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JeanAugusteDominiqueIngres
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

JeanAugusteDominiqueIngres(French:[noyst
dominik
]29August178014January1867)
wasaFrenchNeoclassicalpainter.Althoughhe
consideredhimselftobeapainterofhistoryinthe
traditionofNicolasPoussinandJacquesLouisDavid,
bytheendofhislifeitwasIngres'sportraits,both
paintedanddrawn,thatwererecognizedashis
greatestlegacy.
Amanprofoundlyrespectfulofthepast,heassumed
theroleofaguardianofacademicorthodoxyagainst
theascendantRomanticstylerepresentedbyhis
nemesis,EugneDelacroix.Hisexemplars,heonce
explained,were"thegreatmasterswhichflourishedin
thatcenturyofgloriousmemorywhenRaphaelsetthe
eternalandincontestableboundsofthesublimein
art...Iamthusaconservatorofgooddoctrine,and
notaninnovator."[1]Nevertheless,modernopinion
hastendedtoregardIngresandtheother
NeoclassicistsofhiseraasembodyingtheRomantic
spiritofhistime,[2]whilehisexpressivedistortionsof
formandspacemakehimanimportantprecursorof
modernart.

Contents
1
2
3
4
5

Earlyyears
InParis
InRome
InFlorence
TriumphalreturntoParisandangryretreat
toRome
6 Paris,18411867
7 Art
8 Legacy
9 Works
10 Gallery
11 Notes
12 References
13 Furtherreading
14 Externallinks

JeanAugusteDominiqueIngres

Selfportraitatage24,1804(revisedc.1850),oil
oncanvas,78x61cm,MuseCond
Born

JeanAugusteDominiqueIngres
29August1780
Montauban,Languedoc,France

Died

14January1867(aged86)
Paris,France

Knownfor

Painting,drawing

Notablework LouisFranoisBertin,1832
TheTurkishBath,1862
Movement

Neoclassicism

Earlyyears
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IngreswasborninMontauban,TarnetGaronne,France,thefirst
ofsevenchildren(fiveofwhomsurvivedinfancy)ofJean
MarieJosephIngres(17551814)andhiswifeAnneMoulet
(17581817).Hisfatherwasasuccessfuljackofalltradesinthe
arts,apainterofminiatures,sculptor,decorativestonemason,and
amateurmusicianhismotherwasthenearlyilliteratedaughter
ofamasterwigmaker.[3]FromhisfathertheyoungIngres
receivedearlyencouragementandinstructionindrawingand
music,andhisfirstknowndrawing,astudyafteranantiquecast,
wasmadein1789.[4]Startingin1786heattendedthelocal
schoolcoledesFrresdel'ducationChrtienne,buthis
educationwasdisruptedbytheturmoiloftheFrenchRevolution,
andtheclosingoftheschoolin1791markedtheendofhis
conventionaleducation.Thedeficiencyinhisschoolingwould
alwaysremainforhimasourceofinsecurity.[5]

TheEnvoysofAgamemnon,1801,oil
oncanvas,coledesBeauxArts,
Paris

In1791,JosephIngrestookhissontoToulouse,wheretheyoungJeanAugusteDominiquewas
enrolledintheAcadmieRoyaledePeinture,SculptureetArchitecture.Therehestudiedunderthe
sculptorJeanPierreVigan,thelandscapepainterJeanBriant,andtheneoclassicalpainterGuillaume
JosephRoques.Roques'venerationofRaphaelwasadecisiveinfluenceontheyoungartist.[6]Ingres
wonprizesinseveraldisciplines,suchascomposition,"figureandantique",andlifestudies.[7]His
musicaltalentwasdevelopedunderthetutelageoftheviolinistLejeune,andfromtheagesofthirteento
sixteenheplayedsecondviolinintheOrchestreduCapitoledeToulouse.[7]

InParis
InMarch1797,theAcademyawardedIngresfirstprizeindrawing,andinAugusthetraveledtoParisto
studywithJacquesLouisDavid,France'sandEurope'sleadingpainterduringtherevolutionary
period,inwhosestudioheremainedforfouryears.Ingresfollowedhismaster'sneoclassicalexample
butrevealed,accordingtoDavid,"atendencytowardexaggerationinhisstudies."[8]Hewasadmittedto
thePaintingDepartmentofthecoledesBeauxArtsinOctober1799,andwon,aftertyingforsecond
placein1800,theGrandPrixdeRomein1801forhisTheAmbassadorsofAgamemnoninthetentof
Achilles.HistriptoRome,however,waspostponeduntil1806,whenthefinanciallystrained
governmentfinallyappropriatedthetravelfunds.
WorkinginParisalongsideseveralotherstudentsofDavidinastudioprovidedbythestate,hefurther
developedastylethatemphasizedpurityofcontour.HefoundinspirationintheworksofRaphael,in
Etruscanvasepaintings,andintheoutlineengravingsoftheEnglishartistJohnFlaxman.[7]In1802he
madehisdebutattheSalonwithPortraitofaWoman(thecurrentwhereaboutsofwhichareunknown).
Thefollowingyearbroughtaprestigiouscommission,whenIngreswasoneoffiveartistsselected
(alongwithJeanBaptisteGreuze,RobertLefvre,CharlesMeynier,andMarieGuillemineBenoist)to
paintfulllengthportraitsofNapoleonBonaparteasFirstConsul.Theseweretobedistributedtothe
prefecturaltownsofLige,Antwerp,Dunkerque,Brussels,andGhent,allofwhichwerenewlycededto
Franceinthe1801TreatyofLunville.[9]Napoleonisnotknowntohavegrantedtheartistsasitting,and
Ingres'smeticulouslypaintedportraitofBonaparte,FirstConsulappearstobemodelledonanimageof
NapoleonpaintedbyAntoineJeanGrosin1802.[10]

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Inthesummerof1806
Ingresbecameengagedto
MarieAnneJulie
Forestier,apainterand
musician,beforeleaving
forRomeinSeptember.
Althoughhehadhopedto
stayinParislongenough
towitnesstheopeningof
thatyear'sSalon,in
whichhewastodisplay
severalworks,he
reluctantlyleftforItaly
justdaysbeforethe
opening.[11]AttheSalon,
hispaintingsSelf
Portrait,portraitsofthe
MadameRivire,1806,oiloncanvas,
Rivirefamily,and
116.5x81.7cm,Louvre
NapoleonIonhis
ImperialThrone
NapoleonIonhisImperialThrone,
producedadisturbingimpressiononthepublic,duetonotonly
1806,oiloncanvas,260x163cm,
Ingres'sstylisticidiosyncrasiesbutalsohisadoptionof
Musedel'Arme,Paris
CarolingianimageryinrepresentingNapoleon.[12]David
deliveredaseverejudgement,[4]andthecriticswereuniformly
hostile,findingfaultwiththestrangediscordancesofcolour,thewantofsculpturalrelief,thechilly
precisionofcontour,andtheselfconsciouslyarchaicquality.Chaussard(LePausaniasFranais,1806)
condemnedIngres'sstyleasgothicandasked:
How,withsomuchtalent,alinesoflawless,anattentiontodetailsothorough,hasM.
Ingressucceededinpaintingabadpicture?Theansweristhathewantedtodosomething
singular,somethingextraordinary...M.Ingres'sintentionisnothinglessthantomakeart
regressbyfourcenturies,tocarryusbacktoitsinfancy,torevivethemannerofJeande
Bruges.[13]
Ingres'stylisticeclecticismrepresentedanewtendencyinart.TheLouvre,newlyfilledwithbooty
seizedbyNapoleoninhiscampaignsinItalyandtheLowCountries,providedFrenchartistsoftheearly
19thcenturywithanunprecedentedopportunitytostudy,compare,andcopymasterworksfromantiquity
andfromtheentirehistoryofEuropeanpainting.[14]AsarthistorianMarjorieCohnhaswritten:"Atthe
time,arthistoryasascholarlyenquirywasbrandnew.Artistsandcriticsoutdideachotherintheir
attemptstoidentify,interpret,andexploitwhattheywerejustbeginningtoperceiveashistoricalstylistic
developments."[15]Fromthebeginningofhiscareer,Ingresfreelyborrowedfromearlierart,adopting
thehistoricalstyleappropriatetohissubject,leadingcriticstochargehimwithplunderingthepast.
NewlyarrivedinRome,Ingresreadwithmountingindignationtherelentlesslynegativepressclippings
senttohimfromParisbyhisfriends.Inletterstohisprospectivefatherinlaw,heexpressedhisoutrage
atthecritics:"SotheSalonisthesceneofmydisgrace...Thescoundrels,theywaiteduntilIwasaway
toassassinatemyreputation...Ihaveneverbeensounhappy."Hevowedneveragaintoexhibitatthe

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Salon,andhisrefusaltoreturntoParisledtothebreakingupofhisengagement.[16]JulieForestier,
whenaskedyearslaterwhyshehadnevermarried,responded,"Whenonehashadthehonorofbeing
engagedtoM.Ingres,onedoesnotmarry."[17]

InRome
InstalledinastudioonthegroundsoftheVillaMedici,Ingres
continuedhisstudiesand,asrequiredofeverywinnerofthe
Prix,hesentworksatregularintervalstoParissohisprogress
couldbejudged.Ashisenvoiof1808IngressentOedipusand
theSphinxandTheValpinonBather(bothnowintheLouvre),
hopingbythesetwopaintingstodemonstratehismasteryofthe
maleandfemalenude.[18]Theverdictoftheacademicianswas
thatthefigureswerenotsufficientlyidealized.[19]Inlateryears
Ingrespaintedvariantsofbothcompositionsanothernudebegun
in1807,theVenusAnadyomene,remainedinanunfinishedstate
fordecades,tobecompletedfortyyearslaterandfinally
exhibitedin1855.
Heproducednumerousportraitsduringthisperiod:Madame
Duvauay,FranoisMariusGranet,EdmeFranoisJoseph
Bochet,MadamePanckoucke,andthatofMadamelaComtesse
deTournon,motheroftheprefectofthedepartmentoftheTiber.
In1810Ingres'spensionattheVillaMediciended,buthe
decidedtostayinRomeandseekpatronagefromtheFrench
occupationgovernment.

Ingres'portraitoffellowstudent
MerryJosephBlondelinfrontofthe
VillaMediciin1809

In1811Ingresfinishedhisfinalstudentexercise,theimmenseJupiterandThetis,whichwasonceagain
harshlyjudgedinParis.[20]Ingreswasstungthepublicwasindifferent,andthestrictclassicistsamong
hisfellowartistslookeduponhimasarenegade.OnlyEugneDelacroixandotherpupilsofPierre
NarcisseGurintheleadersofthatromanticmovementforwhichIngresthroughouthislonglife
alwaysexpressedthedeepestabhorrenceseemtohaverecognizedhismerits.
Althoughfacinguncertainprospects,in1813Ingresmarriedayoungwoman,MadeleineChapelle,who
hadbeenrecommendedtohimbyherfriendsinRome.Afteracourtshipcarriedoutthrough
correspondence,heproposedtoherwithouthavingmether,andsheaccepted.[21]Theirmarriagewasa
happyone,andMadameIngresacquiredafaithinherhusbandwhichenabledhertocombatwith
courageandpatiencethedifficultiesoftheircommonexistence.Hecontinuedtosuffertheindignityof
disparagingreviews,asDonPedroofToledoKissingHenryIV'sSword,RaphaelandtheFornarina
(FoggArtMuseum,HarvardUniversity),severalportraits,andtheInterioroftheSistineChapelmeta
generallyhostilecriticalresponseattheParisSalonof1814.[22]
Afewimportantcommissionscametohim.Notably,theFrenchgovernorofRomeaskedhimtopaint
VirgilreadingtheAeneid(1812)forhisresidence,andtopainttwocolossalworksRomulus'Victory
OverAcron(1812)andTheDreamofOssian(1813)forMonteCavallo,aformerPapalresidence
undergoingrenovationtobecomeNapoleon'sRomanpalace.Thesepaintingsepitomized,bothinsubject
andscale,thetypeofpaintingwithwhichIngreswasdeterminedtomakehisreputation,but,asPhilip
Conisbeehaswritten,"forallthehighidealsthathadbeendrummedintoIngresattheacademiesin
Toulouse,Paris,andRome,suchcommissionswereexceptionstotherule,forinrealitytherewaslittle
demandforhistorypaintingsinthegrandmanner,eveninthecityofRaphaelandMichelangelo."[23]Art
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collectorspreferred"lightheartedmythologies,recognizable
scenesofeverydaylife,landscapes,stilllifes,orlikenessesof
menandwomenoftheirownclass.Thispreferencepersisted
throughoutthenineteenthcentury,asacademicallyoriented
artistswaitedandhopedforthepatronageofstateorchurchto
satisfytheirmoreelevatedambitions."[24]
IngrestraveledtoNaples
inthespringof1814to
paintQueenCaroline
Murat,andtheMurat
familyorderedadditional
VirgilreadingtoAugustus,1812,oil
portraitsaswellasthree
oncanvas,304x323cm,Musedes
modestlyscaledworks:
Augustins,Toulouse
TheBetrothalofRaphael,
LaGrandeOdalisque,
andPaoloandFrancesca.ApartfromtheBetrothal,however,he
neverreceivedpaymentforthesepaintings,duetothecollapseof
theMuratregimein1815.[25]WiththefallofNapoleon's
dynasty,hefoundhimselfessentiallystrandedinRomewithout
patronage.

GrandeOdalisque,1814,oilon
canvas,91x162cm,Louvre.The
subject'selongatedproportions,
reminiscentof16thcentury
Manneristpainters,reflectIngres's
searchforthepureformofhis
model.

Duringthislowpointofhiscareer,Ingresmadehislivingby
drawingpencilportraitsofthemanytourists,inparticulartheEnglish,passingthroughpostwarRome.
Foranartistwhoaspiredtoareputationasahistorypainter,thisseemedmenialwork,andtothevisitors
whoknockedonhisdoorasking,"Isthiswherethemanwhodrawsthelittleportraitslives?",hewould
answerwithirritation,"No,themanwholiveshereisapainter!"[26]Nevertheless,theportraitdrawings
heproducedinsuchprofusionduringthisperiodareofoutstandingquality,andranktodayamonghis
mostadmiredworks.[27]
Miningtheveinofthesmallscalehistoricalgenrepiece,in1815hepaintedAretinoandCharlesV's
AmbassadoraswellasAretinoandTintoretto,ananecdotalpaintingwhosesubject,apainter
brandishingapistolathiscritic,mayhavebeenespeciallysatisfyingtotheembattledIngres.[28]Among
hisotherpaintingsinthesameTroubadourstylewereHenryIVPlayingwithHisChildren(1817)and
theDeathofLeonardo(1818).In1817theCountofBlacas,whowasambassadorofFrancetotheHoly
See,providedIngreswithhisfirstofficialcommissionsince1814,forapaintingofChristGivingthe
KeystoPeter.Completedin1820,thisimposingworkwaswellreceivedinRomebuttotheartist's
chagrintheecclesiasticalauthoritiestherewouldnotpermitittobesenttoParisforexhibition.
Acommissioncamein1816or1817fromthefamilyofthecelebratedFernandolvarezdeToledo,
DukeofAlva,forapaintingoftheDukereceivingpapalhonoursforhisrepressionoftheProtestant
Reformation.IngresloathedthesubjectheregardedtheDukeasoneofhistory'sbrutesandstruggled
tosatisfyboththecommissionandhisconscience.AfterrevisionswhicheventuallyreducedtheDuketo
atinyfigureinthebackground,Ingreslefttheworkunfinished.[29]Heenteredinhisdiary,"J'etaisforc
parlanecessitdepeindreunpareiltableauDieuavouluqu'ilresteenebauche."("Iwasforcedbyneed
topaintsuchapaintingGodwantedittoremainasketch.")[30]
Duringthisperiod,IngresformedfriendshipswithmusiciansincludingPaganini,andregularlyplayed
theviolinwithotherswhosharedhisenthusiasmforMozart,Haydn,Gluck,andBeethoven.[20]The
workshesenttothe1819SalonwereLaGrandeOdalisque,PhilipVandtheMarshalofBerwick,and
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RogerFreeingAngelica,whichwereonceagaincondemnedas"gothic"bycritics.[31]

InFlorence
IngresandhiswifemovedtoFlorencein1820attheurgingoftheFlorentinesculptorLorenzoBartolini,
anoldfriendfromhisyearsinParis,whohopedthatIngreswouldimprovehispositionmaterially,but
Ingres,asbefore,hadtorelyonhisdrawingsoftouristsanddiplomatsforsupport.Hisfriendshipwith
Bartolini,whoseworldlysuccessintheinterveningyearsstoodinsharpcontrasttoIngres'spoverty,
quicklybecamestrained,andIngresfoundnewquarters.[32]In1821hefinishedapainting
commissionedbyachildhoodfriend,MonsieurdePastoret,theEntryofCharlesVintoParisde
Pastoretalsoorderedaportraitofhimselfandareligiouswork(VirginwiththeBlueVeil).Themajor
undertakingofthisperiod,however,wasacommissionobtainedinAugust1820withthehelpofde
Pastoret,topaintTheVowofLouisXIIIfortheCathedralofMontauban.Recognizingthisasan
opportunitytoestablishhimselfasapainterofhistory,hespentfouryearsbringingthelargecanvasto
completion,andhetravelledtoPariswithitinOctober1824.

TriumphalreturntoParisandangry
retreattoRome
TheVowofLouisXIII,exhibitedattheSalonof1824,finally
broughtIngrescriticalsuccess.ConceivedinaRaphaelesque
stylerelativelyfreeofthearchaismsforwhichhehadbeen
reproachedinthepast,itwasadmiredevenbystrictDavidians.
IngresfoundhimselfcelebratedthroughoutFranceinJanuary
1825hewasawardedtheCrossoftheLgiond'honneurby
CharlesX,andinJune1825hewaselectedtotheInstitute.His
famewasextendedfurtherin1826bythepublicationofSudre's
lithographofLaGrandeOdalisque,which,havingbeenscorned
byartistsandcriticsalikein1819,nowbecamewidelypopular.
Acommissionfromthegovernmentcalledforththemonumental
PortraitofLouisFranoisBertin,
ApotheosisofHomer,whichIngreseagerlyfinishedinayear's
1832,oiloncanvas,116x96cm,
time.From1826to1834thestudioofIngreswasthronged,and
Louvre
hewasarecognizedchefd'colewhotaughtwithauthorityand
wisdomwhileworkingsteadily.ThecriticscametoregardIngres
asthestandardbearerofclassicismagainsttheromanticschool[33]aroleherelished.Thepaintings,
primarilyportraits,thathesenttotheSalonin1827werewellreceived.
DespitetheconsiderablepatronageheenjoyedundertheBourbongovernment,IngresregardedtheJuly
Revolutionof1830withenthusiasm.[34]ThattheoutcomeoftheRevolutionwasnotarepublicbuta
constitutionalmonarchywassatisfactorytotheessentiallyconservativeandpacifisticartist,whoina
lettertoafriendinAugust1830criticizedagitatorswho"stillwanttosoilanddisturbtheorderand
happinessofafreedomsogloriously,sodivinelywon."[35]Ingres'scareerwaslittleaffected,andhe
continuedtoreceiveofficialcommissionsandhonorsundertheJulyMonarchy.
IngresexhibitedintheSalonof1833,wherehisportraitofLouisFranoisBertin(1832)wasa
particularsuccess.Thepublicfounditsrealismspellbinding,althoughsomeofthecriticsdeclaredits
naturalismvulgaranditscolouringdrab.[36]Thethinskinnedartistwasoutraged,however,bythe
criticismofhisambitiouscanvasofTheMartyrdomofSaintSymphorian(cathedralofAutun),shownin
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theSalonof1834.Resentfulanddisgusted,Ingresresolvedneveragaintoworkforthepublic,and
gladlyavailedhimselfoftheopportunitytoreturntoRome,asdirectorofthecoledeFrance,inthe
roomofHoraceVernet.There,althoughthetimehespentinadministrativedutiesslowedtheflowof
paintingsfromhisbrush,heexecutedAntiochusandStratonice(commissionedbyLouisPhilippe,duc
d'Orlans),PortraitofLuigiCherubini,andtheOdalisquewithSlave,amongotherworks.In1839,
FranzLisztvisitedtheVillaMedici,andIngresformedafriendshipwithhim.[37]

Paris,18411867
OneofonlytwoworkssentbacktoParisduringIngres'ssixyear
termasDirectoroftheFrenchAcademyinRome,theStratonice
wasexhibitedforseveraldaysinmidAugust1840intheprivate
apartmentoftheducd'OrlansinthePavilionMarsanofthe
PalaisdesTuileries.[38]WhilelampoonedinLeCorsaireforits
loftysubjectmatteryetextremelymodestproportions(lessthan
onemetreacross),overalltheworkwaswarmlyreceivedso
muchsothatonhisreturntoParisinJune1841,Ingreswas
receivedwithallthedeferencethathefeltwashisdue,including
beingreceivedpersonallybyKingLouisPhilippeforatour
aroundVersailles.Oneofthefirstworksexecutedafterhisreturn
wasaportraitoftheducd'Orlans,whosedeathinacarriage
accidentjustweeksafterthecompletionoftheportraitsentthe
nationintomourningandledtoordersforadditionalcopiesof
theportrait.

TheTurkishBath,1862,oilon
canvas,diam.108cm,Louvre.A
summationofthethemeoffemale
voluptuousnessattractivetoIngres
throughouthislife,renderedinthe
circularformatofearliermasters.

Ingresshortlyafterward
beganthedecorationsof
thegreathallinthe
ChteaudeDampierre.
Thesemurals,theGoldenAgeandtheIronAge,werebegunin
1843withanardourwhichgraduallyslackeneduntilIngres,
devastatedbythelossofhiswifeon27July1849,abandonedall
hopeoftheircompletionandthecontractwiththeDucde
Luyneswasfinallycancelled.Aminorwork,Jupiterand
Antiope,datesfrom1851inJulyofthatyearheannouncedagift
ofhisartworktohisnativecityofMontauban,andinOctoberhe
resignedasprofessoratthecoledesBeauxArts.
ThefollowingyearIngres,atseventyoneyearsofage,married
fortythreeyearoldDelphineRamel,arelativeofhisfriend
[39]
Marcotted'Argenteuil.Thismarriageprovedashappyashis
OedipusandtheSphinx,1864, oil
first,andinthedecadethatfollowedIngrescompletedseveral
oncanvas,105.5x87cm,The
significantworks.AmajorundertakingwastheApotheosisof
WaltersArtMuseum
NapoleonI,paintedin1853fortheceilingofahallintheHtel
deVille,Paris,anddestroyedbyfireintheCommuneof1871.
TheportraitofPrincesseAlbertdeBrogliewasalsocompletedin1853,andJoanofArcatthe
CoronationofCharlesVIIappearedin1854.Thelatterwaslargelytheworkofassistants,whomIngres
oftenentrustedwiththeexecutionofbackgrounds.In1855Ingresconsentedtorescindhisresolution,
moreorlessstrictlykeptsince1834,infavouroftheInternationalExhibition,wherearoomwas
reservedforhisworks.[40]
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NapolonJosephCharlesPaulBonaparte,presidentofthejury,proposedanexceptionalrecompensefor
theirauthor,andobtainedfromemperorNapoleonIIIIngres'snominationasgrandofficeroftheLgion
d'honneur.
WithrenewedconfidenceIngresnowtookupandcompletedThe
Source,afigureforwhichhehadpaintedthetorsoin1820when
itwasseenwithotherworksinLondonin1862,admirationfor
hisworkswasrenewed,andhewasgiventhetitleofsenatorby
theimperialgovernment.
AfterthecompletionofTheSource,Ingrespaintedtwoversions
ofLouisXIVandMolire(1857and1860),andproducedvariant
copiesofseveralofhisearliercompositions.Theseincluded
religiousworksinwhichthefigureoftheVirginfromTheVowof
LouisXIIIisreprised:TheVirginoftheAdoptionof1858
(paintedforMademoiselleRolandGosselin)wasfollowedby
TheVirginCrowned(paintedforMadamelaBaronnede
Larinthie)andTheVirginwithChild.In1859heproduced
repetitionsofTheVirginoftheHost,andin1862hecompleted
ChristandtheDoctors,aworkcommissionedmanyyearsbefore
byQueenMarieAmalieforthechapelofBizy.

TheVirginAdoringtheHost,1852

Thelastofhisimportantportraitpaintingsdatefromthisperiod:MarieClothildeInsdeFoucauld,
MadameMoitessier,Seated(1856),SelfPortraitattheAgeofSeventynineandMadameJ.A.D.
Ingres,neDelphineRamel,bothcompletedin1859.TheTurkishBath,finishedinarectangularformat
in1859,wasrevisedin1860beforebeingturnedintoatondo.Ingressignedanddateditin1862,
althoughhemadeadditionalrevisionsin1863.[41]
Ingresdiedofpneumoniaon14January1867,attheageofeightysix,havingpreservedhisfacultiesto
thelast.HeisinterredinthePreLachaiseCemeteryinPariswithatombsculptedbyhisstudentJean
MarieBonnassieux.Thecontentsofhisstudio,includinganumberofmajorpaintings,over4000
drawings,andhisviolin,werebequeathedbytheartisttothecitymuseumofMontauban,nowknownas
theMuseIngres.[42]

Art

OdalisquewithSlave,1842,oilon
canvas,76x105cm,WaltersArt
Gallery,Baltimore

Ingres'sstylewasformedearlyinlifeandchangedcomparatively
little.[43]Hisearliestdrawings,suchasthePortraitofaMan(or
Portraitofanunknown,3July1797,nowintheLouvre[44])
alreadyshowasuavityofoutlineandanextraordinarycontrolof
theparallelhatchingswhichmodeltheforms.Fromthefirst,his
paintingsarecharacterizedbyafirmnessofoutlinereflectinghis
oftenquotedconvictionthat"drawingistheprobityofart".[45]
Hebelievedcolourtobenomorethananaccessorytodrawing,
explaining:"Drawingisnotjustreproducingcontours,itisnot
justthelinedrawingisalsotheexpression,theinnerform,the
composition,themodelling.Seewhatisleftafterthat.Drawing
isseveneighthsofwhatmakesuppainting."[46]

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Heabhorredthevisiblebrushstrokeandmadenorecoursetotheshiftingeffectsofcolourandlighton
whichtheRomanticschooldependedhepreferredlocalcoloursonlyfaintlymodelledinlightbyhalf
tones."Cequel'onsait,"hewouldrepeat,"ilfautlesavoirl'pelamain."("Whateveryouknow,you
mustknowitwithswordinhand.")Ingresthuslefthimselfwithoutthemeansofproducingthe
necessaryunityofeffectwhendealingwithcrowdedcompositions,suchastheApotheosisofHomerand
theMartyrdomofSaintSymphorian.AmongIngres'shistoricalandmythologicalpaintings,themost
satisfactoryareusuallythosedepictingoneortwofigures.InOedipus,TheHalfLengthBather,
Odalisque,andTheSpring,subjectsonlyanimatedbytheconsciousnessofperfectphysicalwellbeing,
wefindIngresathisbest.

RogerFreeingAngelica,1819,oilon
canvas,147x190cm,Louvre,
portraysanepisodefromOrlando
FuriosobyLudovicoAriosto

InRogerFreeingAngelica,thefemalefigureshowsthefinest
qualitiesofIngres'swork,whiletheeffigyofRogerflyingtothe
rescueonhishippogriffsoundsajarringnote,forIngreswas
rarelysuccessfulinthedepictionofmovementanddrama.
AccordingtoSanfordSchwartz,the"historical,mythological,
andreligiouspicturesbespeakhugeamountsofenergyand
industry,but,conveyinglittlepalpablesenseofinnertension,are
costumedramas...Thefacesinthehistorypicturesare
essentiallythoseofmodelswaitingforthesessiontobeover.
Whenanemotionistobeexpressed,itcomesacrossstridently,
orwoodenly."[47]

Ingres'schoiceofsubjectsreflectedhisliterarytastes,which
wereseverelylimited:hereadandrereadHomer,Virgil,
Plutarch,Dante,histories,andthelivesoftheartists.[15]
Throughouthislifeherevisitedasmallnumberoffavouritethemes,andpaintedmultipleversionsof
manyofhismajorcompositions.[48]Hedidnotsharehisage'senthusiasmforbattlescenes,and
generallypreferredtodepict"momentsofrevelationorintimatedecisionmanifestedbymeetingor
confrontation,butneverbyviolence."[49]Hisnumerousodalisquepaintingswereinfluencedtoagreat
extentbythewritingsofMaryWortleyMontagu,thewifeoftheambassadortoTurkeywhosediaries
andletters,whenpublished,fascinatedEuropeansociety.[50]
Althoughcapableofpaintingquickly,heoftenlabouredforyearsoverapainting.Ingres'spupil
AmauryDuvalwroteofhim:"Withthisfacilityofexecution,onehastroubleexplainingwhyIngres'
oeuvreisnotstilllarger,buthescrapedout[hiswork]frequently,neverbeingsatisfied...andperhaps
thisfacilityitselfmadehimreworkwhateverdissatisfiedhim,certainthathehadthepowertorepairthe
fault,andquickly,too."[51]TheSource,althoughdated1856,waspaintedabout1820,[52]exceptforthe
headandtheextremitiesAmauryDuval,whoknewtheworkinitsincompletestate,professedthatthe
afterpainting,necessarytofusenewandold,lackedthevigourandprecisionoftouchthatdistinguished
theoriginalexecutionofthetorso.[53]
BythetimeofIngres'sretrospectiveattheExpositionUniversellein1855,anemergingconsensus
viewedhisportraitpaintingsashismasterpieces.[54]TheirconsistentlyhighqualitybeliesIngres'soften
statedcomplaintthatthedemandsofportraiturerobbedhimoftimehecouldhavespentpainting
historicalsubjects.ThemostfamousofallofIngres'sportraits,depictingthejournalistLouisFranois
Bertin,quicklybecameasymboloftherisingeconomicandpoliticalpowerofthebourgeoisie.[55]His
portraitsofwomenrangefromthewarmlysensuousMadamedeSenonnes(1814)totherealistic
MademoiselleJeanneGonin(1821),theJunoesqueMarieClothildeInsdeFoucauld,Madame
Moitessier(portrayedstandingandseated,1851and1856),andthechillyJosphineElonoreMarie
PaulinedeGalarddeBrassacdeBarn,PrincessedeBroglie(1853).
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Hisportraitdrawings,ofwhichabout450areextant,[56]are
todayamonghismostadmiredworks.Whileadisproportionate
numberofthemdatefromhisdifficultearlyyearsinItaly,he
continuedtoproduceportraitdrawingsofhisfriendsuntilthe
endofhislife.AgnesMonganhaswrittenoftheportrait
drawings:
Beforehisdepartureinthefallof1806fromParis
forRome,thefamiliarcharacteristicsofhisdrawing
stylewerewellestablished,thedelicateyetfirm
contour,thedefiniteyetdiscreetdistortionsofform,
thealmostuncannycapacitytoseizealikenessin
thepreciseyetlivelydelineationoffeatures.

Thepreferredmaterialswerealsoalready
established:thesharplypointedgraphitepencilona
smoothwhitepaper.Sofamiliartousareboththe
materialsandthemannerthatweforgethow
extraordinarytheymusthaveseemedatthetime...
Ingres'mannerofdrawingwasasnewasthe
century.Itwasimmediatelyrecognizedasexpertand
admirable.Ifhispaintingsweresternlycriticizedas
"Gothic,"nocomparablecriticismwasleveledathis
drawings.[57]

MmeVictorBaltardandHer
Daughter,Paule,1836,pencilon
paper,30.1x22.3cm

HisstudentRobertBalzedescribedIngres'sworkingroutineinexecutinghisportraitdrawings,eachof
whichrequiredfourhours,as"anhourandahalfinthemorning,thentwoandahalfhoursinthe
afternoon,heveryrarelyretoucheditthenextday.Heoftentoldmethathegottheessenceofthe
portraitwhilelunchingwiththemodelwho,offguard,becamemorenatural."[58]Ingresdrewhisportrait
drawingsonwovepaper,whichprovidedasmoothsurfaceverydifferentfromtheribbedsurfaceoflaid
paper(whichis,nevertheless,sometimesreferredtotodayas"Ingrespaper").[59]
Drawingsmadeinpreparationforpaintings,suchasthemanynudestudiesforTheMartyrdomofSt.
SymphorianandTheGoldenAge,aremorevariedinsizeandtreatmentthanaretheportraitdrawings.
HealsodrewanumberoflandscapeviewswhileinRome,buthepaintedonlyonepurelandscape,the
smalltondoRaphael'sCasino(althoughtwoothersmalllandscapetondosaresometimesattributedto
him).[60]

Legacy
Ingreswasregardedasaneffectiveteacherandwasbelovedbyhisstudents.[61]Thebestknownofthem
isThodoreChassriau,whostudiedwithhimfrom1830,asaprecociouselevenyearold,untilIngres
closedhisstudioin1834toreturntoRome.IngresconsideredChassriauhistruestdiscipleeven
predicting,accordingtoanearlybiographer,thathewouldbe"theNapoleonofpainting".[62]Bythe
timeChassriauvisitedIngresinRomein1840,however,theyoungerartist'sgrowingallegiancetothe
romanticstyleofDelacroixwasapparent,leadingIngrestodisownhisfavouritestudent,ofwhomhe
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subsequentlyspokerarelyandcensoriously.Nootherartistwho
studiedunderIngressucceededinestablishingastrongidentity
amongthemostnotableofthemwereJeanHippolyteFlandrin,
HenriLehmann,andEugneEmmanuelAmauryDuval.
Ingres'sinfluenceonlatergenerationsofartistshasbeen
considerable.HismostsignificantheirwasDegas,whostudied
underLouisLamothe,aminordiscipleofIngres.Inthe20th
century,PicassoandMatissewereamongthosewho
acknowledgedadebttothegreatclassicistMatissedescribed
himasthefirstpainter"tousepurecolours,outliningthem
withoutdistortingthem."[63]PierreBarousse,theKeeperofthe
MuseIngres,haswritten:
ThecaseofIngresiscertainlydisturbingwhenone
realizesinhowmanywaysavarietyofartistsclaim
himastheirmaster,fromthemostplainly
conventionalofthenineteenthcenturysuchas
CabanelorBouguereau,tothemostrevolutionaryof
ourcenturyfromMatissetoPicasso.Aclassicist?
Aboveall,hewasmovedbytheimpulsetopenetrate
thesecretofnaturalbeautyandtoreinterpretit
throughitsownmeansanattitudefundamentally
differenttothatofDavid...thereresultsatruly
personalanduniqueartadmiredasmuchbythe
Cubistsforitsplasticautonomy,asbytheSurrealists
foritsvisionaryqualities.[64]

JeanAugusteDominiqueIngres
commemoratedonapostagestampof
theUnionofSovietSocialist
Republicsfrom1980.The1856
paintingTheSourceisinthe
background.

BarnettNewmancreditedIngresasaprogenitorofabstractexpressionism,explaining:"Thatguywasan
abstractpainter...Helookedatthecanvasmoreoftenthanatthemodel.Kline,deKooningnoneofus
wouldhaveexistedwithouthim."[65]
Ingres'swellknownpassionforplayingtheviolingavetotheFrenchlanguageacolloquialism,"violon
d'Ingres",meaningasecondskillbeyondtheonebywhichapersonismainlyknown.TheAmerican
avantgardeartistManRayusedthisexpressionasthetitleofafamousphotograph[66]portrayingAlice
Prin(akaKikideMontparnasse)intheposeoftheValpinonBather.
Hisactualskillontheviolinisamatterofdispute.HeplayedBeethovenstringquartetswithNiccol
Paganini.Inan1839letter,FranzLisztdescribedhisplayingas"charming",andplannedtoplaythrough
alltheMozartandBeethovenviolinsonataswithIngres.Lisztalsodedicatedhistranscriptionsofthe5th
and6thsymphoniesofBeethoventoIngresontheiroriginalpublicationin1840.[67]CharlesGounod
wasnoncommittal,merelynotingthat"hewasnotaprofessional,evenlessavirtuoso".ButSirCharles
Hallwasscathing,writing"Hethoughtlessofhispaintingsthanhisviolinplaying,which,tosaythe
leastofit,wasvile".[68]

Works
PortraitofMonsieurBertin
Bonaparte,FirstConsul
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MadameMoitessier
NapoleonIonhisImperialThrone
MademoiselleCarolineRivire
OdalisquewithSlave
TheApotheosisofHomer
TheSource
TheValpinonBather
GrandeOdalisque
JupiterandThetis

Gallery

AcademicStudyofaMaleTorso, TheValpinonBather,1808,
1801,NationalMuseumin
Louvre
Warsaw

JupiterandThetis,1811,Muse
GranetinAixenProvence

Marcotted'Argenteuil,1810,
NationalGalleryofArt

PortraitofNiccolPaganini,
1819

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MademoiselleJeanneSuzanne
CatherineGonin,1821,Taft
MuseumofArt

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BaronnedeRothschild,1848,
RothschildCollection,Paris

LouisedeBroglie,Countess
d'Haussonville,1845,Frick
Collection

JoanofArcattheCoronationof
CharlesVII,1854,Louvre

PrincesseAlbertdeBroglie,ne
JosphineElonoreMarie
PaulinedeGalarddeBrassac
deBarn,1853,Metropolitan
MuseumofArt

TheSource,1856,Muse
d'Orsay

Mme.Moitessier,1856,National
Gallery

Notes
1.Condonetal.1983,p.14.
2.Turner2000,p.237.
3.Parker1926
4.Arikha1986,p.103.
5.Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,pp.25,280.
6.Prat2004,p.15.
7.MonganandNaef1967,p.xix.
8.Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,p.31.
9.Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,p.46.
10.Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,p.48.
11.CohnandSiegfried1980,p.22.
12.Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,p.68.
13.QuotedandtranslatedinTinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,p.70.
14.Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,p.27.
15.Condonetal.1983,p.13.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JeanAugusteDominique_Ingres

Ingres'stomb,PreLachaise
Cemetery,Paris

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16.Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,p.546.
17.Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,p.75.
18.Condonetal.1983,p.38.
19.Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,pp98101.
20.Arikha1986,p.104.
21.Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,pp.152154.
22.MonganandNaef1967,p.xx.
23.Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,p.106.
24.Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,p.26.
25.CohnandSiegfried1980,p.50Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,p.147.
26.Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,p.111.
27.MonganandNaef1967,p.xvii.
28.Condonetal.1983,p.12.
29.Condonetal.1983,p.86.
30.Delaborde1870,p.229.
31.CohnandSiegfried1980,pp.2223.
32.CohnandSiegfried1980,pp.23,114
33.Siegfried&Rifkin2001,p.7881.
34.Grimme2006,p.30.
35.Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,pp.281282.
36.Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,p.503.
37.Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,p.550.
38.Shelton,AndrewCarrington(2005).IngresandhisCritics.Cambridge
UniversityPress,p.61.
39."OedipusandtheSphinx".TheWaltersArtMuseum.
40.Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,p.554.
41.Prat2004,p.90.
42.CohnandSiegfried1980,p.25.
43.Arikha1986,p.5.
44."Portraitofanunknown,sincethebust,leftprofileJeanAuguste
DominiqueIngresWikiArt.org".
45.Prat2004,p.13.
46.Barousse1979,p.5.
47.Schwartz2006,p.5.
48.Condonetal.1983,pp.1213.
49.Condonetal.1983,pp.1112.
50."Highlights"(10).Cornucopia.
51.Condonetal.1983,p.11.
52.Condonetal.1983,p.64Radius1968,p.115.
53.CohnandSiegfried1980,p.75.
54.Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,p.512.
55.Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,p.300.
56.Ribeiro1999,p.47.
57.MonganandNaef1967,p.xiii.
58.Arikha1986,p.6.
59.MonganandNaef1967,p.244.
60.Arikha1986,p.1.
61.Tinterow,Conisbeeetal.1999,p.281.
62.Guganetal.2002,p.168.
63.Arikha1986,p.11.
64.Barousse1979,p.7.
65.Schneider1969,p.39.
66."LeViolond'Ingres(Ingres'sViolin)(GettyMuseum)".Getty.edu.2009
0507.Retrieved20140120.
67.Grove'sDictionaryofMusicandMusicians,5thed,1954,Vol.V,p.299:
"FranzLiszt:CatalogueofWorks".
68.Williams,Sam(October2010).Limelight."LeViolond'Ingres'".
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References
Arikha,Avigdor(1986).J.A.D.Ingres:FiftyLifeDrawingsfromtheMuseIngresatMontauban.
Houston:TheMuseumofFineArts.ISBN0890900361
Barousse,Pierre(1979)."TheDrawingsofIngresorthePoetryinhisWork".Ingres:Drawings
fromtheMuseeIngresatMontaubanandothercollections(catalogue).ArtsCouncilofGreat
Britain.ISBN0728702045
Betzer,SarahE.,&Ingres,J.A.D.(2012).IngresandtheStudio:Women,Painting,History.
UniversityPark,Pa:PennsylvaniaStateUniversityPress.ISBN9780271048758
Clay,Jean(1981).Romanticism.NewYork:Vendome.ISBN0865650128
Cohn,MarjorieB.Siegfried,SusanL.(1980).WorksbyJ.A.D.IngresintheCollectionofthe
FoggArtMuseum.Cambridge,Mass.:FoggArtMuseum,HarvardUniv.OCLC6762670(https://
www.worldcat.org/oclc/6762670)
Condon,PatriciaCohn,MarjorieB.Mongan,Agnes(1983).InPursuitofPerfection:TheArtof
J.A.D.Ingres.Louisville:TheJ.B.SpeedArtMuseum.ISBN0961227605
Delaborde,Henri(1870).Ingres,savie,sestravaux,sadoctrine:D'apreslesnotesmanuscriteset
leslettresdumaitre.Paris:H.PlonOCLC23402108(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/23402108)
Gowing,Lawrence(1987).PaintingsintheLouvre.NewYork:Stewart,Tabori&Chang.ISBN1
556700075
Grimme,KarinH.(2006).JeanAugusteDominiqueIngres,17801867.HongKong:Taschen.
ISBN3822853143
Gugan,StphanePomarde,VincentPrat,LouisAntoine(2002).ThodoreChassriau,1819
1856:TheUnknownRomantic.NewHavenandLondon:YaleUniversityPress.ISBN158839
0675
Mongan,AgnesNaef,Dr.Hans(1967).IngresCentennialExhibition18671967:Drawings,
Watercolors,andOilSketchesfromAmericanCollections.Greenwich,Conn.:DistributedbyNew
YorkGraphicSociety.OCLC170576(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/170576)
Parker,RobertAllerton(March1926)."Ingres:TheApostleofDraughtsmanship".International
Studio83(346):2432.
Prat,LouisAntoine(2004).Ingres.Milan:5Continents.ISBN8874390998
Radius,Emilio(1968).L'operacompletadiIngres.Milan:Rizzoli.OCLC58818848(https://ww
w.worldcat.org/oclc/58818848)
Ribeiro,Aileen(1999).IngresinFashion:RepresentationsofDressandAppearanceinIngres's
ImagesofWomen.NewHavenandLondon:YaleUniversityPress.ISBN0300079273
Schneider,Pierre(June1969)."ThroughtheLouvrewithBarnettNewman".ARTnews.pp.3472.
Schwartz,Sanford(13July2006)."Ingresvs.Ingres".TheNewYorkReviewofBooks53(12):4
6.
Siegfried,S.L.,&Rifkin,A.(2001).FingeringIngres.Oxford:Blackwell.ISBN0631225269
Tinterow,GaryConisbee,PhilipNaef,Hans(1999).PortraitsbyIngres:ImageofanEpoch.
NewYork:HarryN.Abrams,Inc.ISBN0810965364
Turner,J.(2000).FromMonettoCzanne:Late19thcenturyFrenchArtists.GroveArt.New
York:StMartin'sPress.ISBN0312229712
Attribution
Thisarticleincorporatestextfromapublicationnowinthepublicdomain:Chisholm,Hugh,ed.
(1911)."articlenameneeded".EncyclopdiaBritannica(11thed.).CambridgeUniversityPress.

Furtherreading
Frenchpainting17741830:theAgeofRevolution.NewYorkDetroit:TheMetropolitan
MuseumofArtTheDetroitInstituteofArts.1975.(seeindex)
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