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1.Design Method
1.1.Design Requirements
The report aims to present necessary calculations to provide reinforcement in manholes where
infiltration, traffic load, safety and risk issues cannot be addressed.

2.General
The most crucial condition of the manhole need to be kept under consideration and that is when
the empty and the soil surrounding the wall is wet considering infiltration is blocked.

2.1.Material Properties
The properties of materials used for concrete manholes are as follows:
f`c
=
specified compressive strength of concrete at 28 days
fy
Es
Ec

=
=
=
=
=

30
MPa for concrete in box culverts
specified minimum yield strength of reinforcement
420
MPa
200000 MPa modulus of elasticity of steel reinforcement LRFD (5.4.3.2)
modulus of elasticity of concrete in box LRFD [C5.4.2.4]

for normal density concrete with c = 2320 kg/m Ec may be taken as

=
=

4800

f`c

0.5

26290.68 MPa

3.Limit State Design Method


3.1.LFRD Requirements
For manhole design, the component dimensions and the size and spacing of reinforcement
shall be selected to satisfy the following equation for all appropriate limit states, as presented
in LRFD [1.3.2.1]
Q = i i Qi Rn = Rr
Where :
i

Load modifier

Load factor

Qi

Force effect: moment, shear, stress range or deformation caused by

=
=

applied loads
Total factored force effect
Resistance factor

Rn

Nominal resistance: resistance of a component to force effects

Rr

Factored resistance = Rn

3.2.Limit States
The Strength I Limit State is used to design reinforcement for flexure and checking shear in
the slabs and walls, LRFD [12.5.3] . The Service I Limit State is used for checking reinforcement
for crack control criteria, LRFD [12.5.2] .

3.3.Load Factors
The following Strength I load factors st and Service I load factors, s1
shall be used for manhole design:

Dead Load - Components


Dead Load - Wearing Surface
Vertical Earth Pressure
Horizontal Earth Pressure
Live Load Surcharge
Live Load + IM

DC
DW
EV
EH
LS
LL + IM

Strength I
Load Factor
1.25
0.90
1.50
0.65
1.35
0.90
1.50
0.50
1.50
1.50
1.75
1.75

Service I
Load Factor
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

3.4.Strength Limit State


Strength I Limit State shall be applied to ensure that strength and stability are provided to resist
the significant load combinations that a structure is expected to experience during its design life
LRFD [1.3.2.4].
3.4.1 Factored Resistance
The resistance factor, , is used to reduce the computed nominal resistance of a structural element
This factor accounts for the variability of material properties, structural dimensions and workmanship
and uncertainty in prediction of resistance. The resistance factors, , for reinforced manholes
for the Strength Limit State per LRFD [Table 12.5.5-1] are as shown below:
Structure Type
Cast-in-place

Flexure

Shear

0.9

0.85

3.4.2 Moment Capacity


For rectangular sections, the nominal moment resistance, Mn, per LRFD [5.7.3.2.3] (tension
reinforcement only) equals:

2
The factored resistance, Mr, or moment capacity per LRFD [5.7.3.2.1], shall be taken as:

2
The location of the design moment will consider the haunch dimensions in accordance with
LRFD [12.11.4.2 ]. No portion of the haunch shall be considered in adding to the effective
depth of the section.

3.4.3 Shear Capacity


Per LRFD [12.11.4.1] ,shear in manholes shall be investigated in conformance with LRFD[5.14.5.3]
The location of the critical section for shear for manholes with haunches shall be determined in
conformance with LRFD[C5.13.3.6.1] and shall be taken at a distance dv from the end of
the haunch.
In the absence of shear reinforcing, the nominal shear resistance is equal to the shear resistance
of the concrete.The factored resistance, Vr, or shear capacity, per ACI[11.2.1.2] shall be taken as

Vc = 0.17 (f'c)0.5 bw d

3.5.Service Limit State


Service I Limit State shall be applied as restrictions on stress, deformation, and crack width
under regular service conditions LRFD [1.3.2.2].
3.5.1 Factored Resistance
The resistance factor, , for Service Limit State, is found in LRFD [1.3.2.1 ] and its value is 1.00.
3.5.2 Crack Control Criteria
Per LRFD [12.11.3] , the provisions of LRFD [5.7.3.4] shall apply to crack width control
All reinforced concrete members are subject to cracking under any load condition, which
produces tension in the gross section in excess of the cracking strength of the concrete.
Provisions are provided for the distribution of tension reinforcement to control flexural cracking.
Crack control criteria does not use a factored resistance, but calculates a maximum spacing for
flexure reinforcement based on service load stress in bars, concrete cover and exposure condition.
Crack control criteria shall be applied when the tension in the cross-section exceeds 80% of
the modulus of rupture, fr, specified in LRFD [5.4.2.6] for Service I Limit State. The spacing,
s, (in mm) of mild steel reinforcement in the layer closest to the tension face shall satisfy:

s
in which :

1
e

0.7
=

0.6

Exposure factor

(Implied crack width 0.25mm)

(1.0 for Class 1 exposure condition, 0.75 for Class 2 exposure condition,
see LRFD [5.7.3.4] for guidance)
dc

thickness of concrete cover measured from extreme tension fiber to center

of the flexural reinforcement located closest thereto(mm).


fss

tensile stress in the steel reinforcement at the service limit state. (MPa)

overall thickness or depth of component.(mm)

3.6.Minimum Reinforcement Check


Per LRFD [12.11.4.3] , the area of reinforcement, As, in the cross-section should
be checked for minimum reinforcement requirements per LRFD [5.7.3.3.2] .
Unless otherwise specified, at any section of a flexural component the amount of tensile
reinforcement shall be adequate to develop a factored flexural resistance at least equal to lesser of:
A-1.2 times the cracking moment, Mcr, determined on the basis of elastic stress distribution and
the modulus of rapture, fr, of concrete as specified in LRFD[5.4.2.6] where Mcr may be taken as:

Mcr= frxSc
fr= 0.52*(f'c)0.5
Sc= Ig/(0.5xh)
Ig= 1/12xbw x h

Mpa

modulus of rapture LRFD[5.4.2.6]

section modulus

moment of inertia

B-1.33 times the factored moment required by the applicable strength load combinations.

Structural Analysis of Manhole


Ht
W
L
Hs
tts
tbs
twex
Wc
coverbot
cover
soil

6000
1200
1200
300
150
250
200
25
40
25
20

cell clear heigth


cell clear width
cell clear length
depth of backfill
top slab thickness
bottom slab thickness
exterior wall thickness
weigth of concrete
concrete cover(bslab)
concrete cover(all ot)
weigth of backfill

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
kN/m 3
mm
mm
kN/m 3

S= W + twex span length for cell, mm

1400

mm

Dead Load (DC)


Include the structure self weight based on a unit weight of concrete of 25 kN/m3.
When designing the bottom slab of a culvert do not forget that the weight of the concrete
in the bottom slab acts in an opposite direction than the bottom soil pressure and thus
reduces the design moments and shears. This load is designated as ,DC, dead load
of structural components and nonstructural attachments, for application of load factors
and limit state combinations.
top slab dead load:

W dlts= W c x tts

W dlts=

3.75

kN/m

W dlbs=

6.25

kN/m

W dlsw=

144.00

kN

bottom slab dead load

W dlbs= W c x tbs
Side walls dead load

W dlsw= 4 x W c x twex x Wx Ht

Linear soil bearing at bottom slab due to self weight of structure:

W bearing=

106.61 kN/m
Wearing Surface (DW)
the weight of the future wearing surface shall be taken as 1 kN/m

W ws=

kN/m

weight of future wearing surface

Vertical Earth Load(EV)


The weight of soil above the buried structure is taken as 20 kN/m 3.
Calculate the modification of earth loads for soil-structure interaction per LRFD [12.11.2.2] .
Embankment installations are assumed.
Installation_Type="Embankment"

s=
S=

20
1.4

kN/m3
m

Hs=

0.3

unit weight of soil


span of culvert
(measured between outside faces of exterior walls)

depth of backfill above top edge of top slab


Calculate the soil-structure interaction factor for embankment installations:

0.2

Fe=

1.04

Unitless

Fe shall not exceed 1.15 for installations with compacted fill along the sides of the box section:
Fe=
Unitless
1.04
Calculate the total unfactored earth load:
W e= Fe x s x S x Hs

W e=

8.76

kN/m2

Distribute the total unfactored earth load to be evenly distributed across the top of the culvert:

W sv=

6.26

kN/m

Horizontal Earth Load(EH)


The weight of soil surrounding the buried structure is taken as 20 kN/m 3. A coefficient of lateral earth
pressure is used for the lateral pressure from the soil. This coefficient of lateral earth
pressure is based on wet and an effective friction angle of 15
The lateral earth pressure is calculated per LRFD [3.11.5.1]
Soil horizontal earth load ( magnitude at bottom of wall )
It is obvious that vertical wall shall be act as one way slab.

ko=

0.6

s=

20

Unitless coeffient of lateral earth pressure


kN/m3

W sh_bot= ko x s x (Ht+Hs)

unit weight of soil

W sh_bot=

75.60

kN/m

Live Load Surcharge(LS)


Surcharge loads are computed based on a coefficient of lateral earth pressure times the unit
weight of soil times the height of surcharge.
The uniform distributed load is applied to both exterior walls with the load toward the center
The load is designated as, LS, live load surcharge, for application of load factors and limit state
combinations. Refer to LRFD [3.11.6.4] for additional information regarding live load surcharge.

ko=

0.60

s=

20
10

LSht=

Unitless coeffient of lateral earth pressure


kN/m3
kN/m

W sll= ko x s x LSht

unit weight of soil


live load surcharge height per

W sll=

120.00

kN/m

Live Loads(LL)
Live load consists of the standard AASHTO LRFD trucks and tandem. Per LRFD [3.6.1.3.3] ,
design loads are always axle loads (single wheel loads should not be considered) and the
lane load is not used.
Where the depth of fill over the box is less than 600mm, wheel loads are distributed per
LRFD[4.6.2.10]
Where the depth of fill is 600 mm or more, the wheel loads shall be uniformly distributed over a
rectangular area with sides equal to the dimension of the tire contact area LRFD [3.6.1.2.5]
increased by the live load distribution factor (LLDF) in LRFD[Table 3.6.1.2.6a-1 ] using provisions
of LRFD [3.6.1.2.6b-c] .
Equivalent Strip Widths for Depth of Fill Less Than 600mm
When the traffic travels primarily parallel to the span, follow LRFD [4.6.2.10.2]. Use a single lane
and single lane multiple presence factor 1.2
Distribution length perpendicular to the span
S=
Clear span width
1.2
m
Eperp= 2440 + 0.12 x S
E= 2.608
m
Distribution length parallel to the span
LT =
length of tire contact area, in LRFD[3.6.1.2.5]
250
mm
LLDF=
Unitless
1.15 times the depth of the fill in select granular
1.15
backfill, or the depth of the fill in all other cases.
as specified in LRFD [3.6.1.2.6]
Eparallel= LT + LLDF x Hs

Aeq= 1.55176

Eparallel=

0.595

Per LFRD [3.6.1.2.2] , the weights of the design truck wheel is below. (Note that one axle load is
equal to two wheel loads.)

W wheel=

72.50

kN

center and rear wheel weights

The effect of single and multiple lanes shall be considered. In this case, a single lane with the
single lane factor governs. Applying the single lane multiple presence factor:

W wheel= mpfxWwheel

W wheel=

87.00

kN

mpf=

1.20

LL=

LL= Wwheel/Aeq

56.07

kN/m

Dynamic load allowance for buried structures covered by section 12, in percent
shall be taken as:

IM=33 x (1.0 - 4.1x10-4 Hs) >=% 0

Load kN/m
Top Slab
Bottom Slab
Side Wall_Down

Load kNm/m
Top slab center
Bott. slab centre
Side wall

Load kNm/m
Top Slab
Bottom Slab
Side wall

DC
3.75
106.61
0

IM=
IM=

28.94
16.23

%
kN/m

Unfactored Loads Table


Load Type
DW
EV
EH
LS
1
6.26
0
0
1
6.26
0
0
0
0
75.60
120.00

LL
56.07
56.07
0

IM
16.23
16.23
0

DC
0.68
19.19
0

Table of Unfactored Moments


Load Type
DW
EV
EH
0.18
1.13
0
0.18
1.13
0
0
0
9.07

LS
0
0
14.40

LL
10.09
10.09
0

IM
2.92
2.92
0

DC
2.25
63.96
0

Table of Unfactored Shears


Load Type
DW
EV
EH
0.60
3.75
0
0.60
3.75
0
0
0
45.36

LS
0
0
72.00

LL
33.64
33.64
0

IM
9.74
9.74
0

Design Reinforcement Bars


Top slab
Top slab shall be casted as a individual pre-cast unit and assumed to be simply support.
Mstrength=
25.41
kNm/m design strength moment
Mservice=
14.99
kNm/m design service moment
BarD=

12

mm

diameter of reinforcement used

Sbar=
Abar=
Aused=

150
mm
spacing of reinforcement
2
area of 1 rebar
113
mm
3
area of used reinforcement
754
mm
Calculate the estimated distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the nonprestressed tensile reinforcement. LRFD[5.7.3.2.2].
dc =
31
mm
ds_i= h-cover-BarD/2

ds_i=

119.00

mm

The factor B1 shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete strengths not exceeding 30 Mpa
B1=

0.85

Per [LRFD 5.7.2.1] , if c/ds <=0.6 x fs then reinforcement has yielded and the assumption is correct.

c/ds=

0.12

a=

B1xc

c=

14.61

OK

0.60

<=

mm

a=

12.42

mm

Mn=

35.72

kNm/m

Mr=

32.15

kNm/m

Mdesign=

25.41

OK

Therefore usable capacity:

Mcapacity=

32.15

>=

Check the section for minimum reinforcement in accordance with LRFD[5.7.3.3.2]


1.00
width of concrete design section
b=
m
0.15
height of concrete design section
h=
m

fr=
Ig=
h/2=
Sc=

2.85
0.0003
0.08
0.0038

Mpa
mm
m
m

modulus of rapture LRFD[5.4.2.6]


gross moment of inertia
distance from neutral axis to the extreme element
section modulus

The corresponding cracking moment is:

Mcr= 3x(1xfr)xSc
1=

1.60

flexural cracking variability factor

3=

0.67

ratio of yield strength to ultimate strength of the reinforcement

Mcr=

11.45

kNm

Is Mr greater than the lesser of 1.2xMcr and 1.33xMstr

Mr=

32.15

kNm

>=

13.74

kNm

OK

Per LRFD [5.7.3.4] ,the spacing of reinforcement in the layer closest to the tension face shall satify:

s
in which

0.7

Calculate the ratio of flexural strain at the extreme tension face to the strain at the centroid of the
reinforcement layer nearest the tension face:

0.7

Bs=

1.37

0.006

n=

7.61

Calculate the reinforcement ratio:

= As/(b x ds)
Calculate modular ratio:

N= Es\Ec

Calculate fss, the tensile stress in the reinforcement at the Service I Limit State. The moment arm
used in the equation below to calculate fss is (j)(h-dc)

k=((N)2 + (2N))0.5 - N
j=1-k/3
Mservice= 14.99
kN/m

k=
j=

0.27
0.91

service moment

fss=Mservice/(As x j x (h-dc) <= 0.6fy


fss=

183.37

<=

252.00

OK

mm

OK

Calculate the maximum spacing requirements per LRFD[5.10.3.2]

smax1
Smax2= 1.5 h

Smax1=

231.31

mm

Smax2=

225

mm

Smax=

225

mm

Check provided spacing is less than the maximum allowable spacing

Spacing=

150

mm

<=

Smax=

225

Check the minimum spacing requirements per LFRD[5.10.3.1] . The clear distance betwen parallel
bars in a layer shall not be less than:

Smin1= 1.5 x Dbar

Smin1=

18

mm

Smin2= 1.5xMax aggregate

Smin2=

30

mm

Maximum size of aggregate of the coarse aggregate for precast concrete units shall not
exceed 20 mm

Spacing=

150

mm

>

Smin=

30

mm

Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement Check


BarD=
Sbar=
Abar=
Aused=

12

150
113
754
= As/(b x ds)

mm
mm

diameter of reinforcement used

spacing of reinforcement
area of 1 rebar
mm
area of used reinforcement
mm2
= 0.0008 LRFD[5.10.8]
0.00634
>=
2

OK

Shear Check
Shear strength provided by concrete:
85
kN/m
V=
68
kN/m
Vd=

ACI [11.2.1.2]
design shear at support
design shear at distance d

Vc = 0.17 (f'c)0.5 bw d
Vc =

94
kN
No need additional shear reinforcement

Vd=

>=

68

kN

OK

Bottom Slab
Bottom slab is also assumed to be simply supported. It is clear that wall corner will take moment
However, we know that it can not be more than qxL/8. This approach is found to be conservative.
Mstrength=
48.55
kNm/m design strength moment
Mservice=
33.51
kNm/m design service moment
BarD=

12

mm

diameter of reinforcement used

Sbar=
Abar=
Aused=

150
mm
spacing of reinforcement
2
area of 1 rebar
113
mm
area of used reinforcement
754
mm3
Calculate the estimated distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the nonprestressed tensile reinforcement. LRFD[5.7.3.2.2].
dc =
46
mm
ds_i= h-cover-BarD/2

ds_i=

204.00

mm

The factor B1 shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete strengths not exceeding 30 Mpa
B1=

0.85

Per [LRFD 5.7.2.1] , if c/ds <=0.6 x fs then reinforcement has yielded and the assumption is correct.

c/ds=

0.07

a=

B1xc

c=

<=

14.61

mm

OK

0.60

a=

12.42

mm

Mn=

62.63

kNm/m

Mr=

56.37

kNm/m

Mdesign=

48.55

Therefore usable capacity:

Mcapacity=

56.37

>=

Ig=

0.0013

h/2=
Sc=

mm 4
m

0.0104

OK
Check the section for minimum reinforcement in accordance with LRFD[5.7.3.3.2]
1.00
width of concrete design section
b=
m
0.25
height of concrete design section
h=
m
fr=
2.85
Mpa modulus of rapture LRFD[5.4.2.6]
0.13

gross moment of inertia


distance from neutral axis to the extreme element
section modulus

The corresponding cracking moment is:

Mcr= 3x(1xfr)xSc
1=

1.60

flexural cracking variability factor

3=

0.67

ratio of yield strength to ultimate strength of the reinforcement

Mcr=

31.80

kNm

Is Mr greater than the lesser of 1.2xMcr and 1.33xMstr

Mr=

kNm

56.37

38.17

>=

kNm

OK

Per LRFD [5.7.3.4] ,the spacing of reinforcement in the layer closest to the tension face shall satify:

s
in which

0.7

Calculate the ratio of flexural strain at the extreme tension face to the strain at the centroid of the
reinforcement layer nearest the tension face:

0.7

Bs=

1.32

0.004

n=

7.61

Calculate the reinforcement ratio:

= As/(b x ds)
Calculate modular ratio:

N= Es\Ec

Calculate fss, the tensile stress in the reinforcement at the Service I Limit State. The moment arm
used in the equation below to calculate fss is (j)(h-dc)

k=((N)2 + (2N))0.5 - N
j=1-k/3
Mservice= 33.51
kN/m

k=
j=

0.21
0.93

service moment

fss=Mservice/(As x j x (h-dc) <= 0.6fy


fss=

234.30

<=

252.00

OK

Calculate the maximum spacing requirements per LRFD[5.10.3.2]

smax1
Smax2= 1.5 h

Smax1=

146.23

mm

Smax2=

375

mm

Smax= 146.2334

mm

Check provided spacing is less than the maximum allowable spacing

Spacing=

150

mm

>

Smax= 146.233

(Acceptable)
mm
Not OK

Check the minimum spacing requirements per LFRD[5.10.3.1] . The clear distance betwen parallel
bars in a layer shall not be less than:

Smin1= 1.5 x Dbar

Smin1=

18

mm

Smin2= 1.5xMax aggregate

Smin2=

42

mm

Spacing=

150

mm

>

Smin=

42

mm

OK

Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement Check


BarD=

12

mm

Sbar=
Abar=
Aused=

150
113
754
= As/(b x ds)

diameter of reinforcement used

mm

spacing of reinforcement
area of 1 rebar
mm
2
area of used reinforcement
mm
= 0.0008 LRFD[5.10.8]
0.0037
>=
2

Shear Check
162
kN/m
V=
107
kN/m
Vd=
0.5
Vc = 0.17 (f'c) bw d
Shear strength provided by concrete:
161
kN
Vc =
No need additional shear reinforcement

design shear at support


design shear at distance d

Vd=

>=

107

kN

OK

Side Wall Horizontal Reinforcement


Mstrength=
Mservice=

35.21
23.47

kNm/m
kNm/m

12

mm

BarD=

design strength moment


design service moment
diameter of reinforcement used

Sbar=
Abar=
Aused=

150
mm
spacing of reinforcement
2
area of 1 rebar
113
mm
area of used reinforcement
754
mm2
Calculate the estimated distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the nonprestressed tensile reinforcement. LRFD[5.7.3.2.2].
dc =
31
mm
ds_i= h-cover-BarD/2

ds_i=

169.00

mm

The factor B1 shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete strengths not exceeding 30 Mpa
B1=

0.85

Per [LRFD 5.7.2.1] , if c/ds <=0.6 x fs then reinforcement has yielded and the assumption is correct.

c/ds=

0.09

a=

B1xc

c=

<=

14.61

mm

OK

0.60

a=

12.42

mm

Mn=

51.55

kNm/m

Mr=

46.40

kNm/m

Mdesign=

35.21

Therefore usable capacity:

Mcapacity=

46.40

>=

Ig=

0.0007

mm 4
m

OK
Check the section for minimum reinforcement in accordance with LRFD[5.7.3.3.2]
1.00
width of concrete design section
b=
m
0.20
height of concrete design section
h=
m
fr=
2.85
Mpa modulus of rapture LRFD[5.4.2.6]
h/2=
Sc=

0.10
0.0067

gross moment of inertia


distance from neutral axis to the extreme element
section modulus

The corresponding cracking moment is:

Mcr= 3x(1xfr)xSc
1=

1.60

flexural cracking variability factor

3=

0.67

ratio of yield strength to ultimate strength of the reinforcement

Mcr=

20.35

kNm

Is Mr greater than the lesser of 1.2xMcr and 1.33xMstr

Mr=

kNm

46.40

24.43

>=

kNm

OK

Per LRFD [5.7.3.4] ,the spacing of reinforcement in the layer closest to the tension face shall satify:

s
in which

0.7

Calculate the ratio of flexural strain at the extreme tension face to the strain at the centroid of the
reinforcement layer nearest the tension face:

0.7

Bs=

1.26

0.004

n=

7.61

Calculate the reinforcement ratio:

= As/(b x ds)
Calculate modular ratio:

N= Es\Ec

Calculate fss, the tensile stress in the reinforcement at the Service I Limit State. The moment arm
used in the equation below to calculate fss is (j)(h-dc)

k=((N)2 + (2N))0.5 - N
j=1-k/3
Mservice= 23.47
kN/m

k=
j=

0.23
0.92

service moment

fss=Mservice/(As x j x (h-dc) <= 0.6fy


fss=

199.41

<=

252.00

OK

mm

OK

Calculate the maximum spacing requirements per LRFD[5.10.3.2]

smax1
Smax2= 1.5 h

Smax1=

231.24

mm

Smax2=

300

mm

Smax= 231.2419

mm

Check provided spacing is less than the maximum allowable spacing

Spacing=

150

mm

<=

Smax= 231.242

Check the minimum spacing requirements per LFRD[5.10.3.1] . The clear distance betwen parallel
bars in a layer shall not be less than:

Smin1= 1.5 x Dbar

Smin1=

18

mm

Smin2= 1.5xMax aggregate

Smin2=

42

mm

Spacing=

150

mm

>

Smin=

42

mm

OK

Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement Check


BarD=
Sbar=
Abar=
Aused=

12

150
113
754
= As/(b x ds)

mm

diameter of reinforcement used

mm

spacing of reinforcement
area of 1 rebar
mm
2
area of used reinforcement
mm
= 0.0008 LRFD[5.10.8]
0.00446
>=
2

Shear Check
Shear strength provided by concrete:
176
kN/m
V=
126
kN/m
Vd=

Vc = 0.17 (f'c)0.5 bw d
134
kN
Vc =

ACI [11.2.1.2]
design shear at support
design shear at distance d
>=

Vd=

126

OK

No need additional shear reinforcement

Side Wall Vertical Reinforcement


Vertical reinforcement shall be used same with horizontal reinforcement, although minimum
reinforcement provisions is sufficient.