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A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common type of infection that occurs

in the urinary tract which includes the kidneys, the ureters, the bladder and
the urethra. The symptoms of a UTI include pain or a burning sensation
during urination (dysuria), a frequent need to urinate, and lower abdominal
Normally, urine is sterile. It is usually free of bacteria, viruses, and
fungi but does contain fluids, salts, and waste products. An infection occurs
when tiny organisms, usually bacteria from the digestive tract, cling to the
opening of the urethra and begin to multiply. The urethra is the tube that
carries urine from the bladder to outside the body. Most infections arise from
one type of bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), which normally lives in the
colon. Any abnormality of the urinary tract that obstructs the flow of urine (a
kidney stone, for example) sets the stage for an infection. An enlarged
prostate gland also can slow the flow of urine, thus raising the risk of
infection. People with diabetes have a higher risk of a UTI because of
changes in the immune system. Any other disorder that suppresses the
The infection is usually mild and usually resolves within four to five
days. Antibiotics can be used to help speed up the recovery time. However,
some patients find that they experience repeated UTIs, and that they require
long-term treatment with antibiotics to prevent the infection returning.
Complications of a UTI are uncommon, but serious, and include kidney
failure, where the kidneys lose almost all of their functioning capability and
blood poisoning, also known as sepsis These complications usually only
affect people with a pre-existing health problem, such as diabetes because of
the changes in immune system, and weakened immune system (the bodys
natural defence against infection).
UTIs are a very common type of infection particularly in women. It is
estimated in the Philippines that one woman in three will have a UTI before
the age of 24, and that half of all women will have at least one UTI during
their lifetime. This is less common in men. It is estimated that every year in
the Philippines, in otherwise healthy men, only one in every 2,000 will
develop a UTI.
This case presentation is done to increase our awareness with regards
to infections affecting the urinary system. This is to widen our knowledge
and to have a strong background about urinary tract infection. This case
presentation will definitely help us in future purposes; this will be our
foundation when we encounter such in the field weve chosen.


Urinary system parts and their functions:

2 kidneys - a pair of purplish-brown

organs located below the ribs toward the
middle of the back. Their function is to:

remove liquid waste from the blood

in the form of urine

keep a stable balance of salts and

other substances in the blood

produce erythropoietin, a hormone

that aids the formation of red blood

The kidneys remove urea from the blood

Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small blood capillaries, called
a glomerulus, and a small tube called a renal tubule.
Urea, together with water and other waste substances, forms the urine
as it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the

2 ureters - narrow tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the

Muscles in the ureter walls continually tighten and relax forcing urine
downward, away from the kidneys. If urine backs up, or is allowed to stand
still, a kidney infection can develop. About every 10 to 15 seconds small
amounts of urine are emptied into the bladder from the ureters.

bladder - a triangle-shaped, hollow organ located in the lower

abdomen. It is held in place by ligaments that are attached to other
organs and the pelvic bones. The bladder's walls relax and expand to

store urine, and contract and flatten to empty urine through the
urethra. The typical healthy adult bladder can store up to two cups of
urine for 2 to 5 hours.

2 sphincter muscles - circular muscles that help keep urine from

leaking by closing tightly like a rubber band around the opening of the

nerves in the bladder - alert a person when it is time to urinate, or

empty the bladder.

urethra - the tube that allows urine to pass outside the body.
The brain signals the bladder muscles to tighten, which squeezes urine
out of the bladder. At the same time, the brain signals the sphincter
muscles to relax to let urine exit the bladder through the urethra.
When all the signals occur in the correct order, normal urination



1. Gender: female

1. Poor hygienic measures

2. Socio-economic status

2. Inability or failure to empty bladder

3. Sexual intercourse
4. Diabetes mellitus
5. Sedentary lifestyle

Bacteria enters the

Adherence to the mucosal surface
(colonized epithelium of the urinary
tract to avoid being washed out
during voiding)
Inflammation of the bladder and

Increase in body



Obstruction and
narrowing of the urinary
Urine remains in the
bladder and acts as
medium for microbial
Minimal flow of urine

Disturbed structure and

function of the urinary tract

Pain on urination