274 with the fact that f = c / for light.


Emin = hf min

f min =

Emin (0.1eV)(1.60 1019 J/eV)


=
= 2.41 1013 Hz 2 1013 Hz
h
(6.63 1034 J s)

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Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom

max =
17.

f min

= hf min W0 = 0

f min =

W0
4.8 1019 J
=
= 7.2 1014 Hz
34
h
6.63 10
J s

n=

Emin Emin
(1018 J)(550 109 m)
=
=
= 2.77 3 photons
hf
hc
(6.63 10234 J s)(3.00 108 m/s)

The longest wavelength corresponds to the minimum frequency. That occurs when the kinetic energy
of the ejected electrons is 0. Use Eq. 275a.
KE

= hf min W0 = 0

max =
20.

= 1.24 105 m 1 105 m

We divide the minimum energy by the photon energy at 550 nm to find the number of photons.
E = nhf = Emin

19.

(2.41 1013 Hz)

At the minimum frequency, the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons is 0. Use Eq. 275a.
KE

18.

(3.00 108 m/s)

27-9

f min =

max

W0
h

ch (3.00 108 m/s)(6.63 1034 J s)


=
= 4.29 107 m = 429 nm
19
W0
(2.90 eV)(1.60 10
J/eV)

The photon of visible light with the maximum energy has the least wavelength. We use 400 nm as the
lowest wavelength of visible light and calculate the energy for that wavelength.
hf max =

hc

min

(6.63 1034 J s)(3.00 108 m/s)


(1.60 1019 J/eV)(400 109 m)

= 3.11 eV

Electrons will not be emitted if this energy is less than the work function.
The metals with work functions greater than 3.11 eV are copper and iron.
21.

(a)

At the threshold wavelength, the kinetic energy of the photoelectrons is zero, so the work
function is equal to the energy of the photon.
W0 = hf KE max = hf =

(b)

1240 eV nm
= 2.255 eV 2.3 eV
550 nm

The stopping voltage is the voltage that gives a potential energy change equal to the maximum
kinetic energy. We use Eq. 275b to calculate the maximum kinetic energy.
KE max

= hf W0 =

V0 =

22.

hc

KE max

hc

W0 =

1240 eV nm
2.255 eV = 0.845 eV
400 nm

0.845 eV
0.85 V
e

The photon of visible light with the maximum energy has the minimum wavelength. We use Eq. 275b
to calculate the maximum kinetic energy.
KE max

= hf W0 =

hc

W0 =

1240 eV nm
2.48 eV = 0.62 eV
400 nm

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27-10

23.

Chapter 27

We use Eq. 275b to calculate the maximum kinetic energy. Since the kinetic energy is much less than
the rest energy, we use the classical definition of kinetic energy to calculate the speed.
KE max

= hf W0 =

KE max

= 12 m 2

hc

W0 =

1240 eV nm
2.48 eV = 0.92 eV
365 nm

2KE max
=
m

2(0.92 eV)(1.60 1019 J/eV)


9.11 1031 kg

= 5.7 105 m/s

This speed is only about 0.2% of the speed of light, so the classical kinetic energy formula is correct.
24.

We use Eq. 275b to calculate the work function.


W0 = hf KE max =

25.

KE max =

1240 eV nm
1.40 eV = 3.46 eV
255 nm

Electrons emitted from photons at the threshold wavelength have no kinetic energy. Use Eq. 275b
with the threshold wavelength to determine the work function.
W0 =

(a)

hc

KE max =

(b)

hc

max

1240 eV nm
= 3.647 eV
340 nm

Now use Eq. 275b again with the work function determined above to calculate the kinetic
energy of the photoelectrons emitted by 280-nm light.
KE max

26.

hc

hc

W0 =

1240 eV nm
3.647 eV 0.78 eV
280 nm

Because the wavelength is greater than the threshold wavelength, the photon energy is less than
the work function, so there will be no ejected electrons.

The energy required for the chemical reaction is provided by the photon. We use Eq. 274 for the
energy of the photon, where f = c / .
E = hf =

hc

1240 eV nm
= 1.968 eV 2.0 eV
630 nm

Each reaction takes place in a molecule, so we use the appropriate conversions to convert eV/molecule
to kcal/mol.
19
1.968 eV 1.60 10
E =

eV
molecule

27.

J 6.02 10 23 molecules kcal




= 45 kcal/mol
mol

4186 J

The stopping voltage is the voltage that gives a potential energy change equal to the maximum kinetic
energy of the photoelectrons. We use Eq. 275b to calculate the work function, where the maximum
kinetic energy is the product of the stopping voltage and electron charge.
W0 =

hc

KE max =

hc

eV0 =

1240 eV nm
(1.64 V)e = 3.32 eV
250 nm

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Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom

27-11

29.

We plot the maximum (kinetic) energy


of the emitted electrons vs. the
frequency of the incident radiation.
Eq. 275b says KE max = hf W0 .
The best-fit straight line is determined
by linear regression in Excel. The
slope of the best-fit straight line to the
data should give Plancks constant,
the x-intercept is the cutoff frequency,
and the y-intercept is the opposite of
the work function.

2.5

E = 0.4157 f - 2.3042

2.0

R = 0.9999

1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
6.0

7.0

8.0

(b)

hf cutoff = W0

(c)

W0 = 2.3 eV

f cutoff =

10.0

11.0

12.0

14

h = (0.4157 eV/1014 Hz)(1.60 1019 J/eV) = 6.7 1034 J s

9.0

Frequency (10 Hz)

(a)

W0
2.3042 eV
=
= 5.5 1014 Hz
h
(0.4157 eV/1014 Hz)

Since f = c / , the energy of each emitted photon is E = hc / . We insert the values for h and c and
convert the resulting units to eV nm.
E=

30.

Energy (eV)

3.0

28.

hc

(6.626 1034 J s)(2.998 108 m/s) (1 eV/1.602 1019 J)

(10

m/1 nm)

1240 eV nm
(in nm)

Use Eq. 277.

= +

h
h
(1 cos ) =
(1 cos )
me c
me c

= cos 1 1

me c
h

(9.11 1031 kg)(3.00 108 m/s)(1.7 1013 m)


= cos 1 1
= 21.58 22

(6.63 1034 J s)

31.

The Compton wavelength for a particle of mass m is h /mc.


(a)

h
(6.63 1034 J s)
=
= 2.43 1012 m
me c (9.11 1031 kg)(3.00 108 m/s)

(b)

h
(6.63 1034 J s)
=
= 1.32 1015 m
mp c (1.67 1027 kg)(3.00 108 m/s)

(c)

The energy of the photon is given by Eq. 274.


Ephoton = hf =

hc

hc
= mc 2 = rest energy
(h /mc)

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27-12

32.

Chapter 27

We find the Compton wavelength shift for a photon scattered from an electron, using Eq. 277.
The Compton wavelength of a free electron is calculated in Problem 31 above.
h
3
(1 cos ) = C (1 cos ) = (2.43 10 nm)(1 cos )
me c

33.

(a)

a = (2.43 103 nm)(1 cos 45) = 7.12 104 nm

(b)

b = (2.43 103 nm)(1 cos 90) = 2.43 103 nm

(c)

c = (2.43 103 nm)(1 cos180) = 4.86 103 nm

The photon energy must be equal to the kinetic energy of the products plus the mass energy of the
products. The mass of the positron is equal to the mass of the electron.
Ephoton = KE products + mproducts c 2
KE products

34.

= Ephoton mproducts c = Ephoton 2melectron c 2 = 3.64 MeV 2(0.511 MeV) = 2.62 MeV

The photon with the longest wavelength has the minimum energy in order to create the masses with no
additional kinetic energy. Use Eq. 276.

max =

(6.63 1034 J s)
hc
hc
h
=
=
=
= 6.62 1016 m
2
27
8

Emin 2mc
2mc 2(1.67 10
kg)(3.00 10 m/s)

This must take place in the presence of some other object in order for momentum to be conserved.
35.

The minimum energy necessary is equal to the rest energy of the two muons.
Emin = 2mc 2 = 2(207)(0.511 MeV) = 212 MeV

The wavelength is given by Eq. 276.

=
36.

hc (6.63 1034 J s)(3.00 108 m/s)


=
= 5.86 1015 m
E (1.60 1019 J/eV)(212 106 eV)

Since = 0.001c, the total energy of the particles is essentially equal to their rest energy. The particles
have the same rest energy of 0.511 MeV. Since the total momentum is 0, each photon must have half
the available energy and equal momenta.
Ephoton = melectron c 2 = 0.511 MeV ;

37.

pphoton =

Ephoton
c

= 0.511 MeV/c

The energy of the photon is equal to the total energy of the two particles produced. The particles have
the same kinetic energy and the same mass.
Ephoton = 2(KE + mc 2 ) = 2(0.285 MeV + 0.511 MeV) = 1.592 MeV

The wavelength is found from Eq. 276.

hc
(6.63 1034 J s)(3.00 108 m/s)
=
= 7.81 1013 m
E (1.60 1019 J/eV)(1.592 106 eV)

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Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom

38.

We find the wavelength from Eq. 278.

=
39.

h
h
(6.63 1034 J s)
=
=
= 3.2 1032 m
p m (0.21 kg)(0.10 m/s)

The neutron is not relativistic, so use p = m . Also use Eq. 278.

=
40.

27-13

h
h
(6.63 1034 J s)
=
=
= 4.7 1012 m
p m (1.67 1027 kg)(8.5 104 m/s)

We assume that the electron is nonrelativistic, and check that with the final answer. We use Eq. 278.

h
h
=
p m

h
(6.63 1034 J s)
=
= 2.695 106 m/s = 0.0089c
m (9.11 1031 kg)(0.27 109 m)

The use of classical expressions is justified. The kinetic energy is equal to the potential energy change.
eV = KE = 12 m 2 =

1 (9.11 10 31
2

kg)(2.695 106 m/s) 2

(1.60 1019 J/eV)

= 20.7 eV

Thus the required potential difference is 21 V.


41.

Since the particles are not relativistic, we may use KE = p 2 /2m. We then form the ratio of the kinetic
energies, using Eq. 278.
KE

42.

(a)

p2
h2
=
;
2m 2m 2

h 2 /2me 2
h 2 /2mp 2

mp
me

1.67 1027 kg
9.11 1031 kg

= 1840

6.63 1034 J s
4.5 1010 m

= 1.5 1024 kg m/s

We assume the speed is nonrelativistic.

=
(c)

KE p

We find the momentum from Eq. 278.


p=

(b)

KE e

h
h
=
p m

h
6.63 1034 J s
=
= 1.6 106 m/s
m (9.11 1031 kg)(4.5 1010 m)

We calculate the kinetic energy classically.


KE

= 12 m 2 = 12 (mc 2 )( /c )2 = 12 (0.511 MeV)(5.39 103 ) 2 = 7.43 10 6 MeV = 7.43 eV

This is the energy gained by an electron if accelerated through a potential difference of 7.4 V.
43.

Because all of the energies to be considered are much less than the rest energy of an electron, we can
use nonrelativistic relationships. We use Eq. 278 to calculate the wavelength.
KE

p2
2m

p = 2m(KE ); =

h
=
p

h
2m(KE )

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27-14

Chapter 27

(a)

(b)

(c)

44.

2m(KE )
h

2(9.11 10

2(9.11 10

kg)(10 eV)(1.60 10

31

kg)(100 eV)(1.60 10

2(9.11 10

31

h
=
p

J/eV)

19

= 3.88 1010 m 4 1010 m

J/eV)

kg)(1.0 10 eV)(1.60 10

Since the particles are not relativistic, use


Eq. 278.

19

= 1.23 1010 m 1 1010 m

6.63 1034 J s

2m(KE )

31

6.63 1034 J s

2m(KE )

6.63 1034 J s

h
2mKE

p
e

KE

h
2mp KE

h
2me KE

19

J/eV)

= 3.9 1011 m

= p 2 /2m. Form the ratio of the wavelengths, using

me
<1
mp

Thus the proton has the shorter wavelength, since me < mp .


45.

The final KE of the electron equals the negative change in its PE as it passes through the potential
difference. Compare this energy to the electrons rest energy to determine if it is relativistic.
KE

= qV = (1 e)(35 103 V) = 35 103 eV

Because this is greater than 1% of the electron rest energy, the electron is relativistic. We use Eq. 269
to determine the electron momentum and then Eq.276 to determine the wavelength.
E 2 = [ KE + mc 2 ]2 = p 2 c 2 + m 2 c 4

h
=
p

hc
KE

Because
46.

+ 2( KE )mc

p=
3

+ 2(KE )mc 2
c
1240 eV nm

KE

(35 10 eV) + 2(35 10 eV)(511 10 eV)

= 6.4 103 nm

5 cm, diffraction effects are negligible.

For diffraction, the wavelength must be on the order of the opening. Find the speed from Eq. 278.

h
h
=
p m

h
(6.63 1034 J s)
=
= 3.9 1038 m/s
m (1400 kg)(12 m)

This is on the order of 1039 times ordinary highway speeds.


47.

We relate the kinetic energy to the momentum with a classical relationship, since the electrons are
nonrelativistic. We also use Eq. 278. We then assume that the kinetic energy was acquired by
electrostatic potential energy.
KE

V=

p2
h2
=
= eV
2m 2m 2
h2

2me 2

(6.63 1034 J s) 2
2(9.11 1031 kg)(1.60 1019 C)(0.26 109 m) 2

= 22 V

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Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom

48.

27-15

The kinetic energy is 2850 eV. That is small enough compared to the rest energy of the electron for the
electron to be nonrelativistic. We use Eq. 278.

h
h
hc
(6.63 1034 J s) (3.00 108 m/s)
=
=
=
1/2
2
1/2
p (2mKE )
(2mc KE )
(1.60 1019 J/eV)[2(0.511106 eV)(2850 eV)]1/2

= 2.30 1011 m = 23.0 pm

49.

The energy of a level is En =


(a)

(13.6 eV)
n2

, from Eq. 2715b for Z = 1.

The transition from n = 1 to n = 3 is an absorption, because the final state, n = 3, has a higher
energy. The photon energy is the difference between the energies of the two states.
1 1
hf = En En = (13.6 eV) 2 2 = 12.1 eV
3 1

(b)

The transition from n = 6 to n = 2 is an emission, because the initial state, n = 2, has a higher
energy. The photon energy is the difference between the energies of the two states.
1 1
hf = ( En En ) = (13.6 eV) 2 2 = 3.0 eV
2 6

(c)

The transition from n = 4 to n = 5 is an absorption, because the final state, n = 5, has a higher
energy. The photon energy is the difference between the energies of the two states.
1 1
hf = En En = (13.6 eV) 2 2 = 0.31 eV
5 4

The photon for the transition from n = 1 to n = 3 has the largest energy.
50.

Ionizing the atom means removing the electron, or raising it to zero energy.
Eionization = 0 En = 0

(13.6 eV)
n

(13.6 eV)
32

= 1.51 eV

hc

51.

From E =

52.

Doubly ionized lithium is similar to hydrogen, except that there are three positive charges ( Z = 3) in
the nucleus. Use Eq. 2715b with Z = 3.

, we see that the second longest wavelength comes from the transition with the second

smallest energy: n = 5 to n = 3 .

En = 2
Eionization

Z 2 (13.6 eV)
n

=2

32 (13.6 eV)
2

n
(122 eV)
= 0 E1 = 0
= 122 eV
(1) 2

(122 eV)
n2

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27-16

53.

Chapter 27

We use Eq. 2710 and Eq. 2715b. Note that E1 , E2 , and E3 are calculated in the textbook. We also
need E4 =
(a)

(13.6 eV)

= 0.54 eV.

hc
1240 eV nm
=
= 486 nm
( E4 E2 ) [0.85 eV (3.40 eV)]

hc
1240 eV nm
=
= 103 nm
( E3 E1 ) [1.51 eV (13.6 eV)]

The third Balmer line is the transition from n = 5 to n = 2.

=
54.

52

The second Lyman line is the transition from n = 3 to n = 1.

=
(c)

(13.6 eV)

The second Balmer line is the transition from n = 4 to n = 2.

=
(b)

= 0.85 eV and E5 =

hc
1240 eV nm
=
= 434 nm
( E5 E2 ) [0.54 eV ( 3.40 eV)]

We evaluate the Rydberg constant using Eq. 279 and 2716. We use hydrogen so Z = 1. We also
1
.
substitute k =
4 0

1
1 2 2 Z 2 e 4 mk 2 1
1
= R

=
2

2
2
3
2

( n)
hc
(n)
( n) ( n)
2 2 Z 2 e 4 mk 2 2 2 Z 2 e 4 m
=
R=
16 2 02 h3c
h3c
1

(1) 2 (1.602176 1019 C) 4 (9.109382 1031 kg)


8(8.854188 1012 C 2 /N m 2 ) 2 (6.626069 1034 J s)3 (2.997925 108 m/s)

= 1.097361 107

55.

hc 1240 eV nm
=
= 91.2 nm
13.6 eV
Eion

The energy of the photon is the sum of the ionization energy of 13.6 eV and the kinetic energy of 11.5 eV.
The wavelength is found from Eq. 274.
hf =

57.

C
J 3s3 m/s
N 2 m4

1.0974 107 m 1

The longest wavelength corresponds to the minimum energy, which is the ionization energy.

=
56.

C 4 kg
4

hc

= Etotal

hc
1240 eV nm
=
= 49.4 nm
Etotal
25.1 eV

Singly ionized helium is like hydrogen, except that there are two positive charges ( Z = 2) in the
nucleus. Use Eq. 2715b.
En =

Z 2 (13.6 eV)
n

22 (13.6 eV)
n

(54.4 eV)
n2

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Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom

27-17

We find the energy of the photon from the n = 5 to n = 2 transition in singly ionized helium.
1 1
E = E5 E2 = (54.4 eV) 2 2 = 12.1 eV
6 2

Because this is the energy difference for the n = 1 to n = 3 transition in hydrogen, the photon can be
absorbed by a hydrogen atom which will jump from n = 1 to n = 3 .
58.

Singly ionized helium is like hydrogen, except that there are two
positive charges ( Z = 2) in the nucleus. Use Eq. 2715b.
En = 2

Z 2 (13.6 eV)
2

22 (13.6 eV)
2

(54.4 eV)

n
n
n2
E1 = 54.5 eV, E2 = 13.6 eV, E3 = 6.0 eV, E4 = 3.4 eV,
E5 = 2.2 eV, E6 = 1.5 eV,

59.

Doubly ionized lithium is like hydrogen, except that there are


three positive charges ( Z = 3) in the nucleus. The square of the
product of the positive and negative charges appears in the
energy term for the energy levels. We can use the results for
hydrogen, if we replace e2 with Ze2 :
En =

Z 2 (13.6 eV)

32 (13.6 eV)

(122.4 eV)

7.65
13.6
30.6

n2
n2
n2
E1 = 122 eV, E2 = 30.6 eV, E3 = 13.6 eV,
E4 = 7.65 eV, E5 = 4.90 eV, E6 = 3.40 eV,

60.

The potential energy for the ground state is given by the charge
of the electron times the electric potential caused by the proton.
PE

= (e)Vproton = (e)

122

e
(9.00 109 N m 2 /C 2 )(1.60 1019 C) 2 (1 eV/1.60 1019 J)
=
4 0 r1
(0.529 1010 m)
1

= 27.2 eV

The kinetic energy is the total energy minus the potential energy.
KE

61.

= E1 PE = 13.6 eV (27.2 eV) = +13.6 eV

The angular momentum can be used to find the quantum number for the orbit, and then the energy can
be found from the quantum number. Use Eqs. 2711 and 2715b.
L=n

h
2

n=

En = (13.6 eV)

Z2
n

2 L 2 (5.273 1034 kg m 2 /s )
=
= 5.000 5
h
(6.626 1034 J s)

13.6 eV
= 0.544 eV
25

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27-18

62.

Chapter 27

The value of n is found from rn = n 2 r1 , and then the energy can be found from Eq. 2715b.
rn = n 2 r1
E=

63.

rn
1.00 102 m
=
= 13, 749 13, 700
r1
0.529 1010 m

n=

(13.6 eV)
n

(13.6 eV)
(13, 749)

= 7.19 108 eV

The velocity is found from Eq. 2711 evaluated for n = 1.


m rn =

=
Since

nh
2

h
(6.63 1034 J s)
=
= 2.190 106 m/s = 7.30 103 c
2 r1me 2 ( 0.529 1010 m )(9.11 1031 kg )

c, we say yes , nonrelativistic formulas are justified. The relativistic factor is as follows.
2

1 /c 1

1 ( 2 /c 2 )
2

1 2.190 10

2
8

m/s
5
= 1
= 1 2.66 10 0.99997
.

3
00
10
m/s

We see that 1 2 /c 2 is essentially 1. Yes, nonrelativistic formulas are justified.


64.

The electrostatic potential energy is given by Eq. 172a. Note that the charge is negative. The kinetic
energy is given by the total energy, Eq. 2715a, minus the potential energy. The Bohr radius is given
by Eq. 2712.
PE

KE

65.

= eV =

Ze 2
1 Ze 2 mZe 2
Z 2 e4 m
=
= 2 2 2
2 2
4 0 rn
4 0 n h 0
4n h 0
1

= E PE =

Z 2e 4 m Z 2 e 4 m Z 2 e 4 m
;

=
8 02 h 2 n 2 4n 2 h 2 02 8n 2 h 2 02

PE
KE

Z 2 e4 m
4n 2 h 2 2
Z 2 e 4 m 8n 2 h 2 2
= 2 4 0 = 2 2 2 2 4 0 = 2
Z em
4n h 0 Z e m
8n 2 h 2 02

When we compare the gravitational and electric forces, we see that we can use the same expression for
the Bohr orbits, Eq. 2712 and 2715a, if we replace kZe2 with Gme mp .
r1 =
r1 =

h 2 0

4 2 me kZe2
h2
4 2 Gme2 mp

(6.626 1034 J s) 2
4 2 (6.67 1011 N m 2 /kg 2 )(9.11 1031 kg) 2 (1.67 1027 kg)

= 1.20 1029 m
E1 =
=

2 2 Z 2 e 4 me k 2
h2

= (kZe 2 ) 2

2 2 me
h2

E1 =

2 2 G 2 me3 mp 2
h2

2 2 (6.67 1011 N m 2 /kg 2 ) 2 (9.111031 kg)3 (1.67 1027 kg) 2


(6.626 1034 J s) 2

= 4.22 1097 J

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Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom

66.

Find the peak wavelength from Wiens law, Eq. 272.

P =
67.

(2.90 103 m K) (2.90 103 m K)


=
= 1.1 103 m = 1.1 mm
T
(2.7 K)

To produce a photoelectron, the hydrogen atom must be ionized, so the minimum energy of the photon
is 13.6 eV. We find the minimum frequency of the photon from Eq. 274.
E = hf

68.

d=

p2
h2
=
2m 2m 2
2sin 2mKE

f min =

Emin (13.6 eV)(1.60 1019 J/eV)


=
= 3.28 1015 Hz
h
(6.63 1034 J s)

2mKE

= 2d sin

(6.63 1034 J s)
2(sin 38) 2(9.1110

31

kg)(72 eV)(1.60 10

19

J/eV)

= 1.2 1010 m

The power rating is the energy produced per second. If this is divided by the energy per photon, then
the result is the number of photons produced per second. Use Eq. 274.
hc

P
Ephoton

P
(720 W)(12.2 102 m)
=
= 4.4 1026 photons/s
hc (6.63 1034 J s)(3.00 108 m/s)

The intensity is the amount of energy per second per unit area reaching the Earth. If that intensity is
divided by the energy per photon, then the result will be the photons per second per unit area reaching
the Earth. We use Eq. 274.
Ephoton = hf =
I photons =

71.

E
h

Ephoton = hf =

70.

f =

From Section 2511, the spacing between planes, d, for the first-order peaks is given by Eq. 2510,
= 2d sin . The wavelength of the electrons can be found from their kinetic energy. The electrons
are not relativistic at the given energy.
KE

69.

27-19

hc

Isunlight
Ephoton

Isunlight
hc

(1300 W/m2 )(550 109 m)


(6.63 10

34

J s)(3.00 10 m/s)

= 3.595 1021 3.6 1021

photons
s m2

The impulse on the wall is due to the change in momentum of the photons. Each photon is absorbed, so
its entire momentum is transferred to the wall.
Fon wall t = pwall = pphotons = (0 npphoton ) = npphoton =

nh

n F (5.8 109 N)(633 109 m)


=
=
= 5.5 1018 photons/s
t
h
(6.63 1034 J s)

72.

As light leaves the flashlight, it gains momentum. The momentum change is given by Eq. 229a.
Dividing the momentum change by the elapsed time gives the force the flashlight must apply to the
light to produce the momentum, which is equal to the force that the light applies to the flashlight.
p U P
2.5 W
=
= =
= 8.3 109 N
t ct c 3.00 108 m/s

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27-20

73.

Chapter 27

(a)

Since f = c / , the photon energy is E = hc / and the largest wavelength has the smallest
energy. In order to eject electrons for all possible incident visible light, the metals work function
must be less than or equal to the energy of a 750-nm photon. Thus the maximum value for the
metals work function W0 is found by setting the work function equal to the energy of the 750-nm
photon.
W0 =

(b)

(a)

(6.63 1034 J s)(3.00 108 m/s)


1 eV

9
19
(750 10 m)
1.60 10

= 1.7 eV
J

If the photomultiplier is to function only for incident wavelengths less than 410 nm, then we set
the work function equal to the energy of the 410-nm photon.
W0 =

74.

hc

hc

(6.63 1034 J s)(3.00 108 m/s)


1 eV

9
19
(410 10 m)
1.60 10

= 3.0 eV
J

Calculate the energy from the lightbulb that enters the eye by calculating the intensity of the light
at a distance of = 1.0 m by dividing the power in the visible spectrum by the surface area of a
sphere of radius = 1.0 m. Multiply the intensity of the light by the area of the pupil (diameter = D)
to determine the energy entering the eye per second. Divide this energy by the energy of a
photon (Eq. 274) to calculate the number of photons entering the eye per second.
I=

P
4

Pe = I ( D 2 /4) =

P D

16

2
4.0 103 m
P
0.030(100 W)(550 109 m)
P D
=
n= e =


hc / 16hc
16(6.626 1034 J s)(3.00 108 m/s) 1.0 m

= 8.3 1012 photons/s

(b)

Repeat the above calculation for a distance of


I=
n=

P
4

Pe = I ( D 2 /4) =

P D

16

= 1.0 km instead of 1.0 m.


2

2
4.0 103 m
Pe
P D
0.030(100 W)(550 109 m)
=
=


hc / 16hc
16(6.626 1034 J s)(3.00 108 m/s) 1.0 103 m

= 8.3 106 photons/s

75.

The total energy of the two photons must equal the total energy (kinetic energy plus mass energy) of
the two particles. The total momentum of the photons is 0, so the momentum of the particles must have
been equal and opposite. Since both particles have the same mass and had the same initial momentum,
they each had the same initial kinetic energy.
Ephotons = Eparticles = 2(me c 2 + KE )
KE

76.

= 12 Ephotons me c 2 = 0.85 MeV 0.511 MeV = 0.34 MeV

We calculate the required momentum from de Broglies relation, Eq. 2778.


p=

(6.63 1034 J s)
(4.0 1012 m)

= 1.658 1022 kg m/s

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Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom

(a)

(b)

27-21

For the proton, we use the classical definition of momentum to determine its speed and kinetic
energy. We divide the kinetic energy by the charge of the proton to determine the required
potential difference.

p 1.658 1022 kg m/s


=
= 9.93 105 m/s 0.01c
27
m
1.67 10
kg

V=

K m 2 (1.67 1027 kg)(9.93 105 m/s) 2


=
=
= 51 V
2e
e
2(1.60 1019 C)

For the electron, if we divide the momentum by the electron mass we obtain a speed that is about
60% of the speed of light. Therefore, we must use Eq. 269 to determine the energy of the
electron. We then subtract the rest energy from the total energy to determine the kinetic energy
of the electron. Finally, we divide the kinetic energy by the electron charge to calculate the
potential difference.
1

E = [( pc) 2 + (mc 2 ) 2 ] 2
1

= [(1.658 10 22 kg m/s) 2 (3.00 108 m/s) 2 + (9.11 10 31 kg) 2 (3.00 108 m/s) 4 ] 2
= 9.950 10 14 J
KE

= E mc 2 = 9.950 1014 J (9.11 1031 kg)(3.00 108 m/s) 2 = 1.391 10 14 J

V=

77.

KE

1.391 1014 J
= 86,925 V 87 kV
1.60 1019 C

If we ignore the recoil motion, then at the closest approach the kinetic energy of both particles is zero.
The potential energy of the two charges must equal the initial kinetic energy of the particle.
KE

=U =

rmin =

( Z e)( Z Ag e)

4 0

rmin

( Z e)( Z Ag e)

4 0

KE

(9.00 109 N m 2 /C 2 )(2)(79)(1.60 1019 C) 2


(4.8 MeV)(1.60 1013 J/MeV)

= 4.74 1014 m

The distance to the surface of the gold nucleus is then 4.74 1014 m 7.0 1015 m = 4.0 1014 m .
78.

The decrease in mass occurs because a photon has been emitted. We calculate the fractional change.
Since we are told to find the amount of decrease, we use the opposite of the change.
1 1
E
(13.6 eV) 2 2

2
m c E
1 3 = 1.29 108
=
=
=
2
m
m
(939 106 eV)
mc

79.

We calculate the ratio of the forces.


Fgravitational
Felectric

Gme mp

r 2 Gme mp (6.67 1011 N m 2 /kg 2 )(9.11 1031 kg)(1.67 1027 kg)


=
=
=
ke 2
(9.00 109 N m 2 /C2 )(1.60 1019 C) 2
ke 2
2
r
= 4.40 1040

Yes, the gravitational force may be safely ignored.


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27-22

80.

81.

Chapter 27

The potential difference gives the electrons a kinetic energy of 12.3 eV, so it is possible to provide this
much energy to the hydrogen atom through collisions. From the ground state, the maximum energy of
the atom is 13.6 eV + 12.3 eV = 1.3 eV. From the energy level diagram, Fig. 2729, we see that this
means that the atom could be excited to the n = 3 state, so the possible transitions when the atom
returns to the ground state are n = 3 to n = 2, n = 3 to n = 1, and n = 2 to n = 1. We calculate the
wavelengths from the equation above and Eq. 2716.

3 2 =

1240 eV nm
hc
=
= 650 nm
( E3 E2 ) [1.5 eV (3.4 eV)]

3 1 =

1240 eV nm
hc
=
= 102 nm
( E3 E1 ) [1.5 eV (13.6 eV)]

2 1 =

hc
1240 eV nm
=
= 122 nm
( E2 E1 ) [ 3.4 eV (13.6 eV)]

The stopping potential is the voltage that gives a potential energy change equal to the maximum kinetic
energy. We use Eq. 275b to first find the work function and then find the stopping potential for the
higher wavelength.
KE max

= eV0 =

eV1 =
=

hc

hc

W0

W0 =

W0 =

hc

eV0

1 1
hc hc
eV0 = hc + eV0
1 0

1 0

(6.63 1034 J s)(3.00 108 m/s)


1
1

+ 2.10 eV = 0.32 eV
19
9
9
(1.60 10 J/ev)
440 10 m 270 10 m

The potential difference needed to oppose an electron kinetic energy of 0.32 eV is 0.32 V.
82.

We assume that the neutron is not relativistic. If the resulting velocity is small, then our assumption
will be valid. We use Eq. 278.

h
h
=
p m

h
(6.63 1034 J s)
=
= 1323 m/s 1000 m/s
m (1.67 1027 kg)(0.3 109 m)

This is not relativistic, so our assumption was valid.


83.

The intensity is the amount of energy hitting the surface area per second. That is found from the
number of photons per second hitting the area and the energy per photon, from Eq. 274.
I=

(1.0 1012 photons) hc


2

(1 m )(1 s)

(1.0 1012 ) (6.626 1034 J s)(3.00 108 m/s)


2

(1 m )(1 m )

(497 10

m)

= 4.0 107 W/m 2

The magnitude of the electric field is found from Eq. 228.


I = 12 0 cE02

E0 =

2I
2(4.0 107 W/m 2 )
=
= 1.7 102 V/m
2
8
12 2
0c
(8.85 10 C /N m )(3.00 10 m/s)

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Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom

84.

The average force on the sail is equal to the impulse (change in momentum) on the sail divided by the
time. Since the photons bounce off the mirror, the impulse is equal to twice the incident momentum.
We use Eq. 276 to write the momentum of the photon in terms of the photon energy. The total photon
energy is the intensity of the sunlight multiplied by the area of the sail.
F=

85.

p 2( E /c) 2( E /t ) 2 IA 2(1350 W/m 2 )(1.0 103 m) 2


=
=
=
=
= 9.0 N
t
t
c
c
3.00 108 m/s

The electrons will be nonrelativistic at that low energy. The maximum kinetic energy of the
photoelectrons is given by Eq. 275b. The kinetic energy determines the momentum, and the
momentum determines the wavelength of the emitted electrons. The shortest electron wavelength
corresponds to the maximum kinetic energy.
KE electron

hc

W0 =

p2
h2
=
2
2m 2melectron

electron =

hc

2m W0

(6.63 1034 J s)

=
2(9.11 1031

86.

27-23

1240 eV nm

2.2 eV (1.60 1019 J/eV)


kg)
280 nm

= 8.2 1010 m

We first find the work function from the given data. A photon energy of 6.0 eV corresponds to a
stopping potential of 3.8 V.
eV0 = hf W0

W0 = hf eV0 = 6.0 eV 3.8 eV = 2.2 eV

If the photons wavelength is doubled, then the energy is halved, from 6.0 eV to 3.0 eV. The maximum
kinetic energy would be 0.8 eV. If the photons wavelength is tripled, then the energy is only 2.0 eV.
Since this is less than the work function, no current flows.
87.

The theoretical resolution limit is the wavelength of the electron. We find the wavelength from the
momentum and find the momentum from the kinetic energy and rest energy. We use the result from
Chapter 26, Problem 45. The kinetic energy of the electron is 110 keV.

=
=

88.

hc
=
p

hc
KE

+ 2mc 2 KE
(6.63 1034 J s)(3.00 108 m/s)

(1.60 10

19

J/eV) (110 10 eV) + 2(0.511 10 eV)(110 10 eV)

= 3.5 1012 m

Hydrogen atoms start in the n = 1 orbit (ground state). Using Eq. 2710 and Eq. 2715b, we determine
the state to which the atom is excited when it absorbs a photon of 12.75 eV via collision with an
electron. Then, using Eq. 2716, we calculate all possible wavelengths that can be emitted as the
electron cascades back to the ground state.
E = Eu E

Eu = 2

13.6 eV
n

= E + E n =

13.6 eV
=
E + E

13.6 eV
=4
13.6 eV + 12.75 eV

Starting with the electron in the n = 4 orbit, the following transitions are possible: n = 4 to n = 3;
n = 4 to n = 2; n = 4 to n = 1; n = 3 to n = 2; n = 3 to n = 1; n = 2 to n = 1.

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27-24

Chapter 27

1 1
= (1.097 107 m 1 ) 2 2 = 5.333 105 m 1

3 4

= 1875 nm

1
1
= (1.097 107 m 1 ) 2 2 = 2.057 106 m 1

4
2

= 486.2 nm

1 1
= (1.097 107 m 1 ) 2 2 = 1.028 107 m 1

1 4
1

1
1
= (1.097 107 m 1 ) 2 2

3
2
1

89.

= 102.6 nm

6
1
= 121.5 nm
= 8.228 10 m

The wavelength is found from Eq. 244. The velocity of electrons with the same wavelength (and thus
the same diffraction pattern) is found from their momentum, assuming they are not relativistic. We use
Eq. 278 to relate the wavelength and momentum.
d sin = n

=
90.

6
1
= 656.3 nm
= 1.524 10 m

1 1
= (1.097 107 m 1 ) 2 2 = 9.751106 m 1
1 3
1 1
= (1.097 107 m 1 ) 2 2
1 2

= 97.23 nm

(a)
(b)

d sin h
h
= =
n
p m

hn
(6.63 1034 J s)(1)
=
= 1159 m/s 1200 m/s
md sin (9.11 1031 kg)(0.010 103 m)(sin 3.6)

See the adjacent figure.


Absorption of a 5.1-eV photon represents a
transition from the ground state to the state 5.1 eV
above that, the third excited state. Possible photon
emission energies are found by considering all the
possible downward transitions that might occur as
the electron makes its way back to the ground state.
4 3:

6.4 eV (6.8 eV) = 0.4 eV

4 2:

6.4 eV (9.0 eV) = 2.6 eV

4 1:

6.4 eV (11.5 eV) = 5.1 eV

3 2:

6.8 eV (9.0 eV) = 2.2 eV

3 1:

6.8eV (11.5 eV) = 4.7 eV

2 1:

9.0 eV (11.5 eV) = 2.5 eV

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Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom

91.

27-25

Find the energy of the photon from Eq. 274 and Eq. 278.
E = hf = h

1 eV
= pc = (3.53 1028 kg m/s)(3.00 108 m/s)
1.60 1019

= 0.662 eV
J

From Fig. 2729, the Lyman series photons have 13.6 eV E 10.2 eV. The Balmer series photons
have 3.4 eV E 1.9 eV. The Paschen series photons have 1.5 eV E 0.65 eV. It appears that this
photon belongs to the Paschen series, ejected from energy level 4.
92.

(a)

Use Eq. 275b to calculate the maximum kinetic energy of the electron and set this equal to the
product of the stopping voltage and the electron charge.
hf W0 hc / W0
=
e
e
(1240 eV nm)/(464 nm) 2.28 eV
V0 =
= 0.3924 V 0.39 V
e
KE max

(b)

= hf W0 = eV0

V0 =

Calculate the speed from the nonrelativistic kinetic energy equation and the maximum kinetic
energy found in part (a).
KE max

2
= 12 mmax

max =

2KE max
=
m

2(0.3924 eV)(1.60 1019 J/eV)


9.11 10

31

kg

= 3.713 105 m/s 3.7 105 m/s

This is only about 0.001c, so we are justified in using the classical definition of kinetic energy.
(c)

We use Eq. 278 to calculate the de Broglie wavelength.

=
93.

6.63 1034 J s
h
h
=
=
= 1.96 109 m 2.0 nm
p m (9.11 1031 kg)(3.713 105 m/s)

The electron acquires a kinetic energy of 96 eV, which is used to find the speed. We use the classical
expression.
KE

= 12 m 2

2KE
=
m

2(96 eV)(1.60 1019 J/eV)


(9.11 10

31

kg)

= 5.807 106 m/s

This is about 2% of the speed of light. The charge-to-mass ratio can be calculated using an expression
derived in Example 206.
r=

94.

m
qB

5.807 106 m/s


q
=
=
= 1.7 1011 C/kg
m Br (3.67 104 T)(9.0 102 m)

First find the area of a sphere whose radius is the EarthSun distance.
A = 4 r 2 = 4 (150 109 m )2 = 2.83 1023 m 2

Multiply this by the given intensity to find the Suns total power output.
(2.83 1023 m 2 )(1350 W/m 2 ) = 3.82 1026 W

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27-26

Chapter 27

Multiplying by the number of seconds in a year gives the annual energy output.
E = (3.82 1026 W)(3600 s/h)(24 h/d)(365.25 d/yr) = 1.20 1034 J/yr

Finally, we divide by the energy of one photon to find the number of photons per year.
(1.20 1034 J/yr)(550 109 m)
E E
=
=
= 3.3 1052 photons/yr
hf
hc (6.63 1034 J s)(3.00 108 m/s)

95.

Use Bohrs analysis of the H atom, replacing the proton mass with Earths mass, the electron mass
GmE mM
ke 2
.
with the Moons mass, and the electrostatic force Fe = 2 with the gravitational force, Fg =
r2
r
To account for the change in force, replace ke2 with GmE mM and set Z = 1. With these replacements,
write expressions similar to Eq. 2712 and Eq. 2715a for the Bohr radius and energy.
rn =
rn =

h2 n2
4 2 mke 2

h2 n2
4

2
GmM
mE

(6.626 1034 J s) 2

4 (6.67 10

11

N m /kg )(7.35 10

22

kg) (5.98 10

24

kg)

n2

= n 2 (5.16 10129 m)
En = 2
En = 2
=

2 2 e 4 mk 2
n2 h2

3
2 2G 2 mE2 mM

n2 h2

=2

2 2 (6.67 1011 N m 2 /kg 2 ) 2 (5.98 1024 kg) 2 (7.35 1022 kg)3


n 2 (6.626 1034 J s) 2

2.84 10165 J
n2

Insert the known masses and EarthMoon distance into the Bohr radius equation to determine the
Bohr state.
n=
=

2
4 2GmM
mE rn

h2
4 2 (6.67 1011 N m 2 /kg 2 )(7.35 1022 kg) 2 (5.98 1024 kg)(3.84 108 m)
(6.626 1034 J s) 2

= 2.73 1068

Since n 1068 , a value of n = 1 is negligible compared to n. Hence the quantization of energy and
radius is not apparent.
96.

The kinetic energy of the hydrogen gas would have to be the difference between the n = 1 and n = 2
states of the hydrogen atom, 10.2 eV. Use Eq. 138.
KE

= 32 kT

T=

2KE 2(10.2 eV)(1.60 1019 J/eV)


=
= 7.88 104 K
3k
3(1.38 1023 J/K)

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Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom

27-27

Solutions to Search and Learn Problems


1.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)

J. J. Thomson
Robert A. Millikan
Max Planck
A. H. Compton
Louis de Broglie
C. J. Davisson, L. H. Germer, G. P. Thomson
Ernest Rutherford

2.

The principle of complementarity states that to understand an experiment, sometimes you must use the
wave theory and sometimes you must use the particle theory. That is, to have a full understanding of
various phenomena (like light), you must accept that they have both wave and particle characteristics.
For example, to understand Youngs double-slit experiment for photons or electrons, you must apply
wave theory with interference of the two waves. To understand the photoelectric effect for light or
Compton scattering for electrons, you must use particle theory.

3.

(a)

We solve Eq. 242a for the slit separation with the wavelength given in terms of the electron
momentum from Eq. 276. The electron momentum is written in terms of the kinetic energy.
m = d sin
d=

sin

h
=
p sin

h
2meV sin

6.626 1034 J s
sin10 2(9.11 1031 kg)(1.602 1019 C)(12 V)

= 2.0 109 m = 2.0 nm

(b)

No. The slit separation distance is the same size as the atoms.

4.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

particle
wave
particle
wave

5.

(a)

The minimum energy necessary to initiate the chemical process on the retina is the energy of a
single photon of red light. Red light has a wavelength of approximately 750 nm.
Emin = hf = h

(b)

3.00 108 m/s


1 eV
= (6.626 1034 J s)

19
9

750 10 m 1.60 10
c

The maximum energy is the energy of a photon of violet light of wavelength 400 nm
3.00 108 m/s
1 eV
Emax = (6.626 1034 J s)
400 109 m
1.60 1019

6.

(a)

= 1.7 eV
J

= 3.1 eV
J

Apply conservation of momentum before and after the emission of the photon to determine the
recoil speed of the atom, where the momentum of the photon is given by Eq. 276. The initial
momentum is 0.
0=

h
(6.63 1034 J s)
=
= 6.0 103 m/s
m 85(1.66 1027 kg)(780 109 m)

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27-28

Chapter 27

(b)

We solve Eq. 185 for the lowest achievable temperature, where the recoil speed is the rms
speed of the rubidium gas.

=
7.

3kT
m

T=

m 2 85(1.66 1027 kg)(6.0 103 m/s) 2


=
= 1.2 107 K = 0.12 K
23
3k
3(1.38 10
J/K)

(a)

Here are standing wave diagrams for the first three modes of vibration.

(b)

From the diagram we see that the wavelengths are given by n =


momentum is pn =

(c)

p 2 n2 h2
nh
, so the kinetic energy is KE n = n =
.
2L
2m 8mL2

Because the potential energy is zero inside the box, the total energy is the kinetic energy. The
ground state energy has n = 1.
E1 =

(d)

n2 h2

8mL2

(1) 2 (6.63 1034 J s) 2


8(9.11 1031 kg)(0.50 1010

1 eV

2
m) 1.60 1019

= 150 eV
J

Do the same calculation for the baseball, and then find the speed from the kinetic energy.
E1 =

n2 h2

8mL2

E1 = 12 m 2
(e)

2L
, n = 1, 2, 3, . The
n

(1) 2 (6.63 1034 J s) 2


8(0.140 kg)(0.65 m) 2

2KE1
=
m

Find the width of the box from E1 =


E1 =
L=

n2 h2
8mL2
nh
8mE1

n2 h2
8mL2

= 9.289 1067 J 9.3 1067 J

2(9.289 1067 J)
= 3.6 1033 m/s
(0.140 kg)

(1)(6.63 1034 J s)
8(9.11 10

31

kg)(22 eV)(1.60 10

19

J/eV)

= 1.3 1010 m = 0.13 nm

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