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AS 2452.1—2004

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Australian Standard

AS 2452.1—2004

Non-destructive testing—Determination

Part 1: Determination of wall thickness

of thickness

of pipe by the use of radiography

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This Australian Standard was prepared by Committee MT-007, Non-Destructive Testing of Metals and Materials. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 15 October 2004. This Standard was published on 1 November 2004.

The following are represented on Committee MT-007:

ANSTO

Keeping Standards up-to-date

Standards are living documents which reflect progress in science, technology and

2001.

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 03553.

Australian Aerospace Non-Destructive Testing Committee Australian Industry Group Australian Institute for Non-Destructive Testing Australian Pipeline Industry Association Australian Railway Association Bureau of Steel Manufacturers of Australia Institution of Engineers Australia National Association of Testing Authorities Australia TestSafe Australia Victoria Workcover Authority Welding Technology Institute of Australia

systems. To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and new editions are published. Between editions, amendments may be issued. Standards may also be withdrawn. It is important that readers assure themselves they are using a current Standard, which should include any amendments which may have been published since the Standard was purchased. Detailed information about Standards can be found by visiting the Standards Web Shop at www.standards.com.au and looking up the relevant Standard in the on-line catalogue. Alternatively, the printed Catalogue provides information current at 1 January each year, and the monthly magazine, The Global Standard, has a full listing of revisions and amendments published each month. Australian Standards TM and other products and services developed by Standards Australia are published and distributed under contract by SAI Global, which operates the Standards Web Shop. We also welcome suggestions for improvement in our Standards, and especially encourage readers to notify us immediately of any apparent inaccuracies or ambiguities. Contact us via email at mail@standards.org.au, or write to the Chief Executive, Standards Australia International Ltd, GPO Box 5420, Sydney, NSW

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AS 2452.12004

Australian Standard

Non-destructive testingDetermination

Part 1: Determination of wall thickness

Originated as AS 2452.1—1982.

COPYRIGHT

© Standards Australia International

All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by

Published by Standards Australia International Ltd GPO Box 5420, Sydney, NSW 2001,

ISBN 0 7337 6343 X

of thickness

of pipe by the use of radiography

Second edition 2004

any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written permission of the publisher.

Australia

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AS 2452.1—2004

2

PREFACE

This Standard was prepared by the Joint Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand

This Standard was prepared by the Australian members of the Joint Standards

The objective of this Standard is to specify methods for film radiography to determine wall

The objective of this revision is to expand the technology for the equipment and accessories

The methods in this Standard provide suitable bases for the testing of round pipe or other

This Standard is Part 1 of a series of Standards covering the radiography of ferrous

The series comprises the following parts:

AS

2452

2452.1

2452.3

Non-destructive testingDetermination of thickness

Part 1:

Part 3:

Determination of the wall thickness of pipe by the use of radiography

The term ‘normative’ has been used in this Standard to define the application of the

Committee MT-007, Non-Destructive Testing of Metals and Materials, at the request of industry. This Standard supersedes AS 2452.11982, Non-destructive testingDetermination of thickness, Part 1: Determination of wall thickness of pipe by the use of radiography.

Australia/Standards New Zealand Committee MT-007. After consultation with shareholders in both countries, Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand decided to develop this Standard as an Australian Standard rather than an Australian/New Zealand Standard.

thickness of pipes and small fabricated vessels.

used for radiography in determining wall thickness.

small pressure vessels, including gas cylinders. The methods rely on the use of a source of radiation, X-rays or gamma-rays, and require testing personnel to be experienced in the handling and use of radiation equipment and materials.

castings.

Use of ultrasonic testing

appendix to which it applies. A ‘normative’ appendix is an integral part of a Standard.

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3

AS 2452.12004

CONTENTS

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

SCOPE

REFERENCED DOCUMENTS

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

DEFINITIONS

PRINCIPLE

EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES

PROCEDURE

MEASUREMENTS AND CALCULATION

QUALIFICATION OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION PERSONNEL

TEST REPORT

APPENDIX A

APPROXIMATE CHORD LENGTHS FOR SOME TYPICAL

Page

4

4

4

4

5

5

6

9

9

9

16

PIPE SIZES

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AS 2452.12004

4

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA

Australian Standard

Part 1: Determination of wall thickness of pipe by the use of radiography

1

SCOPE

This Standard specifies the methods for the determination of the wall thickness of pipes and

2

NOTES:

1

Under a given set of radiographic conditions, the accuracy of the methods specified herein is

2

The methods specified herein are more accurate when a pipe is empty.

REFERENCED DOCUMENTS

The following documents are referred to in this standard:

AS

1929

2243

2243.4

3998

Non-destructive testingGlossary of terms

Safety in laboratories

Part 4:

Ionizing radiations

Non-destructive testingQualification and certification of personnel

Code of Practice for the Control and Safe Handling of Sealed Radioactive Sources Used in

NH and MRC Radiation Health Series No. 31, Code of Practice for the safe use of

3

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

Exposure of any part of the human body to ionizing radiation may be injurious. It is

NOTE: The use of radioactive substances and irradiating apparatus is controlled by various

4

DEFINITIONS

For the purposes of this Standard, the terms and definitions given in AS 1929 apply.

* Issued by the National Health and Medical Research Council, Canberra.

Standards Australia

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Non-destructive testing—Determination of thickness

small fabricated vessels using X-ray or gamma-ray radiography.

reduced with decreasing wall thickness and with increasing pipe or vessel diameter.

Industrial Radiography*

Industrial Radiography Equipment

therefore essential that when X-ray equipment or radioactive sources are being used adequate precautions be taken to protect testing personnel and any other persons in the vicinity.

statutory regulations. Reference should also be made AS 2243.4, the Code of Practice for the Control and Safe Handling of Sealed Radioactive Sources used in Industrial Radiographyand NH and MRC Radiation Health Series No.31 Code of Practice for the safe use of Industrial Radiography Equipment.

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5

PRINCIPLE

5

AS 2452.12004

An image of the tangential section of a pipe produced on a radiographic film positioned with its plane approximately normal to the path of the beam of radiation on the opposite side. The wall thickness of the pipe at the point which is tangential to the beam is determined from the resultant film images by the use of appropriate equations.

6

6.1

EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES

General

The radiographic testing system shall be capable of delineating boundaries and contours,

6.2

X-ray equipment

X-ray equipment up to 450 kV shall be used. The exposure shall be carried out at the lowest

6.3

Gamma-ray sources

Gamma-ray sources given in Table 6.1 may be used for penetrating the approximate

NOTE: Methods using gamma-rays are usually less sensitive than methods using X-rays.

TABLE 6.1

GAMMA-RAY SOURCE FOR THE TESTING OF STEEL

Gamma-ray source

Cobalt 60 (Co 60 )

Iridium 192 (Ir 192 )

Ytterbium 169 (Yb 169 )

Approximate thickness of steel*

min.

50

10

6

mm

max.

200

90

20

* Values of thickness are generally regarded as those values above which exposure times

6.4

Intensifying screens

Metal intensifying screens emit electrons under irradiation and the action of these electrons

(a)

(b)

(c)

6.5

Screens shall be handled carefully to avoid dents, creases, scratches and

Any damaged screens which produce a spurious image in the section under test on the

Foreign material such as grease or lint shall be removed with care from the surface of

Cassettes

Irrespective of the type of cassette used, adequate precautions shall be taken to ensure good

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determining wall thickness of pipes of small fabricated vessels, and of producing satisfactory image quality in a radiograph.

voltage consistent with a reasonable time.

thickness of steel specifications.

will be unreasonably long and below which the required quality may not be readily achieved.

on the film contributes to producing a chosen density of radiograph with a shorter exposure time. Screens are used to minimize scatter radiation. The following recommendations apply to screens:

contamination by dirt and grease.

radiographic film shall not be used.

the screen.

film-to-screen contact. Rigid cassettes may be necessary to maintain a fixed position in relation to the beam, especially where it is difficult to obtain film/screen contact.

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AS 2452.12004

6.6

Radiographs

6

All radiographs shall be free from mechanical, chemical, or other blemishes to the extent that they cannot mask or be confused with the image of any wall thickness changes in the test area.

7 PROCEDURE

7.1 General

7.1.1

Arrangement

The radiation source, the area of interest and the radiographic film shall be arranged in

NOTE: Vibration may effect the sharpness of the image.

7.1.2

Source-to-object distance

The distance of the radiation source to the edge of the area of interest shall be not less than

NOTE: This ratio should be increased proportionately with sources larger than 2 mm.

7.1.3

Exposure for steel

Exposure shall be selected to produce a film image of the area of interest which may be

Dimensions of chord lengths for typical pipe sizes are given in Appendix A.

NOTE: Exposure charts (see Figures 7 and 8) are provided for steel using the following sources

(a)

(b)

Ir 192 .

Co 60 .

These charts give exposures which have been found by experience for the various chord lengths

7.1.4

Radiographic equivalence factors

Exposures for materials other than steel may be calculated by multiplying the section

7.1.5

Film processing

Normal film processing shall be carried out in accordance with the instructions of the film

7.2

7.2.1

Method No.1

Application

This method is suitable for use on unlagged piping up to 300 mm in diameter where the

7.2.2

Procedure

The procedure shall be as follows:

(a)

(b)

Estimate minimum film size required from pipe diameter and source-to-film distance.

Position the cassette so that axis of the beam of radiation is normal to the plane of the

Standards Australia

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accordance with the method chosen (see Figures 1 to 6).

5 times the distance of the tangent point to the plane of the film.

satisfactorily measured. Consequently it is not necessary to achieve the radiographic density levels used for the detection of discontinuities in normal radiography.

of radiation:

of a range of sizes of steel pipe. An alternative procedure involves the use of conventional exposure charts (pipe thickness vs exposure) prepared for the type of radiation source it is proposed to use.

thickness by the Radiographic Equivalence Factor (Table 7.1) and referring to the appropriate exposure curve for steel.

manufacturer.

pipe axis can be aligned with the source.

cassette through the centre of the pipe (see Figure 1).

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(c)

(d)

7.3

7.3.1

7

Make the exposure and measure the image of the wall thickness, m.

Calculate wall thickness t according to the equation given in Figure 1.

Method No. 2

Application

AS 2452.12004

This method is suitable for use on unlagged piping of all dimensions. In this method the beam is normal to the film on one side but is offset from the pipe axis.

7.3.2

Procedure

The procedure shall be as follows:

(a)

Estimate the minimum film size required from the pipe diameter and from the

(b)

Arrange the source in the offset position so that the angle of the beam of radiation

NOTE: The beam may be positioned on either side, as required.

(c)

(d)

(e)

7.4

7.4.1

Position the cassette so that the angle of the beam of radiation is at right-angles to the

Make the exposure and measure the image of the wall thickness, m.

Calculate t according to the equation relevant to the beam angle in Figure 2.

Method No.3

Application

This method is suitable for use on lagged piping where the diameter of the pipe and its

NOTE: The method may also be used on unlagged piping.

7.4.2

Procedure

The procedure shall be as follows:

(a)

Estimate the minimum film size required from the pipe diameter and from the

(b)

Arrange the source in the offset position. Let the distance from the centre-line

(c)

(d)

(e)

7.5

7.5.1

Position the cassette so that the plane of the film is normal to the centre-line through

Make the exposure and measure the image of the wall thickness, m.

Calculate wall thickness t according to formula (see Figure 3).

Method No. 4

Application

Suitable for use on lagged piping where the pipe diameter and its position within the

7.5.2

Procedure

The procedure shall be as follows:

(a)

Position the cassette so that it is held on a radius equivalent to the distance from the

(b)

Measure b and outside diameter DL over the lagging.

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Standards Australia

estimated wall thickness.

approximately bisects the wall thickness t to be measured.

plane of the cassette (see Figure 2).

position within the lagging is known.

thickness of the lagging.

through the pipe equal h.

the pipe (see Figure 3).

lagging is unknown.

source to the film b (see Figure 4).

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AS 2452.12004

8

(c)

(d)

7.6

7.6.1

Make the exposure and measure the image of the wall thickness, m.

Calculate wall thickness t according to the equation in Figure 4.

Method No. 5

Application

This method is suitable for use on small piping.

7.6.2

Procedure

The procedure shall be as follows:

(a)

(b)

Measure outside diameter of pipe D.

Position to cassette so that it is

held on a suitable radius from the source (see

(c)

(d)

Make the exposure and measure the width of the diametral image D 1 and the image of

Calculate wall thickness t according to the equation in Figure 5.

TABLE 7.1

APPROXIMATE RADIOGRAPHIC EQUIVALENCE

Material

Aluminium (1100)

Aluminium (2024)

Carbon steel

Stainless steel (18-8)

7.7

7.7.1

Copper

Monel

Lead

Titanium

Concrete

Method No. 6

Application

100

kV

0.08

0.12

1.0

1.0

1.5

1.7

0.09

X-rays

140

220

kV

kV

0.12

0.13

1.0

1.0

1.5

1.5

14.0

0.18

0.14

1.0

1.0

1.4

1.2

11.0

0.54

250

kV

1.0

1.0

1.4

0.1

Gamma-rays

Co 60

0.35

0.35

1.0

1.0

1.1

2.3

0.9

0.2

Ir 192

0.35

0.35

1.0

1.0

1.2

4.0

0.9

0.25

Yb 169

1.0

1.0

1.3

7.0

This method is suitable as a routine method where appropriate bar clamps may be fabricated

7.7.2

(a)

Procedure

Position cassettes in holders on ends of square bars. Slip over pipe as shown. Use

NOTE: Position clamp so as not to interfere with line of sight of the beam.

(b)

(c)

Adjust the bar clamp so that both cassette holders are in contact with the pipe, and the

Make the exposure and measure the image of the wall thickness, m.

Standards Australia

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Figure 5).

the wall thickness, m.

FACTORS RELATIVE TO STEEL

observing the constraints of the method.

spring clamp to firmly hold device (see Figure 6).

source holder is 5 times pipe diameter from films.

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(d)

9

Calculate wall thickness t according to the equation in Figure 6.

NOTE: In practice no correction is generally necessary.

8

8.1

MEASUREMENTS AND CALCULATION

Measurement

AS 2452.12004

The image of the thickness of the area of interest shown on the radiograph shall be

8.2

Calculation

The actual wall thickness shall be calculated using the appropriate formula for the method

TABLE

8.1

WALL THICKNESS FORMULAS

9

Figure number

2

2

1

(LHS)

(RHS)

3

4

5

6

Equation

t = m × a/b sin θ

t

= m × a/b

t = m 1 R × (a 1 R /b 1 R ) × sin θ

t =

m

(

sinθ

2

)(

×

h

t

=

m b

/ sinθ

H

+

D

DL   / b )

2

t = m × D/D 1

t

= m × a/b

)

/ 2 tan θ

QUALIFICATION OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION PERSONNEL

Radiographic examination, interpretation, evaluation for compliance, and report shall be

Operators shall have the qualifications detailed below or shall carry out their duties under

Qualifications

following:

normally

acceptable

for

the

examination

of

components

include

the

(a)

Certification by the Australian Institute of Non-Destructive Testing (AINDT) in

(b)

10

Equivalent qualifications.

TEST REPORT

The test report shall include the following information:

(a)

(b)

Identification of the radiographic laboratory.

Product identification or job description, including material and nominal pipe or

(c)

(d)

(e)

Radiation source.

Film type, exposure, and, if applicable, the relevant exposure-value.

Source-to-object distance and source-to-film distance.

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Standards Australia

measured using any means appropriate to the order of accuracy required.

used (see Table 8.1).

made by personnel having qualifications and experience for their job function acceptable to the testing body, the manufacturer and where required by the purchaser.

the supervision of persons responsible for the examination.

accordance with AS 3998 in the radiographic testing of ferrous castings.

vessel diameter and location.

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AS 2452.12004

10

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

(k)

The method used. Chord length, in millimetres. Wall thickness, as measured on the radiographic film, in millimetres. Calculated wall thickness, in millimetres Reference number of this Australian Standard, i.e. AS 2452.2. Report number and date.

Standards Australia

FIGURE 1

ARRANGEMENT FOR METHOD 1

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FIGURE 2

FIGURE 3

11

ARRANGEMENT FOR METHOD 2

ARRANGEMENT FOR METHOD 3

AS 2452.12004

Standards Australia

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AS 2452.12004

Standards Australia

FIGURE 4

FIGURE 5

12

ARRANGEMENT FOR METHOD 4

ARRANGEMENT FOR METHOD 5

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FIGURE 6

13

ARRANGEMENT FOR METHOD 6

AS 2452.12004

Standards Australia

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AS 2452.12004

FIGURE 7

Standards Australia

14

EXPOSURE CHART FOR IRIDIUM 192, FOR STEEL

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15

AS 2452.12004

NOTES:

1

2

The broken line shows theoretical exposure values. Exposure values found satisfactory in practice are represented by the solid line.

For method of calculation of chord length see Figure 7.

FIGURE 8

EXPOSURE CHART FOR COBALT-60 FOR STEEL

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AS 2452.12004

16

APPENDIX

A

APPROXIMATE CHORD LENGTHS FOR SOME TYPICAL PIPE SIZES

Nominal

pipe

size*

mm

19.1

(3/4)

25

(1)

50.8

(2)

76.2

(3)

101.6

(4)

127

(5)

152.4

(6)

203.2

(8)

Outside

diameter

mm

26.67

33.4

60.3

88.9

114.3

141.3

168.3

219.1

(Normative)

Pipe

schedule

or strength

40, STD

80, XS

160

XXS

40, STD

80, XS

160

XXS

40, STD

80, XS

160

XXS

40, STD

80, XS

160

XXS

40, STD

80, XS

120

160

XXS

40, STD

80, XS

120

160

XXS

40, STD

80, XS

120

160

30

XXS

40, STD

60

80, XS

XXS

Standard (STD)

X-Strong (XS)

XX-Strong (XXS)

Wall

thickness

mm

2.87

3.91

5.41

7.82

3.38

4.55

6.35

9.09

3.91

5.54

8.74

11.07

5.49

7.62

11.13

15.24

6.02

8.56

11.13

13.49

17.12

6.55

9.53

12.70

15.88

19.05

7.11

10.97

14.27

18.34

21.95

7.04

8.18

10.31

12.70

22.23

Approximate

chord

length†

mm

17

19

21

24

20

23

26

30

30

35

42

47

43

50

59

67

51

60

68

74

82

60

71

81

89

97

68

83

94

105

113

77

83

93

102

132

(continued)

* Figures in brackets refer to imperial inch measurements; they have been

Rounded to nearest millimetre.

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included for convenience of use of the table.

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Nominal

pipe

size*

mm

254

(10)

304.8

(12)

355.6

(14)

406.4

(16)

457.2

(18)

508

(20)

558.8

(22)

609.6

(24)

660.4

(26)

Outside

diameter

mm

273.1

323.9

355.6

406.4

457.2

508

558.8

609.6

660.4

17

Pipe

schedule

or strength

30

40, STD

60, XS

80

30

STD

40

60

80

20

XS

30, STD

40

60

80

20

XS

30, STD

40, XS

60

80

20

STD

30

40

60

80

10

XS

20, STD

30, XS

40

60

80

STD

XS

10

20, STD, XS

30

40

60

STD

XS

Standard (STD)

X-Strong (XS)

XX-Strong (XXS)

Wall

thickness

mm

7.8

9.27

12.70

15.06

8.38

9.53

10.31

12.70

14.27

17.45

7.92

9.53

11.13

12.70

15.06

19.05

7.92

9.53

12.70

16.66

21.41

7.93

9.52

11.13

12.70

14.27

19.05

23.82

6.35

9.53

12.70

15.06

20.62

26.19

9.53

12.70

6.35

9.53

12.70

14.27

17.45

24.59

9.53

12.70

Approximate

chord

length

mm

91

99

115

125

103

109

114

126

133

146

105

115

124

132

143

160

112

123

141

161

182

119

131

141

150

161

183

203

113

138

159

172

200

225

145

167

124

151

174

184

203

240

158

181

(continued)

AS 2452.12004

* Figures in brackets refer to imperial inch measurements; they have been

Rounded to nearest millimetre.

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included for convenience of use of the table.

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AS 2452.12004

Nominal

pipe

size*

mm

762

(30)

914.4

(36)

965.2

(38)

1016

(40)

1066.8

(42)

1117.6

(44)

1168.4

(46)

1219.2

(48)

Outside

diameter

mm

762

914.4

965.2

1016

1066.8

1117.6

1168.4

1219.2

18

Pipe

schedule

or strength

10 STD

20, XS

30

STD

XS

STD

XS

STD

XS

STD

XS

STD

XS

STD

XS

STD

XS

Standard (STD)

X-Strong (XS)

XX-Strong (XXS)

Wall

thickness

mm

7.92

9.53

12.70

15.88

9.53

12.70

9.53

12.70

9.53

12.70

9.53

12.70

9.53

12.70

9.53

12.70

9.53

12.70

Approximate

chord

length

mm

155

169

195

218

186

214

191

220

196

226

201

231

206

237

210

242

215

248

* Figures in brackets refer to imperial inch measurements; they have been

Rounded to nearest millimetre.

Standards Australia

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included for convenience of use of the table.

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19

NOTES

AS 2452.12004

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AS 2452.12004

20

NOTES

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Standards Australia Standards Australia is an independent company, limited by guarantee, which prepares and publishes most of the voluntary technical and commercial standards used in Australia. These standards are developed through an open process of consultation and consensus, in which all interested parties are invited to participate. Through a Memorandum of Understanding with the Commonwealth government, Standards Australia is recognized as Australia’s peak national standards body. For further information on Standards Australia visit us at

www.standards.org.au

Australian Standards Australian Standards are prepared by committees of experts from industry, governments, consumers and other relevant sectors. The requirements or recommendations contained in published Standards are a consensus of the views of representative interests and also take account of comments received from other sources. They reflect the latest scientific and industry experience. Australian Standards are kept under continuous review after publication and are updated regularly to take account of changing technology.

International Involvement Standards Australia is responsible for ensuring that the Australian viewpoint is considered in the formulation of international Standards and that the latest international experience is incorporated in national Standards. This role is vital in assisting local industry to compete in international markets. Standards Australia represents Australia at both ISO (The International Organization for Standardization) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

Electronic Standards All Australian Standards are available in electronic editions, either downloaded individually from our web site, or via On-Line and DVD subscription services. For more information phone 1300 65 46 46 or visit Standards Web Shop at

www.standards.com.au

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GPO Box 5420 Sydney NSW 2001 Administration Phone (02) 8206 6000 Fax (02) 8206 6001 Email mail@standards.com.au Customer Service Phone 1300 65 46 46 Fax 1300 65 49 49 Email sales@standards.com.au Internet www.standards.org.au

ISBN 0 7337 6343 X

Printed in Australia

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