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# Lab manual

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### Experiment no 1 Objective

Introduction of operational amplifier

Trainer

OP AMP-LM741

DC Power supply

Resistors

Oscilloscope.

### Theory

Operational amplifier (OP-AMP) are highly stable,high gain difference amplifiers that can handle signals from zero frequency (dc signals)up to the MHZ range.They are used for performing mathematical operations on the input signal in real time and are an important component of analog compilation networks.

LM324 and LM741 ICS are mostly used for practical implementations.

### Circuit diagram

3 Figure 1 Figure 2

There are two inputs, inverting (-) input and non-inverting (+) input. The output signal voltage, vo is given by

V O= A (v + -v - )

Where v+ and v- are signals applied to non-inverting and inverting inputs. The gain A is infinite for the ideal OP – AMPs, the input resistance is infinite, thus no current flows in to the two op- AMPs inputs. These OP AMPs require a bipolar power supply to operate e.g positive voltage and negative voltage with respect to ground, the bipolar power supply allows op-amps to generate output voltage signal vo of either polarity.

Thus, a typical OP-AMP fed with -15 and 15v , may field a vo approximately with in the -13 to 13v range. This is called the operational amplifier range, because of their very high open loop gain,OP-AMPs are almost exclusively used with some additional circuitry(mostly with resistors and capacitors) required to ensure a negative feedback loop. The feedback loop stabilizes the

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output with in the operational amplifier range and provides a much smaller but precisely controlled loop gain. For the ideal OP- amplifier with feedback, voltages at the two inputs, v+ and v-are equal.

An operational amplifier (often op-amp) is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a input and, usually, a single-ended output. In this configuration, an op- amp produces an output potential (relative to circuit ground) that is typically hundreds of thousands of times larger than the potential difference between its input terminals.

Operational amplifiers had their origins in analog computers, where they were used to do mathematical operations in many linear, non-linear and frequency-dependent circuits. The popularity of the op-amp as a building block in analog circuits is due to its versatility. Due to negative feedback, the characteristics of an op-amp circuit, its gain, input and output impedance, bandwidth etc. are determined by external components and have little dependence on temperature coefficients or manufacturing variations in the op-amp itself.

 isolation  the the built from three (usually differential amplifier. Other types of differential amplifier include amplifier amplifier op-amps), instrumentation (similar to the fully differential amplifier The op-amp is one type of (similar to the op-amp, but with two outputs), the

instrumentation amplifier, but with tolerance to

ordinary op-amp), and common-mode voltages

that would destroy an

negative feedback amplifier

(usually built from one or more op-amps and

a resistive feedback network).

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### Experiment 2

To design the operational amplifier based inverting and non inverting amplifier

### Apparatus

  Trainer  op amplifier  Ac power supply(function generator)  resistors

### Theory Inverting amplifier

When input voltage is given to the inverting terminal then op-amplifier is saud to be inverting amplifier. Voltage gain of inverting op amplifier =v O /v in = -(r 2 /r 1 ) Negative sign here is only representing phase inversion, it is not effecting the value of A V

### Circuit design

6 Figure 3

### Procedure

  Open software named as Multisim  Select the required op amplifier from analog block  Select other components from thre respective blocks or directories  Connect all the components through wire to make the required circuit  Turn on the power  Click on oscilloscope to view the resulted waveform  Examine the waveform for different values of R 2

### Output ### Observations &calculations

 R2 V0UT(V) Av(calculated) AV(measured) %error 22k 2.197 2.2 2.197 0.13

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 27k 2.669 2.7 2.669 0.11 39k 3.849 3.9 3.849 0.12 47k 4.64 4.7 4.64 0.55 56k 5.537 5.6 5.53 0.53 68k 6.73 6.8 6.73 0.14

### Result

Hence we have examined inverting configuration of op-amp.

### Theory

When input signal is attached with the non-inverting terminal(+ve terminal) then it is said to be a non-inverting amplifier.

Av=1+ R 2 /R 1

### Apparatus

(Av>1)

  Trainer  op amplifier  Ac power supply(function generator)  Resistors

### Circuit diagram

8 Figure 4

### Procedure

  Open software named as Multisim  Select the required op amplifier from analoge block  Select other components from there respective blocks or directories  Connect all the components through wire to make the required circuit  Turn on the power  Click on oscilloscope to view the resulted waveform  Examine the waveform for different values of R 2

### Output ### Observations & calculations

 R2 Vout(v) AV(calculated)

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 22K 3.198 2.2 27K 3.69 2.7 39K 4.893 3.9 47K 5.672 4.7 56K 6.527 5.6 68K 7.747 6.8

### Result

Hence we have examined non-inverting configuration of op-amplifier

### Experiment no 3 Objective

To study the characteristics of UA741C op-amp

### Apparatus

Resistors UA741C op-amp Multimeter Function generator/AC Power supply Oscilloscope

### Section (a) Input bias current

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Input bias current is defined as the average of the currents entering into the inverting and non- inverting terminals of an op-amp. Input bias current = I B =I B1 -I B2 /2

Where I B1 and I B2 are the base currents of the op-amp. Its range is 80-500nA.

### Circuit diagram Figure 5

### Procedure

  Open software named as Multisim  Select required components from their respective blocks or directories  Connect all the components through wire to make the required circuit  Turn on the power  double click on multimeter  Note down the respective reading measured by the multimeter  Connect the multimeter across R1 & R2 respectively  Note down the respective readings

### Output

11 Figure 6

### Calculation & observations

• I B =I B1 +I B2 /2=80nA

### Result

Hence we have studied the characteristics of UA741C op-amp

### Section (b) Input offset current

The bias currents I B1 and I B2 wll not be equal in an op-amp. Input offset current is defined as the algebraic diffeernec between the currents into the inverting and non-inverting terminals

• I os =|I B1 -I B2 | Typical and maximum values of input offset current are 20na and 200nA.

### Procedure

  Open software named as Multisim  Select required components from their respective blocks or directories  Connect all the components through wire to make the required circuit  Turn on the power  double click on multimeter  Note down the respective reading measured by the multimeter

### Circuit diagram

12 ### Output ### Calculations and observations

• I =90.5nA

B1

• I =69.5nA

B2

Ios=|I B1 -I B2 |=21.5nA

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### Input offset voltage

Input offset is defined as the voltage that must be applied between the input of an op-amp to nullify the output voltage. Typical and maximum values of input offset voltage are 2mv and 6mv.

### Circuit diagram Figure 7

### Procedure

  Open software named as Multisim  Select required components from their respective blocks or directories  Connect all the components through wire to make the required circuit  Channel A of oscilloscope is connected with the output and the ground hence it will give  us the output waveform Channel B of oscilloscope is connected with the input and the ground hence it will give  us the input waveform Turn on the power  double click on oscilloscope  oscilloscope will give us both the input and output waveform simultaneously  adjust the scale to note down the readings measured by oscilloscope

### Output

14 ### Calculation & observation

Output voltage=V o =-------V Offset voltage =V of =v o /A v (CL) and AV(CL)=R 1 +R 2 /R 1 -------

• V OFF =---------------------------------mV

### Slew rate

Slew rate is the rate of rise of output voltage .it is the measure of fastness of op-amp. It is expressed in V/usec. If the scope requirements of the op-amp output voltage are grater than the slew rate,distortion occurs. Slew rate is measured by applying a step input voltage .

### Circuit diagram

15 Figure 8

### Output ### Procedure

  Open software named as Multisim  Select required components from their respective blocks or directories  Connect all the components through wire to make the required circuit  Channel A of oscilloscope is connected with the output and the ground hence it will give  us the output waveform Channel B of oscilloscope is connected with the input and the ground hence it will give  us the input waveform Turn on the power

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  double click on oscilloscope  adjust the scale to note down the readings measured by oscilloscope

### Calculation & observations

Voltage of output =----------V p-p Slew rate =delta V/delta t=change in voltage/change in time=----------V/usec

Or=2 π fV p =-----------V/usec

### Result Section (e) Common-mode rejection ratio(CMRR)

The CMRR is the defined as the ratio of the differential voltage gain(Ad) to the common mode voltage gain(Acm). Range is 70-90db

CMRR=A d /A cm CMRR(db)=20log(A d /A cm ) db

### Procedure

  Open software named as Multisim  Select required components from their respective blocks or directories  Connect all the components through wire to make the required circuit  Turn on the power  double click on multimeter  Note down the respective reading measured by the multimeter

### Circuit diagram

17 ### Output ### Calculation and observations

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• V O =--------V rms

A d =R 2 /R 1 =---------- A cm =V O /V i =---------- CMRR=20log(A d /A cm ) db=-------db

### Result

Input bias current=----- Input offset current=----- Input offset voltage=------ Slew rate=-----------

CMRR=----------

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### Objective

To demonstrate the use of OP-AMP as

(1)summing amplifier (2) Subtractor

(3) Integration

(4) Differentiator

### Apparatus

  Ua741CP OP-AMP  resistors (10k, 1k)  function generator  oscilloscope  multimeter  power supply

### (1) Summing amplifier

OP AMP may be used to perform summing operation of several input signals in inverting and non- inverting mode. The input signal to be summed up are given to inverting terminal or non- inverting terminal through the input resistance to perform inverting and non- inverting summing operations respectively.

### Circuit diagram: Figure 9

### Procedure

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  Open software named as Multisim  Select required components from their respective blocks or directories  Connect all the components through wire to make the required circuit  Turn on the power  double click on multimeter  Note down the respective reading measured by the multimeter

### Observation and calculation :

 V 1 V 2 Theoretical Vo=V 1 +V 2 Practical V 0 5 3.4 -8.4 -8.399 10 10 -20 -19.5

### (2)Subtractor :

The base difference amplifier can be used as a subtractor. THE signals to be subtracted are connected to opposite polarity inputs i-e in inverting or non- inverting terminals of the op-amp.

### Procedure

  Open software named as Multisim  Select required components from their respective blocks or directories  Connect all the components through wire to make the required circuit  Turn on the power  double click on multimeter  Note down the respective reading measured by the multimeter

### Circuit diagram: Figure 10

21 Figure 11

### Observation and calculation:

 V 1 V 2 Theoretical Practical V 0 =V 1 +V 2 V 0 10 7 3 3 10 12 -2 -2

### (3)Integrator

Integrator is used to integrate the input waveform i-e V 0 =V in dt,integrators are commonly used in wave shaping, signal generators etc. the op amp, integrator works as an open loop amplifier and the gain becomes infinity or very high gain.

### Procedure

  Open software named as Multisim  Select required components from their respective blocks or directories  Connect all the components through wire to make the required circuit  Turn on the power  double click on oscilloscope  Note down the respective reading measured by the oscilloscope

### Circuit diagram

22 Figure 12

### Output ### (4)Differentiator

Here the output waveform is the derivative of input waveform. In a basic inverting amplifier, if we replace by r1 by c1 we get the differentiator. AT high frequencies, the gain of amplifier increases with the increase in frequency.

### Procedure

  Open software named as Multisim  Select required components from their respective blocks or directories  Connect all the components through wire to make the required circuit  Turn on the power  double click on oscilloscope

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Note down the respective reading measured by the oscilloscope

### Circuit diagram Figure 13

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