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Jun 02, 2016

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Manhole

© All Rights Reserved

100%(3)Il 100% ha trovato utile questo documento (3 voti)

356 visualizzazioni15 pagineManhole

© All Rights Reserved

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1.Design Method

1.1.Design Requirements

The report aims to present necessary calculations to provide reinforcement in manholes where

infiltration, traffic load, safety and risk issues cannot be addressed.

2.General

The most crucial condition of the manhole need to be kept under consideration and that is when

the empty and the soil surrounding the wall is wet considering infiltration is blocked.

2.1.Material Properties

The properties of materials used for concrete manholes are as follows:

f`c

=

specified compressive strength of concrete at 28 days

fy

Es

Ec

=

=

=

=

=

30

MPa for concrete in box culverts

specified minimum yield strength of reinforcement

420

MPa

200000 MPa modulus of elasticity of steel reinforcement LRFD (5.4.3.2)

modulus of elasticity of concrete in box LRFD [C5.4.2.4]

=

=

4800

f`c

0.5

26290.68 MPa

3.1.LFRD Requirements

For manhole design, the component dimensions and the size and spacing of reinforcement

shall be selected to satisfy the following equation for all appropriate limit states, as presented

in LRFD [1.3.2.1]

Q = i i Qi Rn = Rr

Where :

i

Load modifier

Load factor

Qi

=

=

applied loads

Total factored force effect

Resistance factor

Rn

Rr

Factored resistance = Rn

3.2.Limit States

The Strength I Limit State is used to design reinforcement for flexure and checking shear in

the slabs and walls, LRFD [12.5.3] . The Service I Limit State is used for checking reinforcement

for crack control criteria, LRFD [12.5.2] .

3.3.Load Factors

The following Strength I load factors st and Service I load factors, s1

shall be used for manhole design:

Dead Load - Wearing Surface

Vertical Earth Pressure

Horizontal Earth Pressure

Live Load Surcharge

Live Load + IM

DC

DW

EV

EH

LS

LL + IM

Strength I

Load Factor

1.25

0.90

1.50

0.65

1.35

0.90

1.50

0.50

1.50

1.50

1.75

1.75

Service I

Load Factor

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Strength I Limit State shall be applied to ensure that strength and stability are provided to resist

the significant load combinations that a structure is expected to experience during its design life

LRFD [1.3.2.4].

3.4.1 Factored Resistance

The resistance factor, , is used to reduce the computed nominal resistance of a structural element

This factor accounts for the variability of material properties, structural dimensions and workmanship

and uncertainty in prediction of resistance. The resistance factors, , for reinforced manholes

for the Strength Limit State per LRFD [Table 12.5.5-1] are as shown below:

Structure Type

Cast-in-place

Flexure

Shear

0.9

0.85

For rectangular sections, the nominal moment resistance, Mn, per LRFD [5.7.3.2.3] (tension

reinforcement only) equals:

2

The factored resistance, Mr, or moment capacity per LRFD [5.7.3.2.1], shall be taken as:

2

The location of the design moment will consider the haunch dimensions in accordance with

LRFD [12.11.4.2 ]. No portion of the haunch shall be considered in adding to the effective

depth of the section.

Per LRFD [12.11.4.1] ,shear in manholes shall be investigated in conformance with LRFD[5.14.5.3]

The location of the critical section for shear for manholes with haunches shall be determined in

conformance with LRFD[C5.13.3.6.1] and shall be taken at a distance dv from the end of

the haunch.

In the absence of shear reinforcing, the nominal shear resistance is equal to the shear resistance

of the concrete.The factored resistance, Vr, or shear capacity, per ACI[11.2.1.2] shall be taken as

Vc = 0.17 (f'c)0.5 bw d

Service I Limit State shall be applied as restrictions on stress, deformation, and crack width

under regular service conditions LRFD [1.3.2.2].

3.5.1 Factored Resistance

The resistance factor, , for Service Limit State, is found in LRFD [1.3.2.1 ] and its value is 1.00.

3.5.2 Crack Control Criteria

Per LRFD [12.11.3] , the provisions of LRFD [5.7.3.4] shall apply to crack width control

All reinforced concrete members are subject to cracking under any load condition, which

produces tension in the gross section in excess of the cracking strength of the concrete.

Provisions are provided for the distribution of tension reinforcement to control flexural cracking.

Crack control criteria does not use a factored resistance, but calculates a maximum spacing for

flexure reinforcement based on service load stress in bars, concrete cover and exposure condition.

Crack control criteria shall be applied when the tension in the cross-section exceeds 80% of

the modulus of rupture, fr, specified in LRFD [5.4.2.6] for Service I Limit State. The spacing,

s, (in mm) of mild steel reinforcement in the layer closest to the tension face shall satisfy:

s

in which :

1

e

0.7

=

0.6

Exposure factor

(1.0 for Class 1 exposure condition, 0.75 for Class 2 exposure condition,

see LRFD [5.7.3.4] for guidance)

dc

fss

tensile stress in the steel reinforcement at the service limit state. (MPa)

Per LRFD [12.11.4.3] , the area of reinforcement, As, in the cross-section should

be checked for minimum reinforcement requirements per LRFD [5.7.3.3.2] .

Unless otherwise specified, at any section of a flexural component the amount of tensile

reinforcement shall be adequate to develop a factored flexural resistance at least equal to lesser of:

A-1.2 times the cracking moment, Mcr, determined on the basis of elastic stress distribution and

the modulus of rapture, fr, of concrete as specified in LRFD[5.4.2.6] where Mcr may be taken as:

Mcr= frxSc

fr= 0.52*(f'c)0.5

Sc= Ig/(0.5xh)

Ig= 1/12xbw x h

Mpa

section modulus

moment of inertia

B-1.33 times the factored moment required by the applicable strength load combinations.

Ht

W

L

Hs

tts

tbs

twex

Wc

coverbot

cover

soil

6000

1200

1200

300

150

250

200

25

40

25

20

cell clear width

cell clear length

depth of backfill

top slab thickness

bottom slab thickness

exterior wall thickness

weigth of concrete

concrete cover(bslab)

concrete cover(all ot)

weigth of backfill

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

kN/m 3

mm

mm

kN/m 3

1400

mm

Include the structure self weight based on a unit weight of concrete of 25 kN/m3.

When designing the bottom slab of a culvert do not forget that the weight of the concrete

in the bottom slab acts in an opposite direction than the bottom soil pressure and thus

reduces the design moments and shears. This load is designated as ,DC, dead load

of structural components and nonstructural attachments, for application of load factors

and limit state combinations.

top slab dead load:

W dlts= W c x tts

W dlts=

3.75

kN/m

W dlbs=

6.25

kN/m

W dlsw=

144.00

kN

W dlbs= W c x tbs

Side walls dead load

W dlsw= 4 x W c x twex x Wx Ht

W bearing=

106.61 kN/m

Wearing Surface (DW)

the weight of the future wearing surface shall be taken as 1 kN/m

W ws=

kN/m

The weight of soil above the buried structure is taken as 20 kN/m 3.

Calculate the modification of earth loads for soil-structure interaction per LRFD [12.11.2.2] .

Embankment installations are assumed.

Installation_Type="Embankment"

s=

S=

20

1.4

kN/m3

m

Hs=

0.3

span of culvert

(measured between outside faces of exterior walls)

Calculate the soil-structure interaction factor for embankment installations:

0.2

Fe=

1.04

Unitless

Fe shall not exceed 1.15 for installations with compacted fill along the sides of the box section:

Fe=

Unitless

1.04

Calculate the total unfactored earth load:

W e= Fe x s x S x Hs

W e=

8.76

kN/m2

Distribute the total unfactored earth load to be evenly distributed across the top of the culvert:

W sv=

6.26

kN/m

The weight of soil surrounding the buried structure is taken as 20 kN/m 3. A coefficient of lateral earth

pressure is used for the lateral pressure from the soil. This coefficient of lateral earth

pressure is based on wet and an effective friction angle of 15

The lateral earth pressure is calculated per LRFD [3.11.5.1]

Soil horizontal earth load ( magnitude at bottom of wall )

It is obvious that vertical wall shall be act as one way slab.

ko=

0.6

s=

20

kN/m3

W sh_bot= ko x s x (Ht+Hs)

W sh_bot=

75.60

kN/m

Surcharge loads are computed based on a coefficient of lateral earth pressure times the unit

weight of soil times the height of surcharge.

The uniform distributed load is applied to both exterior walls with the load toward the center

The load is designated as, LS, live load surcharge, for application of load factors and limit state

combinations. Refer to LRFD [3.11.6.4] for additional information regarding live load surcharge.

ko=

0.60

s=

20

10

LSht=

kN/m3

kN/m

W sll= ko x s x LSht

live load surcharge height per

W sll=

120.00

kN/m

Live Loads(LL)

Live load consists of the standard AASHTO LRFD trucks and tandem. Per LRFD [3.6.1.3.3] ,

design loads are always axle loads (single wheel loads should not be considered) and the

lane load is not used.

Where the depth of fill over the box is less than 600mm, wheel loads are distributed per

LRFD[4.6.2.10]

Where the depth of fill is 600 mm or more, the wheel loads shall be uniformly distributed over a

rectangular area with sides equal to the dimension of the tire contact area LRFD [3.6.1.2.5]

increased by the live load distribution factor (LLDF) in LRFD[Table 3.6.1.2.6a-1 ] using provisions

of LRFD [3.6.1.2.6b-c] .

Equivalent Strip Widths for Depth of Fill Less Than 600mm

When the traffic travels primarily parallel to the span, follow LRFD [4.6.2.10.2]. Use a single lane

and single lane multiple presence factor 1.2

Distribution length perpendicular to the span

S=

Clear span width

1.2

m

Eperp= 2440 + 0.12 x S

E= 2.608

m

Distribution length parallel to the span

LT =

length of tire contact area, in LRFD[3.6.1.2.5]

250

mm

LLDF=

Unitless

1.15 times the depth of the fill in select granular

1.15

backfill, or the depth of the fill in all other cases.

as specified in LRFD [3.6.1.2.6]

Eparallel= LT + LLDF x Hs

Aeq= 1.55176

Eparallel=

0.595

Per LFRD [3.6.1.2.2] , the weights of the design truck wheel is below. (Note that one axle load is

equal to two wheel loads.)

W wheel=

72.50

kN

The effect of single and multiple lanes shall be considered. In this case, a single lane with the

single lane factor governs. Applying the single lane multiple presence factor:

W wheel= mpfxWwheel

W wheel=

87.00

kN

mpf=

1.20

LL=

LL= Wwheel/Aeq

56.07

kN/m

Dynamic load allowance for buried structures covered by section 12, in percent

shall be taken as:

Load kN/m

Top Slab

Bottom Slab

Side Wall_Down

Load kNm/m

Top slab center

Bott. slab centre

Side wall

Load kNm/m

Top Slab

Bottom Slab

Side wall

DC

3.75

106.61

0

IM=

IM=

28.94

16.23

%

kN/m

Load Type

DW

EV

EH

LS

1

6.26

0

0

1

6.26

0

0

0

0

75.60

120.00

LL

56.07

56.07

0

IM

16.23

16.23

0

DC

0.68

19.19

0

Load Type

DW

EV

EH

0.18

1.13

0

0.18

1.13

0

0

0

9.07

LS

0

0

14.40

LL

10.09

10.09

0

IM

2.92

2.92

0

DC

2.25

63.96

0

Load Type

DW

EV

EH

0.60

3.75

0

0.60

3.75

0

0

0

45.36

LS

0

0

72.00

LL

33.64

33.64

0

IM

9.74

9.74

0

Top slab

Top slab shall be casted as a individual pre-cast unit and assumed to be simply support.

Mstrength=

25.41

kNm/m design strength moment

Mservice=

14.99

kNm/m design service moment

BarD=

12

mm

Sbar=

Abar=

Aused=

150

mm

spacing of reinforcement

2

area of 1 rebar

113

mm

3

area of used reinforcement

754

mm

Calculate the estimated distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the nonprestressed tensile reinforcement. LRFD[5.7.3.2.2].

dc =

31

mm

ds_i= h-cover-BarD/2

ds_i=

119.00

mm

The factor B1 shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete strengths not exceeding 30 Mpa

B1=

0.85

Per [LRFD 5.7.2.1] , if c/ds <=0.6 x fs then reinforcement has yielded and the assumption is correct.

c/ds=

0.12

a=

B1xc

c=

14.61

OK

0.60

<=

mm

a=

12.42

mm

Mn=

35.72

kNm/m

Mr=

32.15

kNm/m

Mdesign=

25.41

OK

Mcapacity=

32.15

>=

1.00

width of concrete design section

b=

m

0.15

height of concrete design section

h=

m

fr=

Ig=

h/2=

Sc=

2.85

0.0003

0.08

0.0038

Mpa

mm

m

m

gross moment of inertia

distance from neutral axis to the extreme element

section modulus

Mcr= 3x(1xfr)xSc

1=

1.60

3=

0.67

Mcr=

11.45

kNm

Mr=

32.15

kNm

>=

13.74

kNm

OK

Per LRFD [5.7.3.4] ,the spacing of reinforcement in the layer closest to the tension face shall satify:

s

in which

0.7

Calculate the ratio of flexural strain at the extreme tension face to the strain at the centroid of the

reinforcement layer nearest the tension face:

0.7

Bs=

1.37

0.006

n=

7.61

= As/(b x ds)

Calculate modular ratio:

N= Es\Ec

Calculate fss, the tensile stress in the reinforcement at the Service I Limit State. The moment arm

used in the equation below to calculate fss is (j)(h-dc)

k=((N)2 + (2N))0.5 - N

j=1-k/3

Mservice= 14.99

kN/m

k=

j=

0.27

0.91

service moment

fss=

183.37

<=

252.00

OK

mm

OK

smax1

Smax2= 1.5 h

Smax1=

231.31

mm

Smax2=

225

mm

Smax=

225

mm

Spacing=

150

mm

<=

Smax=

225

Check the minimum spacing requirements per LFRD[5.10.3.1] . The clear distance betwen parallel

bars in a layer shall not be less than:

Smin1=

18

mm

Smin2=

30

mm

Maximum size of aggregate of the coarse aggregate for precast concrete units shall not

exceed 20 mm

Spacing=

150

mm

>

Smin=

30

mm

BarD=

Sbar=

Abar=

Aused=

12

150

113

754

= As/(b x ds)

mm

mm

spacing of reinforcement

area of 1 rebar

mm

area of used reinforcement

mm2

= 0.0008 LRFD[5.10.8]

0.00634

>=

2

OK

Shear Check

Shear strength provided by concrete:

85

kN/m

V=

68

kN/m

Vd=

ACI [11.2.1.2]

design shear at support

design shear at distance d

Vc = 0.17 (f'c)0.5 bw d

Vc =

94

kN

No need additional shear reinforcement

Vd=

>=

68

kN

OK

Bottom Slab

Bottom slab is also assumed to be simply supported. It is clear that wall corner will take moment

However, we know that it can not be more than qxL/8. This approach is found to be conservative.

Mstrength=

48.55

kNm/m design strength moment

Mservice=

33.51

kNm/m design service moment

BarD=

12

mm

Sbar=

Abar=

Aused=

150

mm

spacing of reinforcement

2

area of 1 rebar

113

mm

area of used reinforcement

754

mm3

Calculate the estimated distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the nonprestressed tensile reinforcement. LRFD[5.7.3.2.2].

dc =

46

mm

ds_i= h-cover-BarD/2

ds_i=

204.00

mm

The factor B1 shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete strengths not exceeding 30 Mpa

B1=

0.85

Per [LRFD 5.7.2.1] , if c/ds <=0.6 x fs then reinforcement has yielded and the assumption is correct.

c/ds=

0.07

a=

B1xc

c=

<=

14.61

mm

OK

0.60

a=

12.42

mm

Mn=

62.63

kNm/m

Mr=

56.37

kNm/m

Mdesign=

48.55

Mcapacity=

56.37

>=

Ig=

0.0013

h/2=

Sc=

mm 4

m

0.0104

OK

Check the section for minimum reinforcement in accordance with LRFD[5.7.3.3.2]

1.00

width of concrete design section

b=

m

0.25

height of concrete design section

h=

m

fr=

2.85

Mpa modulus of rapture LRFD[5.4.2.6]

0.13

distance from neutral axis to the extreme element

section modulus

Mcr= 3x(1xfr)xSc

1=

1.60

3=

0.67

Mcr=

31.80

kNm

Mr=

kNm

56.37

38.17

>=

kNm

OK

Per LRFD [5.7.3.4] ,the spacing of reinforcement in the layer closest to the tension face shall satify:

s

in which

0.7

Calculate the ratio of flexural strain at the extreme tension face to the strain at the centroid of the

reinforcement layer nearest the tension face:

0.7

Bs=

1.32

0.004

n=

7.61

= As/(b x ds)

Calculate modular ratio:

N= Es\Ec

Calculate fss, the tensile stress in the reinforcement at the Service I Limit State. The moment arm

used in the equation below to calculate fss is (j)(h-dc)

k=((N)2 + (2N))0.5 - N

j=1-k/3

Mservice= 33.51

kN/m

k=

j=

0.21

0.93

service moment

fss=

234.30

<=

252.00

OK

smax1

Smax2= 1.5 h

Smax1=

146.23

mm

Smax2=

375

mm

Smax= 146.2334

mm

Spacing=

150

mm

>

Smax= 146.233

(Acceptable)

mm

Not OK

Check the minimum spacing requirements per LFRD[5.10.3.1] . The clear distance betwen parallel

bars in a layer shall not be less than:

Smin1=

18

mm

Smin2=

42

mm

Spacing=

150

mm

>

Smin=

42

mm

OK

BarD=

12

mm

Sbar=

Abar=

Aused=

150

113

754

= As/(b x ds)

mm

spacing of reinforcement

area of 1 rebar

mm

2

area of used reinforcement

mm

= 0.0008 LRFD[5.10.8]

0.0037

>=

2

Shear Check

162

kN/m

V=

107

kN/m

Vd=

0.5

Vc = 0.17 (f'c) bw d

Shear strength provided by concrete:

161

kN

Vc =

No need additional shear reinforcement

design shear at distance d

Vd=

>=

107

kN

OK

Mstrength=

Mservice=

35.21

23.47

kNm/m

kNm/m

12

mm

BarD=

design service moment

diameter of reinforcement used

Sbar=

Abar=

Aused=

150

mm

spacing of reinforcement

2

area of 1 rebar

113

mm

area of used reinforcement

754

mm2

Calculate the estimated distance from extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the nonprestressed tensile reinforcement. LRFD[5.7.3.2.2].

dc =

31

mm

ds_i= h-cover-BarD/2

ds_i=

169.00

mm

The factor B1 shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete strengths not exceeding 30 Mpa

B1=

0.85

Per [LRFD 5.7.2.1] , if c/ds <=0.6 x fs then reinforcement has yielded and the assumption is correct.

c/ds=

0.09

a=

B1xc

c=

<=

14.61

mm

OK

0.60

a=

12.42

mm

Mn=

51.55

kNm/m

Mr=

46.40

kNm/m

Mdesign=

35.21

Mcapacity=

46.40

>=

Ig=

0.0007

mm 4

m

OK

Check the section for minimum reinforcement in accordance with LRFD[5.7.3.3.2]

1.00

width of concrete design section

b=

m

0.20

height of concrete design section

h=

m

fr=

2.85

Mpa modulus of rapture LRFD[5.4.2.6]

h/2=

Sc=

0.10

0.0067

distance from neutral axis to the extreme element

section modulus

Mcr= 3x(1xfr)xSc

1=

1.60

3=

0.67

Mcr=

20.35

kNm

Mr=

kNm

46.40

24.43

>=

kNm

OK

Per LRFD [5.7.3.4] ,the spacing of reinforcement in the layer closest to the tension face shall satify:

s

in which

0.7

Calculate the ratio of flexural strain at the extreme tension face to the strain at the centroid of the

reinforcement layer nearest the tension face:

0.7

Bs=

1.26

0.004

n=

7.61

= As/(b x ds)

Calculate modular ratio:

N= Es\Ec

Calculate fss, the tensile stress in the reinforcement at the Service I Limit State. The moment arm

used in the equation below to calculate fss is (j)(h-dc)

k=((N)2 + (2N))0.5 - N

j=1-k/3

Mservice= 23.47

kN/m

k=

j=

0.23

0.92

service moment

fss=

199.41

<=

252.00

OK

mm

OK

smax1

Smax2= 1.5 h

Smax1=

231.24

mm

Smax2=

300

mm

Smax= 231.2419

mm

Spacing=

150

mm

<=

Smax= 231.242

Check the minimum spacing requirements per LFRD[5.10.3.1] . The clear distance betwen parallel

bars in a layer shall not be less than:

Smin1=

18

mm

Smin2=

42

mm

Spacing=

150

mm

>

Smin=

42

mm

OK

BarD=

Sbar=

Abar=

Aused=

12

150

113

754

= As/(b x ds)

mm

mm

spacing of reinforcement

area of 1 rebar

mm

2

area of used reinforcement

mm

= 0.0008 LRFD[5.10.8]

0.00446

>=

2

Shear Check

Shear strength provided by concrete:

176

kN/m

V=

126

kN/m

Vd=

Vc = 0.17 (f'c)0.5 bw d

134

kN

Vc =

ACI [11.2.1.2]

design shear at support

design shear at distance d

>=

Vd=

126

OK

Vertical reinforcement shall be used same with horizontal reinforcement, although minimum

reinforcement provisions is sufficient.

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