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MILITARY STANDARD

DISSIMILAR

METALS

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MFFP

MIL-STD-BBqB

CHG

NOTICE 3

9799913 0434333 L99 M

NOT MEASUREMENT
SENSITIVE
MIL-STD-889B
NOTICE 3 (USAF)
17 May 1993

MILITARY STANDARD
DISSIMILAR METALS
TO ALL IIOLDERS OF MIL-STD-889B:
1. THE FOLLOWING PAGES OF MIL-STD-889B HAVE BEEN REVISED AND
SUPERSEDE THE PAGES LISTED:
DATEPAGENEW

SUPERSEDED
DATEPAGE
November
1979
21
May 17
1993

REPRINTED
WITHOUT
CHANGE
1976 7 July

2. RETAIN THIS NOTICE AND INSERT BEFORE TABLE OF CONTENTS.

3. Holders of MIL-STD-889B will verify that page changes and additionsindicated above have
been entered. This notice page will be retained as a check sheet. T h s issuance, together with
appended pages, isa separate publication. Each notice isto be retained by stocking points until
the military standard is completely revised or cancelled.

Custodians:
Air Force - 11

Preparing activity:
Air Force - 11

Review activities:
Air Force - 13, 17, 99

AMSC:
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distributionis unlimited.

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r=

MIL-STD-889B N O T I C E I G D

m 7779933 0035273 8 m
MIL-STD-889B
NOTICE 1
21 November 1979
MILITARY

STANDARD

DISSIMILAR
TO

ALL

HOLDERS

OF

METALS

MIL-STD-889B:

1. THE FOLLOWING PAGES OF MIL-STD-889B HAVE BEEN REVISED AND


SUPERSEDE THE PAGES LISTED:
DATE SUPERSEDED
PAGE DATE PAGE

NEW
7 July
1976
(REPRINT
WITHOUT
CHANGE.)
21 November 1979
21 November 1979
7 July
1976
(REPRINT
WITHOUT
CHANGE)
21 November 1979
21 November 1979

1
2
3
4

5
6
2.

7
7
7
7
7
7

2
3

5
6

July
July
July
July
July
July

1976
1976
1976
1976
1976
1976

RETAIN THIS NOTICE AND INSERT BEFORE TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Holders of MIL-STD-889B will verify that page changes and additions


indicated above have been entered. This notice page will be retained
as a check sheet. This issuance, together with appended pages, is a
by stocking points
separate publication. Each notice is to be retained
until the Military Standard
is completely revisedor canceled.

.Custodians:
Army - MX
Navy - AS
Air Force- 11

Preparing activity:
Air Force- 11

Review activities:
Army -AR
Navy
EC, OS
Air Force - 13, 17, 99

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MFFP

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3.

.ii

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DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

MIL-STD-889B
7 July 1976
CONTENTS

Paragraph l.

1.1
1.1.1
2.
2.1
3.
4.
5.

5.1
5.2

TABLES

Appendix

A.

Recommendedtreatmentsinorder
effectiveness- - - - - B. What is involved in galvanic corrosion-

of protective

--------

iii

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--

10
17

MIL-STD-889A
2 2 September 1969
MILITARY STANDARD
DISSIMILAR
1.

METALS

SCOPE.

1.1 Purpose. This standard defines and classifies dissimilar metals,


and establishes requirements for protecting coupled dissimilar metals,
with attention directed to the anodic member of the couple, against
corrosion.
1.1.1 Applicability. This standard is applicable to all military
equipment parts, components and assemblies.

2.

mFERENCED DOCUMENTS.

Issues of documents. The following documents of the issuein


or request.for proposal, form
effect on date o f invitation for bids
a part of this standard to the extent specified herein.
2.1

SPECIFICATIONS
MILITARY
MIL-S-8802

Sealing Compound, Temperature-Resistant,


Integral Fuel Tanks and Fuel Cell
Cavities, High Adhesion

(Copies of specifications, standards, drawings, and publications


required by contractors in connection with specific procurement
functions should be obtained from the procuring activity
or as
directed by the contracting officer.)

FSC MFFP

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3.

DEFINITIONS.

3.1 Dissimilar metals. This standard terms metals dissimilar when two
or otherwise electrically connected to
metal specimens are in contact
each other in a conductive solution and generate
an electric current.

3 . 3 Galvanic series. A galvanic series is a listing of metals and


alloys based on their order and tendency to corrode independently, in a
particular electrolyte solutiono r other environment. This tendency
of
for dissolutiono r corrosion is related to the electrical potential
the metal in conductive medium. Galvanic corrosion is inherently
affected by the relative position of the galvanic series of the metals
constituting the couple. Metals closely positioned
in the series will
have electrical potentials nearer
one another, whereas with greater
divergence in position, greater differences in potential will prevail.
Galvanic effects, i.e., corrosion of the anode will in the former
condition be minimal, the latter condition will exhibit more significant corrosive effects. A galvanic series for corrosion structural
metals, for sea water, is shown in Table II. ITable
shall be usedas
a guidein determining the relative compatibility of dissimilar metal
combinations. Compatibility does not indicate a complete freedom from
galvanic action.

4. GENERAL STATEMENTS. (Not Applicable)


5.
5.1

DETAILED REQUIREMENTS.
Minimizing dissimilar metal corrosion.

5.1.1 When dissimilar metals are used in intimate contact, suitable


be applied. In some
protection against galvanic corrosion shall
environments particularly with metals such as magnesium, steel, zinc,
aluminum, in contact with copper, stainless steel, nickel, galvanic
corrosion may be appreciable. Consequently, care should be taken
to
protect the anodic member by proper electrical insulation of the joint
or by excluding the electrolyte if this is feasible.
2

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3 . 2 Galvanic corrosion. Galvanic corrosion manifests itself in the


accelerated corrosion caused to the more active metal (anode) of a
dissimilar metal couple an
in electrolyte solutionor medium, and
decreased corrosive effects on the less active metal (cathode), as
compared to the corrosion of the individual metals, when not connected,
in the same electrolyte environment.

flI-STD-&BqB

CHG N O T I C E 3

m 9999911 O434314 025 m


MIL-STD-889B
NOTICE 1

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5.1.2 Table II list metals in the order of their relative activity in sea water environment.
The list begins with the more active (anodic) metal and procedes down to the least active
(cathodic) metalof the galvanic series. A galvanic series appliesto a particular
is expected to be encountered
electrolyte solution; hence for each specific solution which
for actual use, a different order or series will ensue. Galvanic series relationships are
useful as a guide for selecting metalsto be joined, will help the selectionof metals
having minimal tendencyto interact galvanically, or will indicate the needor degree of
protection to be appliedto lessen the expected potential interactions. Generally, the
closer one metal is to another
in the series, the more compatible they will be,
i.e., the
galvanic effects will be minimal; conversely, the farther one
metal.is from another, the
greater will be the effect. In a galvanic couple, the metal higher in the series represents
the anode, andw
i
l
l corrode preferentially in the environment.
5.1.3 Metals widely separated in the galvanic series mustbe protected if they are to be
joined. Appropriate measures should be taken to avoid contact. This can be
a
accomplished by applymg to the cathodic membera sacrificial metal coating having
potential similar to or near thatof the anodic member;by sealing to insure that the faying
surfaces are water-tight;by painting or coating all surfaces to increase the resistance
of
electrical circuit.
5.1.4 A small anodic area relative to the cathodic area should be avoided. The same
metal or more noble (cathodic) metals should be utilized for small fasteners, and bolts.
The larger is the relative anode area, the lower the galvanic current density on
the anode,
the lesser the attack.The galvanic corrosion effectmay be considered as inverse to the
anode-cathode area ratio.

5.1.5 Metals exposed to sea water environments shall be corrosion and


stress-corrosion resistant or shall be processed to resist corrosion and stress-corrosion.
Irrespective of the metals involved, all exposed edges should be sealed with
a suitable
sealant material conforming to MIL-S-8802. When non-compatible materials are
joined, an interposing material compatiblewith each shallbe used.
5.1.6 Materials other than true metals,i.e., non-metallic materials, which must be joined
to metals, shouldbe considered as metallic materials, unless there is supporting evidence
to the contrary. If these materialsare essentially freeof corrosive agents (salts), freeof

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MIL-STD-887B

CHG N O T I C E 3

7
-I

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jt,I

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MIL-STD-889B
2 1 November 1 9 7 9
TABLE II. Galvanic series of selected metals in Seawater. " -

PER: Army Missile Command Report KS-TR-67-11


, Practical
Galvanic Series.
Nickel (plated)
Chromium (plated)
Tantalum
AM3 50 (active
)
Stainless steel 310 (active)
Stainless steel 301 (active)
Stainless steel 304 (active)
Stainless steel430 (passive)
Stainless steel 410 (passive)
Stainless steel17-7 PH (active)
Tungsten
Niobium (Columbium) 1% Zr
Brass, yellow, 268
Uranium 8% Mo.
Brass, Naval, 464
Yellow brass
Ivluntz metal 280
Brass (plated)
Nickel-silver (18% Ni)
Stainless steel 316L (active)
Bronze 220
Copper 110
Red brass
Stainless steel 347 (active)
Molybdenum, Comm pure
Copper-Nickel 715
Admiralty brass
Stainless steel202 (active)
Bronze, Phosphor 534 (B-1)
Monel 400
Stainless steel 201 (active)
Carpenter 20 (active)
Stainless steel 321 (active)
Stainless steel 316 (active)
Stainless steel 309 (passive)
Stainless steel 17-7PH (passive)
Silicone Bronze 655

Active (Anodic)

Magnesium (Mg)
Mg Alloy 'AZ-31B
Alloy
MG
HK-31A
Zinc (hot-dip, die cast
or plated)
Beryllium (hot pressed)
Aluminum (Al) 7072 cl. on 7075
Al alloy 2014-T3
Al alloy 1160-Hl4
Al alloy 7079-T6
Cadmium (plated)
Uranium
Al alloy 218 (die cast)
Al alloy 5052-0
Al alloy 5052-H12
Al alloy 5456-0, H353
Al alloy 5052-H32
Al alloy 1100-0
Al alloy 3003-H25
A l . alloy 6061-T6
cast)
Al a.lloy A360 (die
Al alloy 7075-T6
Al alloy 1160-Hl4
Al alloy 6061-0
Indium
Al alloy 2014-0
Al alloy 2024-T4
Al alloy 5052-Hl6
Tin (plated)
Stainless steel 430 (active)
Lead
Steel 1010
Iron, cast
Stainless steel410 (active)
Copper (plated, castor wrought)
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5

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Stainless steel304 (passive )


Stainless steel 301 (pass
ive)
Stainless steel 321 (pass
ive )
Stainless steel 201 (pass
ive )
Stainless steel 286 (&tive)
Stainless steel 316L (passive)
AM355 (active)
Stainless steel 202 (passive)
Carpenter 20 (passive)
AM355 (passive)
A286 (passive)
Titanium 5A1, 2.5 Sn.
Titanium 13V, llCr, 3A1. (annealed)
Titanium 6A1,4V (solution treated and aged)
Titanium 6A1, 4V(annealed)
Titanium 8 Mn
Titanium 13V, 11Cr 3A1 (solution treated and aged
Titanum 75A
AM350 (passive)
Silver
Gold
Graphite
Noble (Less Active-Cathodic)
*U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1980 - 603-1211304

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MIL-STD-889B
21 November 1979

MIL-STD-889B
7 J u l y 1976
a c i d o r a l k a l i n e materials ( n e u t r a l pH), and f r e e o f c a r b o n o r
metallic
particles,notsubjecttobiodeteriorationor
w i l l notsupportfungal
water, t h e n t h e s e may b e c o n s i d e r e d
growth,anddonotabsorborwick
n o n - m e t a l l i c ss u i t a b l ef o rj o i n i n g
t o metals. Many materials c l a s s e d
n o n - m e t a l l i c will i n i t i a t e c o r r o s i o n of metals t o whichthey are j o i n e d ,
e.g.,cellulosicreinforcedplastics,carbonor
metal l o a d e d r e s i n
materials, asbestos-cementcomposites.
5.1.7
Where magnesium i s o n eo ft h e
metals i n v o l v e d i n t h e d i s s i m i l a r
metal c o m b i n a t i o n o r w h e r e s t a i n l e s s
s t e e l i s used i n c o n t a c t w i t h
i t s e l f , i t i s r e q u i r e d t h a t the edges of t h e j o i n t b e a d e q u a t e l y s e a l e d
t o p r e v e n t excess g a l v a n i c o r crevice a t t a c k . Where i t is n o tr e q u i r e d
t h a t t h e material b e e l e c t r i c a l l y c o n t a c t e d , t h e n
a n o n - m e t a l l i ci n s u l a t i n g g a s k e t i n g material may be used.

5.1.8 I ft h ee n v i r o n m e n tt ow h i c ht h ec o u p l e
i s t ob ee x p o s e d
is highly
a g g r e s s i v e , i t i s a d v i s a b l e t o employ maximum p r o t e c t i v e m e a s u r e s , o t h e r wise some compromise i n the p r o t e c t i v e s y s t e m c o u l d b e a l l o w e d . I n a n y
e v e n t , n:aximum p r o t e c t i v e s y s t e m s a l w a y s s h o u l d b e e m p l o y e d
when magnesium i s one of t h e metals i n v o l v e d , w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e c o m b i n a t i o n
is t o serve i n a n e l e c t r i c a l conducting system:.

a. S e l e c t materials which are i n d i c a t e d t o b e more c o m p a t i b l e i n acc o r d a n c ew i t ht h eg a l v a n i c


series; d e s i g n metal c o u p l e s s o t h a t t h e
area o f t h e c a t h o d e
i s smaller ( a p p r e c i a b l y ) t h a n t h e
area o f t h e a n o d i c
metal. F o re x a m p l e ,b o l t so r
screws of s t a i n l e s s s t e e l f o rf a s t e n i n g
aluminum s h e e t ,b u tn o tt h e
reverse. I n t e r p o s e a compatible metallic
gasketorwasherbetweenthedissimilar
metals p r i o r t o f a s t e n i n g ; o r
p l a t e t h e c a t h o d i c member w i t h a metal c o m p a t i b l et ot h ea n o d e .T h e s e
are a p p l i c a b l e t o c o u p l e s w h i c h
are t o s e r v e as a n e l e c t r i c a l connection.
b.
I n t e r p o s e a n o n - a b s o r b i n g , ' i n e r tg a s k e t i n g
material orwasherbetween t h e d i s s i m i l a r materials p r i o rt oc o n n e c t i n g
them. T h i s i s
applicabletocoupleswhich
are n o t t o serve as e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t o r s .

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5 . 2P r e c a u t i o n sa n dm e t h o d sf o rj o i n i n g .
Where i t becomes n e c e s s a r y
thatrelativelyincompatible
metals m u s tb ea s s e m b l e d ,t h ef o l l o w i n g
are p r o v i d e d f o r a l l e v i a t i o n o f g a l v a n i c
precautionsandjoiningmethods
corrosion.

I GD W 7 7 7 7 7 I I 0 0 3 5 3 0 0 5 W !

f l I L - S T D - B B 7 BN O T I C E

~~~

MIL-STD-889B
7 July 1976

c.

Seal all faying edges to preclude the entrance of liquids.

d. Apply corrosion-inhibiting pastes or compounds under heads


of screws or bolts inserted into dissimilar metal surfaces whether
or not the fasteners had been previously plated or otherwise treated.
In some instances, it may be feasible to apply an organic coating to
to
the faying surfaces prior to assembly. This would be applicable
joints which are not required to be electrically conductive.
e. Where practicable or where it will not interferethe
with
proposed use of the assembly, the external joint should be coated
externally with an effective paint system.

f. Welded or brazed dissimilar metal assemblies should be coated


with a paint system or other suitable protective coatings
to at least
1/3 inch beyond the heat affected zone.
g.
In so called protective environments (usually referredto as
humidity-controlled) cautlon should be applied to dissimilar metal
combination treatments. If the assumption is made that no corrosion
will occur because humidity control will be maintained, the stringent
requirements would be unnecessary. It must be recognized that humidity
and moisture controlled environments can be assured only by hermetically
sealed compartments or containers in which the moisture vapor content
has been adequately reduced,
so as to preclude condensation of water
at the -lowest temperature expected to be encountered in the actual surface
of the item. If humidity and condensate control cannot be maintained
or
is uncertain (frequently this is
s o ) then dissimilar metal contacts
should be treated as if protection were required against the worst environment,

6.

APPENDICES.

6.1 Appendix A.

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Lists priority protective treatments and systems for


each metal or alloy. This listing should be consulted for the selection
of systems to be applied in the joining of dissimilar metals. The surface finishes provided in the sublistings under each metal give the
optimum first, and others in descending order
of preference. Environmental conditions to which.the couple is expected to be subjected in
service must be taken into account. Assurance should be established that
lesser protective systems if selected, will fulfill the need. Considerations must be givento these factors: service conditions, electrical
8

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PROJECT NUMBER:

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MFFP-0113

MIL-STD-889B
7 July 1976
APPENDIX A
RECOMMENDED

TREATMENTS

IN

ORDER

OF

PROTECTIVE

EFFECTIVENESS

10. GENERAL
10.1 Scope. This appendix lists protective systems for each metal or
alloy with optimum treatments listed first, and others in descending
order of preference.
10.2 Application. Each listing is presented as a guide only each
application must be reviewed considering service conditions, design
requirements and maintenance costs,
20, REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
SPECIFICATIONS
FEDERAL
QQ-P-416
TT-C-490

Plating Cadmium {Electrodeposited)


Cleaning Method And Pretreatment of
Ferrous Surfaces For Organic Coatings

MILITARY

And-

Aluminum

Alloys

MIL-C-8514
Pretreatment,
Compound,
Coating
Netal
Resin-acid {Asg)

'

MIL-A-8625
Anodic
Coatings,
Aluminum
And
For
Aluminum

Alloys

MIL-C-8837
Deposited)
(Vacuum
Coating,
Cadmium

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MIL-"3171
Magnesium
Alloy,
Anodic
Treatment
of
MIL-C-5541
Chemical
Conversion
Aluminum
Coatings
On

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tection frequently is achieved where the optimum treatment is selected


taken for the second
for one metal, and a second or third is
option
metal. In atmospheric corrosion considerations, where costs must be
taken into account, it makes much
sense-toselect a higher-level treatment for the more active metal, and an alternate treatment for the less
active metal. This choice takes into account the fact that the more
active metal is likely to undergo more corrosion initially, even under
mild conditions when galvanic effects would be minimal. Hence, cathodic
control of corrosion, frequently useful in electrolytic solutions,
virtually is inoperative under usual atmospheric exposure conditions.
30.1

Treatment for Magnesium

a. Anodic coating (MIL-"45202)


resin seal.

-I-

alkali-resistant paint system Or

b. Chromate conversion coating (MIL-M-3171) + alkali-resistant


paint or resin system. Alternate for general use in non-persistent wet
or marine atmosphere; or anodic coating without organic system.
c. Metallic coating, electroless nickel (MIL-C-26074B) + cadmium
overplating (QQ-P-416). For electrical, thermal conducting purposes,
in absence of wet, saline or acidic atmospheric conditions.

11

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+ paint

or resin coating system.

b. Chromate conversion coating without organic system. For use in


non-persistent wet or marine atmosphere. For electrical, thermal conducting purposes in mild atmospheres in absence of saline.or
wet,
acidic
conditions. Recommended for beryllium in high temperature applications
to forestall catastrophic oxidation in oxygen containing atmosphere.
30.4

Treatment for Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys


a. Anodic coating (MIL-A-8625)

+ paint

or resin coating system.

b. Chromate conversion coating (MIL-C-5541) + paint or resin


coating system; or anodic coating, sealed, with resin seal (when porous
castings are used, impregnated with resin prior to surface treating and
finishing).
c. Chromate conversion coating without paint or resin coating, for
electrical, thermal conducting purposes in mild atmospheres in absence
of saline, alkaline or acidic conditions.
12

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plating.
b. Netallic coating, e.g., sacrificialZn or Cd, with supplemental
surface treatment, or non-sacrificial, e.g., Cu or Ni, without paint
coating system, for direct metallic contact or for achieving least potential difference between joined metals. For metals of strengths greater
than 220 ksi, metallic coating, if required, to be applied by non-electrolytic methods; zinc or cadmium prohibited.

c. Zinc phosphate conversion coating (TT-C-490)+ paint coating


of strengths besystem. Caution, if phosphate coating used on steels
tween 150 to220 ksi, hydrogen relief required; stress relief required
prior to phosphating and hydrogen embrittlement
rewired after phosphating.

d.
system.

Pretreatment primer (MIL-P-15328, MIL-C-8514)+ paint coating

e. Heavy phosphate conversion coating (MIL-P-16232)+ supplemental


treatment. Not for steels of strengths greater than 220 ksi.
Note: Bare steel not recommended.
30.6 Treatment.for Lead, Tin, Solders, and Indium
Coatings of these materials applied to other metals by hot-dipping,
fusing, or electroplating processes.
a. Coat with paint or resin coating system. Electroplated coatings
to applying coating system.
should be "flowed" prior
13

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b. Electroplate with other metal to reduce the electropotential


difference of metals being joined, where direct contact of metals required for electrical purposes.
30.7

Treatment for Steels-Carbon,Lo Alloy, Martensitic and Ferritic


Stainless
Steels with chromium contents in the region
12 percent
of
will undergo considerable surface staining and limited rusting
in corrosive environments, but on the whole are appreciably
less corroded than carbon steels.

a. Paint or apply resin coating; zinc phosphate carbon steels prior


to application of paint or resin coating.

b. May be electroplated,or used bare for use in non-persistent wet


or marine atmosphere, and for electrical or thermal conducting purposes.
Faying edges to be sealed to prevent crevice corrosion.
30.8

Treatment for Chromium (plate), Molybdenum, Tungsten


a.

. chromium

to reduce corrosion at voids in


Paint or apply resin coating
plating, or staining
of molybdenum or tungsten surfaces.

conducting purposes, Seal faying edgesto mitigate crevice attackof


metal to which joined.
30,9

Treatment for Steels Stainless-Austenitic,PH, Super Strength, Heat


Resistant, Brass-Leaded, Bronze, Brass Bronze-Lo Copper,
and Copper High Nickel

a. Apply metallic coating as may be required to minimize electrical potential difference between the metalsbe to
joined and apply
to diminish ibn contamination
paint or resin coating system, primarily
from metals of this group onto more anodic metals to which they might
be joined, thereby diminishing potential damage to the more anodic metal.

b. Apply metallic coating (as"ar1above), use without paint or


resin coating, for electrical or thermal conducting purposes. Nay be
expedient to overcoat completed assembly with paint or resin.
c. Apply paint or resin coating system and seal faying edges.
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s e r v i c e i s e l e c t r i c a l ,o ra p p l yc o n f o
b . May be used b a r e i n e l e c t r
s e r v i c ec, o n d i t i o n ps e r m i t t i n gS. e a l

16

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APPENDIX B

WHAT I S INVOLVED I N GALVANIC CORROSION


10.

GENERAL

10.1 S c o p e T
. h i sa p p e n d i xe x p l a i n st h ep r i n c i p a lf a c t o r st h a t
a r ei n v o l v e di nt h e
phenomenon o f g a l v a n i c c o r r o s i o n .
10.2 Application.Thisappendix
contractually binding.
20.

i s t u t o r i a lo n l y

and i s n o t

REFERENCED
DOCUMENTS
Not A p p l i c a b l e .

30.

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

30.1 F a c t o r si n f l u e n c i n gg a l v a n i cc o r r o s i o n S
. e v e r a lf a c t o r s
i n f l u e n c et h ek i n e t i c s
of g a l v a n i cc o r r o s i o n .
Among t h e s ea r e
thepolarizationbehaviorofthemetalsundertheprevailing
c o n d i t i o n s ;t h e areas of t h e a n o d ea n dc a t h o d e ;t h ee l e c t r i c a l
r e s i s t a n c e and c u r r e n t ; t h e t y p e
and c o n c e n t r a t i o n of t h e
e l e c t r o l y t e ; t h e pH of t h e e l e c t r o l y t e medium; t h ed e g r e eo f
a e r a t i o no rm o t i o n
of t h e e l e c t r o l y t e medium. B a s i cf a c t o r s
a r et h ee l e c t r i c a lp o t e n t i a l s
of t h e e l e c t r o d e s , c u r r e n t ,
and
r e s i s t a n c e s ,e x p r e s s e d by

where E, i s t h e p o t e n t i a l of t h ec a t h o d e (as p o l a r i z e d ) ; Ea t h e
Re t h e r e s i s t a n c e of t h e
p o t e n t i a l of t h ea n o d e( a sp o l a r i z e d ) ;
e l e c t r o l y t es o l u t i o np a t hi nt h eg a l v a n i cc i r c u i t( i n t e r n a l
c i r c u t t ) ; and R, the r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e e l e c t r o d e s ( e x t e r n a l
circuit).

17

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can

MIL-STD-889B
7 J u l y 1976
solutionpathin-thegalvaniccircuit(internalcircuit);and
r e s i s t a n c eo ft h ee l e c t r o d e s( e x t e r n a lc i r c u i t ) .

R,

the

30.2 Corrosiveenvironment.In
a l i q u i d medium o re l e c t r o l y t es o l u t i o n ,
a specifictemperatureof
of a g i v e n c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e e l e c t r o l y t e , a n d
t h e medium, each metal h a s a s p e c i f i c e l e c t r i c a l p o t e n t i a l , i . e . , a b i l i t y
t o u n d e r g o d i s s o l u t i o n - t o f o r m metal i o n s w i t h t h e release o f e l e c t r o n s .
I n a verycorrosivesolution,havinghighconductivityandproducing
readily soluble corrosion products
of t h e metal, c o r r o s i o n will c o n t i n u e .
more probably w i l l
I n a l i m i t e d volume of solution, where conditions
d e v e l o p t o hamper c o r r o s i o n , e . g . , i n c r e a s e o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f
metal
i o n s ,t h ec o r r o s i o n
may d i m i n i s hw i t h time. On t h eo t h e rh a n d ,t h e
same metal as t h e a n o d e o f
a g a l v a n i c c o u p l e , w i l l t e n d t o e x h i b i t acceleratedcorrosion,whichcanberelatedto
a flowofcurrentinthe
c i r c u i t ,i ft h ec a t h o d e
i s u n a f f e c t e d by p o l a r i z a t i o n .I ft h ee l e c t r o d e s
polarizeprogressively,galvaniccurrentflowandcorrosion
w i l l subside
r a t e o fc o r r o s i o n w i l l d e c r e a s e
and may a c t u a l l ys t o p .G e n e r a l l y ,t h e
withhigherconcentrationsoftheelectrolyte,orwithlowertemperature.
G a l v a n i c e f f e c t s may change because of d i f f e r e n t pH c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n
a ne l e c t r o l y t e .
A metal which i s t h e a n o d e i n
a neutraloracidicsolui s made b a s i c .
t i o n may become t h e c a t h o d e i f t h e s o l u t i o n
Oxygen d i s s o l v e d i n t h e e l e c t r o l y t e c a n d e p o l a r i z e t h e c a t h o d e
by
oxidizingabsorbedhydrogen.In
some cases, oxygen'may b en e c e s s a r yt o
rate of its
promoteoxidationoftheanode.Availableoxygenandthe
diffusion therefore can increase galvanic attack.
Ionswhich are g e n e r a t e d a t t h e e l e c t r o d e as c o r r o s i o n p r o c e e d s
c e n t r a t e a t o rn e a rt h ee l e c t r o d es u r f a c e s( p o l a r i z a t i o n )a n d
impede
cases, i n s t a t i c s o l u t i o n s ,t h ec o r c u r r e n tf l o w .F o re a c ho ft h e s e
r o s i o n a c t i o n i s diffusion-dependentand
is underdiffusion-control.
Agitation of the solution
w i l l i n c r e a s e t h e r e a c t i o n rate.

con-

3 0 . 3 C o n d u c t i v i t yo ft h eg a l v a n i cc i r c u i t . 'C o r r o s i o no f
a s i n g l e metal i n
anelectrolyteinvolvestheflow
of c u r r e n t f r o m l o c a l a n o d i c t o l o c a l
cath o d i c areas on t h e metal s u r f a c e .T h i s
is termed"local
c e l l corrosion"
and i s t h es i t u a t i o no fn o r m a lc o r r o s i o n ,R e l a t i v e l y
small d i f f e r e n c e s
i n p o t e n t i a l s of l o c a l c e l l s are t h e r e s u l t o f c o m p o s i t i o n a l d i s s i r p i l a r i - .
t i e s on t h e metal s u r f a c e b e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n t
metal p h a s e s o r c r y s t a l
o r i e n t a t i o n ,c r y s t a li m p e r f e c t i o n ss e g r e g a t i o n s ,g r a i nb o u n d a r i e s ,a n d
o t h e rc o n d i t i o n s .
Themoreinhomogeneous
t h es u r f a c e ,t h e
moresuscept i b l e i t i s t og e n e r a la t t a c k .D i s s o l u t i o no ft h ea n o d e
relates t o t h e
galvaniccurrentaccordingtoFaraday's
law,
18

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MIL-STD-889B
7 J u l y1 9 7 6
shouldbespecifiedandmaintained

as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e .
TABLE I A

STANDARD
ELECTRODE
POTENTIALS
AQUEOUS
SOLUTION,
IM-RESPECTIVE METAL I O N , 25OC, AT EQUILIBRIUM
i

!Metal (High p u r i t y )

StandardElectrodePotential

'Magnesium2+
~Aluminum3+
:Zinc2+
i Chr omium3+
Iron'+
!Cadmium2+
';Tin2+
Lead2+
Hydrogen'
Copper2+
Silver+
/Mercury2+
Platinum'+
IGold'

(v)

'2.37
-1.67
-O. 76

-O. 7 4
'O. 44
'O. 40
'O. 1 4

'O. 13
0.00
+O. 34
+O. 80
'0. 85
+l.2
+l.69

30.5 P o l a r i z a t i o n , The p o l a r i z a t i o no fe l e c t r o d e si na ne l e c t r o l y t e
solution occurs because of
a f i l m of oxide or other
compound o r g a s on t h e
e l e c t r o d es u r f a c e s .T h e s ec h a n g e sr e d u c et h ep o t e n t i a ld i f f e r e n c e
relative t o t h e open c i r c u i t p o t e n t i a l s * 2 a n d l e s s e n t h e c o r r o s i o n
rate.
Suchchangesincreasetheresistanceoftheexternalcircuitanddiminish
currentflow;andintensifyordiminish
with g a l v a n i c c u r r e n t , o r w i t h
is a meansbywhich
a p p l i e dc u r r e n t .E l e c t r o d ep o l a r i z a t i o nb e h a v i o r
t h e c o m p a t i b i l f t y ofcoupleddissimilar
metals i n s o l u t i o n c a n b e
e s t a b l i s h e d .P o l a r i z a t i o nm e a s u r e m e n t sc a np r o v i d ei n f o r m a t i o n
as t o t h e
e f f e c t s of r e l a t i v e areas o f a n o d e a n d c a t h o d e a n d e f f e c t s o f c h a n g e s
i n p o t e n t i a l on t h e c o r r o s i o n .
Polarizationofgalvanicelectrodes
is i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e
When t h e a n o d e , c a t h o d e , o r b o t h p o l a r i z e , t h e c o n t r o l
i s anodic,
20
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1A.

f l I L - S T D - B A 7 BN O T I C E

L GD m 7 7 7 7 7 3 3 0 0 3 5 3 3 3 3 m
MIL-STD-889B
7 J u l y 1976

c a t h o d i c ,o rm i x e d ,r e s p e c t i v e l y .G a l v a n i cc o r r o s i o na n dc u r r e n tf l o w
are p o l a r i z a t i o n and r e s i s t a n c ec o n t r o l l e d .
When t h e e l e c t r o d e s do n o t
p o l a r i z e ,r e s i s t a n c eo ft h ec i r c u i t ,t h es o l u t i o np a t h
(R,) and t h e
metallic p o r t i o n (Rm) c o n t r o l t h e r e a c t i o n .

AL
AY3DIC
COl4TKOL

I-

z
W

I"

O
p.

RESlSTlHCE

MrXED

FIGURE 1A.

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$- c - -

Types of p o l a r i z a t i o na n dc o n t r o li ng a l v a n i cc o r r o s i o n .

30.6 E l e c t r o d e areas. Under c a t h o d i cc o n t r o l ,c o r r o s i o no ft h ea n o d e


i s p r o p o r t i o n a lt ot h e
area of the c a t h o d e .I ft h ec a t h o d e
area i s two t o
t h r e e t i m e s ' t h e area of t h e a n o d e a n d i f t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n
is n e g l i g i b l e ,
t h e c u r r e n t i s g e n e r a l l yi n c r e a s e d by t h e same f a c t o r .T h e . s a m e
relationshipprevailsiftheanode
area i s d e c r e a s e d r e l a t i v e to t h e c a t h o d e .
D e c r e a s i n g t h e area of t h e c a t h o d e , i n e f f e c t i n c r e a s i n g t h e
area o f t h e
a n o d e ,r e d u c e dt h eg a l v a n i cc u r r e n td e n s i t ya n dd i m i n i s h e sc o r r o s i o n
of
t h ea n o d e s o t h a tn o r m a lc o r r o s i o n
becomesdominant.
The s i t u a t i o n i s
somewhat d i f f e r e n t i n mixed c o n t r o l . An i n c r e a s e i n t h e c a t h o d e
area
canhave some a c c e l e r a t i n g c o r r o s i o n e f f e c t b u t t h i s
i s g e n e r a l l y less
t h a n i n t h e case o f c a t h o d i c c o n t r o l , a n d t h e e f f e c t d o e s n o t o c c u r i n
a p r o p o r t i o n a l way. Normal c o r r o s i o n becomes less pronounced. In a n o d i c
control,thecorrosionoftheanodeessentially
i s u n a f f e c t e d by t h e
c a t h o d e area; i n c r e a s i n g t h e area o f t h e a n o d e d e c r e a s e s t h e g a l v a n i c
current.
21

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MIL-STD-889B
7 J u l y 1976
30.7 R e s i s t a n c ea n dg a l v a n i cc u r r e n t .I n
a p o l a r i z e dg a l v a n i c c i r c u i t ,
r e s i s t a n c e i s c o n t r i b u t e d by t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e e l e c t r o l y t e b e t w e e n t h e
(Re, i n t e r n a l p a t h ) and by t h e f i l m s o f r e a c t i o n p r o anodeandcathode
d u c t s formed on t h e e l e c t r o d e s u r f a c e s
(Rm, metallic path),whichimpede
i o ne x c h a n g ea n dr e d u c ec u r r e n tf l o w ,T h e r e f o r e ,t h et o t a lr e s i s t a n c e ,
R, of t h ec i r c u i t i s expressed as R =
4I nt h ep o l a r i z e ds y s t e m ,
as t h e r e s i s t a n c e i n c r e a s e s , t h e p o t e n t i a l s o f t h e a n o d e a n d c a t h o d e
a p p r o a c he a c ho t h e ru n t i l
a s t e a d y state r e a c t i o n i s a t t a i n e d . The limitingcurrentcorrespondswiththeintersection
of t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n c u r v e s .
T h i s is t h e maximum c u r r e n t o b t a i n a b l e i n t h e s y s t e m i f c o n s t a n t c o n d i t i o n s are maintained.

&.

30.8 The e l e c t r o l y t e medium. I ne a c hl i q u i d


medium o r s o l u t i o n ( f o r
a
givenconcentrationoftheelectrolyteandtemperatureofthe
medium), a
metal has a s p e c i f i c e l e c t r i c a l p o t e n t i a l .
I n a v e r yc o r r o s i v es o l u t i o n ,
onehavinghighconductivity.andproducingreadilysoluble
compounds of
theanode of a g a l v a n i cc o u p l e ,t h ea n o d e
w i l l c o r r o d eu n i f o r m l y .I ft h e
cathodedoesnotpolarize,thecorrosionoftheanode
w i l l be accelerated.
However, w i t h p o l a r i z a t i o n o f t h e e l e c t r o d e s , g a l v a n i c c u r r e n t f l o w a n d
c o r r o s i o ns u b s i d e .G e n e r a l l y ,f o r
a g i v e ne l e c t r o l y t es o l u t i o n ,t h e
rate
of c o r r o s i o n d e c r e a s e s w i t h h i g h e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n
of t h e e l e c t r o l y t e o r
with lower temperature.
I n a solutioncontainingionsthatcanpolarizetheanode,the
hode, o r b o t h , g a l v a n i c e f f e c t s
w i l l b e small.

cat-

Coupled d i s s i m i l a r metals may e x h i b i t d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e s i n t h e


e l e c t r o l y t es o l u t i o nb e c a u s eo f
pH changes. A metal whic.h i s theanode
i n a neutral or acidic solution
may become t h e c a t h o d e i f t h e s o l u t i o n
i s made b a s i c .T h i s
i s i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h magnesium-aluminum c o u p l e s i n .
d i l u t e ,n e u t r a l ,o rs l i g h t l ya c i d i c
sodium c h l o r i d es o l u t i o n .W i t h
dissolution of the
magnesium anode, the solution
becomes a l k a l i n e , a n d
t h e nt h e aluminum i s r e n d e r e da n o d i c , a reversal of p o l a r i t y . I n n e u t r a l
sodium chloride solution, the anode iron of an iron-copper couple becomest h e c a t h o d e when t h e s o l u t i o n i s a l t e r e d by t h e a d d i t i o n o f
ammonia.
A e r a t i o n ,d i f f u s i o n ,a n da g i t a t i o n
of s o l u t i o n . Oxygen d i s s o l v e d i n
the electrolyte solution can act to depolarize the cathode
by o x i d i z i n g
adsorbedhydrogen.In
some cases,oxygen
may b en e c e s s a r yf e ro x i d a t i o n
o f the anode.Availableoxygenandthe
rate of i t s d i f f u s i o n t h e r e f o r e
c a ni n c r e a s eg a l v a n i cc u r r e n t .I o n sw h i c h
are formed a t t h ee l e c t r o d e s
at or near the electrode surfaces
duringgalvaniccorrosionconcentrate
( p o l a r i z a t i o n )a n di m p e d ec u r r e n tf l o w .
For each o ft h e s e cases i n

30.9

22

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23

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