Sei sulla pagina 1di 88

Stefan Arteni

The East-Central European Cultural Model

V

Stefan Arteni The East-Central European Cultural Model V SolInvictus Press 2009

SolInvictus Press 2009

Orpheus Charming the Animals, Roman mosaic, Shaba Museum, Syria 2

Orpheus Charming the Animals, Roman mosaic, Shaba Museum, Syria

2

Stefan Arteni

The East-Central European Cultural Model (a revised and illustrated version of the essay published in www.asymetria.org , 2009)

V

3

God The Geometer, Bible Moralisée, 1215 4

God The Geometer, Bible Moralisée, 1215

4

Stefan Arteni The East-Central European Cultural Model. 5. The Way is The Quest. [April 6, 2009]

Motto. Future time and yesteryear Are two sides of the same leaf, Sees in ending the beginning He who knows the learner’s way. (Mihai Eminescu)

Barry Smith points to a certain comparative advantage possessed by smaller countries in those fields not requiring significant expenditures, such as mathematics, or in those fields where the issue of the native language is of secondary importance, such as the visual arts. This advantage can be carried over also to other spheres, such as philosophy, cultural anthropology and cultural semiotics. The Pole Roman Ingarden, the Czech Jan Patocka, the Romanians Matila Costiesco Ghyka, Lucian Blaga and Petru Ursache, the Bessarabian- Romanian Andrei Vartic, the Estonian Yuri Lotman, are but a few examples demonstrating how rigorous seekers for truth are always part and parcel of world culture.

Today, the attempt to synchronize Romanian culture with the Western one, a process imposed by an establishment insulated from a local tradition it never understood and which it disparages, means acceptance of and synchronization with the prevailing neo-leninist melting pot model. However, there has long been and there still is a viable alternative model which has shown concern for cultural diversity, a model which aims at “integrating [cultural] particularities as differences, in a culture of difference,” as Ovidiu Hurduzeu has written, namely the poly-contextural matrix discussed in previous papers, the transclassic operational interplay of a heterarchy of coexisting cultural domains and of a simultaneous plurality of interwoven recursive and permutative diversities.

Matila Costiesco Ghyka is the forerunner, especially when it comes to investigating the Golden Mean, one of the most important members of the Metallic Means Family. This requires a generalization of the concept of symmetry. The modern concept of symmetry is connected with Felix Klein’s group theory. Klein’s discoveries and his idea of symmetry can now be visualized by using computer graphics: the beautiful constructions teetering on the brink of chaos reflect the ancient Buddhist metaphor of Indra's net. It was about these subjects that Matila Ghyka wrote.

We should note that we may think of visual apprehension as an extension in many ways of Klein’s group theory: “…object recognition and categorization can be described in terms of geometrical transformations, and will suggest a transformational framework, based on Klein’s hierarchy of geometrical

5

transformation groups

pictorial space… Klein proposed a common framework which integrates different geometries into one general framework: His Erlangen Program defines a nested hierarchy of transformation groups, in which a geometry is defined relative to specific transformation groups. Geometrical properties and objects are not absolute, but relative to transformation groups… The hierarchy of transformations of Felix Klein’s Erlangen Program provides an integrative framework for the study of visual perception, as well as for the history of art.” (Markus Graf, Form and Space in Perception and Art, Presented at: The Depictive Space of Perception. A Conference on Visual Thought, Mitteleuropa Foundation, 2004)

this transformational framework can be extended to

The generalized concept of symmetry covers perspective: „In the perspective of artists we find a combination of the symmetry transformations affine projection and similitude.” (Gyorgy Darvas, Perspective as a Symmetry Transformation, http://www.springerlink.com/content/y581153456207m64/fulltext.pdf )

As research has demonstrated, geometric grids drawn within the golden and root phi rectangles may create perspective space: „It seems that Brunelleschi’s

experiences with measurements and surveying while in Rome

ideal situation to conceive of the process of perspective drawing; but even with

this in mind, I must also remain open to the possibilities that geometry (and geometric construction), by its nature, was also a catalyst for the new way of

thinking and seeing

as possibly a key element in the development of perspective systems.”

believe it is important to look at the process of grid making

put him in an

I

(Mark A. Reynolds, Perspectiva Geometrica, http://www.springerlink.com/content/h94w3683n8624758/fulltext.pdf )

An aristocratic English family, the Sitwells, had bought the ancient Montegufoni castle situated in the centre of Tuscany. In 1922, Gino Severini was asked to decorate a room with frescos. Severini employed combinations of the phi [Golden Mean] theme as well as the root 4 theme. His composition schema for a 1937 mosaic in Alessandria’s Postal Palace was based on the phi theme. Le Corbusier’s Modulor is probably the best known design based on the Golden Mean, in celebration of which Le Corbusier created his 1955 portfolio entitled Poème de L’Angle Droit.

"Beauty is fitness expressed.," said Ghyca. "Inspiration, even passion is indeed necessary for creative art, but the knowledge of the Science of Space, of the Theory of Proportions, far from narrowing the creative power of the artist, opens for him an infinite variety of choices within the realm of symphonic composition." Originality, therefore, does not suggest the modern notion of an erasure of tradition as a breakthrough, but rather the sense of utilizing the highest potential of a millennial legacy of traditioning which has recourse to preformulated, prefabricated building blocks as it relies, on the one hand, on recurring patterns

6

within a creative-formulaic continuum and, on the other hand, on the paradoxical combination of contingency and necessity. Let us attentively listen to Constantin Brancusi’s words: I walk the questing path. We all find ourselves at the end of a great age. And it is necessary to go back to the beginning of all things; and to find again all that has been lost…Simplicity is solved complexity…By means of art, you will be disjoined from yourself. Measure and the golden number will bring you closer to the absolute…Art may redeem the world.”

Mathematicians have continued to build on the firm foundation established by Ghyka, providing a synthesis between Chaos Theory (Complexity), Fractal Geometry, and the Golden Mean. The Golden Mean is more than just a device used by artists: “… This ratio acts as an optimised probability operator, (a differential equation like an oscillating binary switch), whenever we observe the quasi-periodic evolution of a dynamical system…The Golden Mean then, is an archetypal fractal in that it preserves its relationship with itself…It is ‘analogia’ exemplified…” (Nigel Reading, Dynamical Symmetries: Autopoietic Architecture, http://www.geocities.com/Area51/Starship/9201/phimega/phimega.html )

Because of the simplicity of this family of quadratic equations, the Mettalic Means find various applications in science and in discovering the roads that lead to chaos: “Some of the relatives of the Golden Mean have been used by physicists in their latest researches trying to analyze the behavior of non-linear dynamical systems in going from periodicity to quasi-periodicity… The members of the MMF [Mettalic Means Family] are intrinsically related with the onset from a periodic dynamics to a quasi-periodic dynamics, with the transition from order to chaos and with time irreversibility, as proved by Ilya Prigogine and M. S. El Naschie.” (Vera W. de Spinadel, The Family of Metallic Means, www.mi.sanu.ac.yu/vismath/spinadel/index.html ; see also Vera W. de Spinadel, From the Golden Mean to Chaos, 1998, Editorial Nueva Librería, Buenos Aires, Argentina.)

Ghyka’s work is fundamental to an understanding of symbolic dynamics: “…each system of proportions gives rise to a sequence of 1's and 0's referred to in the study of dynamical systems as symbolic dynamics. Proportional systems based on phi, root 2, and root 3 were the principal systems used to create the buildings and designs of antiquity… Root 2 and root 3 geometries also have connections to the symmetry groups of the plane… “ (Jay Kappraff, Systems of Proportion in Design and Architecture and Their Relationship to Dynamical Systems Theory, http://members.tripod.com/vismath/kappraff/kap1.htm )

Louis H. Kauffman develops a context for self-referential forms. He summarizes one of his articles thus: “This paper develops a context for the well-known

Fibonacci sequence (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13,

a basis for mathematics in terms of distinctions that is harmonious with

) in terms of self-referential forms and

7

G. Spencer-Brown's Laws of Form and Heinz von Foerster's notion of an eigenform. The paper begins with a new characterization of the infinite decomposition of a rectangle into squares that is characteristic of the golden rectangle. The paper discusses key reentry forms that include the Fibonacci form, and the paper ends with a discussion of the structure of the ‘Fibonacci anyons’ a bit of mathematical physics that relates to the quantum theory of the self-interaction of the marked state of a distinction.” (Louis H. Kauffman, Fibonacci Form and Beyond, Forma, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 315-334, 2004)

Let us recall Constantin Brancusi. Let us hark back to his saying: “…with my newness, I hail from something ancient…” Brancusi said he was searching for “the fundational core, the noema.” [The original text was temelia temeiului, noima; the Romanian noima derives from the Greek noema.] Noema is the self-referentially achieved mental schema of a system. Theoria, Greek for contemplation, tied to hesychasm and theosis, meant initially a pilgrimage, a circular journey to new and more comprehensive insight into one’s rootedness. T.S.Elliot wrote:

We shall not cease from exploration And the end of all our exploring Will be to arrive where we started And know the place for the first time.

8

Each unique geometrical object is somehow or other connected to properties of the regular icosahedron.

Each unique geometrical object is somehow or other connected to properties of the regular icosahedron. (Felix Klein)

to properties of the regular icosahedron. (Felix Klein) A ROMAN GLASS GAMING DIE. Circa 2nd Century

A ROMAN GLASS GAMING DIE. Circa 2nd Century AD. The die may have been used for divination. Deep blue-green in color, the large twenty-sided die is incised with a distinct symbol on each of its faces. 2 1/16 in. (5.2 cm.) wide. Several polyhedra in various materials with similar symbols are known from the Roman period. Sold at Christie’s, December 11, 2003.

9

Matila Ghyka, Essai sur Le Rythme , 1938 Matila Ghyka, Le Nombre d’Or , 1931

Matila Ghyka, Essai sur Le Rythme, 1938

Matila Ghyka, Essai sur Le Rythme , 1938 Matila Ghyka, Le Nombre d’Or , 1931 10
Matila Ghyka, Essai sur Le Rythme , 1938 Matila Ghyka, Le Nombre d’Or , 1931 10

Matila Ghyka, Le Nombre d’Or, 1931

10

Fibonacci (Leonardo Pisano) Relationship between the Fibonacci sequence and the Golden Rectangle [diagram by Alex

Fibonacci (Leonardo Pisano)

Fibonacci (Leonardo Pisano) Relationship between the Fibonacci sequence and the Golden Rectangle [diagram by Alex Mabini]

Relationship between the Fibonacci sequence and the Golden Rectangle [diagram by Alex Mabini]

between the Fibonacci sequence and the Golden Rectangle [diagram by Alex Mabini] [Diagram by Charles Bouleau]

[Diagram by Charles Bouleau]

11

Piero della Francesca, composition within a root 2 rectangle Subdivision of the root 2 rectangle

Piero della Francesca, composition within a root 2 rectangle

Piero della Francesca, composition within a root 2 rectangle Subdivision of the root 2 rectangle into

Subdivision of the root 2 rectangle into figures, with a ratio of three, embedded perspective, and Alberti’s musical ratio 4/6/9

12

Piero della Francesca… has linked elements of the receding architecture to a spatially suggestive two-dimensional
Piero della Francesca… has linked elements of the receding architecture to a spatially suggestive two-dimensional
Piero della Francesca… has linked elements of the receding architecture to a spatially suggestive two-dimensional

Piero della Francesca… has linked elements of the receding architecture to a spatially suggestive two-dimensional surface matrix, the geometry of which also provides key points for the perspective construction…The pattern…derived from an octagon, is the basis of the elaborate floor pattern within the palace where Christ is standing. It was used in earlier paintings by Gaddi and Cione, and contains the root 2 proportions that control the composition of the painting. (From Richard Talbot, "Speculations on the Origin of Linear Perspective", Nexus Network Journal, vol. 5 no. 1, Spring 2003, http://www.nexusjournal.com/Talbot.html )

13

15 t h century Russian Icon Construction within a root 2 rectangle (Karyl M. Knee,

15 th century Russian Icon

15 t h century Russian Icon Construction within a root 2 rectangle (Karyl M. Knee,

Construction within a root 2 rectangle (Karyl M. Knee, http://web.ukonline.co.uk/pbrooke/a&r/knee )

14

Vesica Pisces Speyer Evangelistary, 1220 15

Vesica Pisces

Vesica Pisces Speyer Evangelistary, 1220 15

Speyer Evangelistary, 1220

15

Byzantine Icon, composition within a root phi rectangle Anonymous Siena master, composition within a root

Byzantine Icon, composition within a root phi rectangle

Byzantine Icon, composition within a root phi rectangle Anonymous Siena master, composition within a root 4

Anonymous Siena master, composition within a root 4 rectangle

16

Giovanni Francesco da Rimini, composition within a 1 + √ 2 rectangle Niccoló di Buonaccorso,

Giovanni Francesco da Rimini, composition within a 1 + 2 rectangle

da Rimini, composition within a 1 + √ 2 rectangle Niccoló di Buonaccorso, composition within a

Niccoló di Buonaccorso, composition within a phi rectangle

17

"One-point" (parallel) perspective grid using harmonic and geometric progressions (From Mark Reynolds,Geometric

"One-point" (parallel) perspective grid using harmonic and geometric progressions (From Mark Reynolds,Geometric and Harmonic Means and Progressions, Nexus Network Journal, vol. 3, no. 4, Autumn 2001, http://www.nexusjournal.com/GA-v3n4.htm )

4, Autumn 2001, http://www.nexusjournal.com/GA-v3n4.htm ) Perspective grid within the golden section rectangle (from

Perspective grid within the golden section rectangle (from Mark A. Reynolds, "Perspectiva Geometrica", Nexus Network Journal, vol. 5 no. 1, Spring 2003, http://www.nexusjournal.com/GA-v5n1.html )

18

Inverted perspective For the representation of rectangular foreground objects 'inverted perspective' is the common rule in pre-Renaissance painting… Although it contradicts scientific perspective and seems wrong to modern eyes, there is a basis for it in experience. The fact that we do not easily see convergence in foreground objects but rather parallelism or even divergence of parallels can easily be verified by observation… The divergent construction is abundantly exemplified in Roman mosaics and 11th-century illuminated manuscripts. ( http://www.oxfordreference.com/pages/samplep-17 )

( http://www.oxfordreference.com/pages/samplep-17 ) Roman mosaics Codex Vyssegradensis, 11th century (probably
( http://www.oxfordreference.com/pages/samplep-17 ) Roman mosaics Codex Vyssegradensis, 11th century (probably
( http://www.oxfordreference.com/pages/samplep-17 ) Roman mosaics Codex Vyssegradensis, 11th century (probably

Roman mosaics

) Roman mosaics Codex Vyssegradensis, 11th century (probably originated in
) Roman mosaics Codex Vyssegradensis, 11th century (probably originated in

Codex Vyssegradensis, 11th century (probably originated in the scriptorium of the Monastery of St. Emmeram in Regensburg )

19

Hermann Weyl Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl is one of the major explorers of group theory, a formal method for analyzing abstract and physical systems in which symmetry is present. The general idea of similarity symmetry and the possibility for its mathematical treatment was discussed in a monograph by H. Weyl (Symmetry, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1952). The Fibonnaci sequence linked to the golden section and the logarithmic spiral are connected to the similarity symmetry groups described by A.V. Shubnikov (1960).

are connected to the similarity symmetry groups described by A.V. Shubnikov (1960). ( from www.spirasolaris.ca )
are connected to the similarity symmetry groups described by A.V. Shubnikov (1960). ( from www.spirasolaris.ca )

( from www.spirasolaris.ca )

20

Roman mosaic, Chedworth, England You cannot apply mathemathics as long as words still becloud reality.

Roman mosaic, Chedworth, England

You cannot apply mathemathics as long as words still becloud reality.

Symmetry, as wide or narrow as you may define its meaning, is one idea by which man through the ages has tried to comprehend and create order, beauty, and perfection.

We are left with our symbols.

(Hermann Weyl)

21

Similarity symmetry groups play a special role in fine art works using central perspective:

symmetry groups play a special role in fine art works using central perspective: Felix Vallotton Jacques

Felix Vallotton

symmetry groups play a special role in fine art works using central perspective: Felix Vallotton Jacques

Jacques Villon

22

Domenico Ghirlandaio Il Sodoma (Giovanni Antonio Bazzi) Meyndert Hobbema Jacques Villon 23

Domenico Ghirlandaio

Domenico Ghirlandaio Il Sodoma (Giovanni Antonio Bazzi) Meyndert Hobbema Jacques Villon 23

Il Sodoma (Giovanni Antonio Bazzi)

Domenico Ghirlandaio Il Sodoma (Giovanni Antonio Bazzi) Meyndert Hobbema Jacques Villon 23

Meyndert Hobbema

Domenico Ghirlandaio Il Sodoma (Giovanni Antonio Bazzi) Meyndert Hobbema Jacques Villon 23

Jacques Villon

23

Metzinger and the 4-dimensional coordinate system

Metzinger and the 4-dimensional coordinate system The 3-dimensional co-ordinate system Illustration from Traité

The 3-dimensional co-ordinate system

coordinate system The 3-dimensional co-ordinate system Illustration from Traité élémentaire de géométrie à

Illustration from Traité élémentaire de géométrie à quatre dimensions by Esprit Jouffret, page 153 [from Wikipedia]. Maurice Princet introduced Jouffret’s book to the cubists. The Traité popularizes Poincaré's hypercube and other complex polyhedra in four dimensions (the fourth dimension is another spatial dimension) and their projections onto a two-dimensional surface. Jean Metzinger remained close to Princet. In the latter stages of his career, Metzinger moved away from cubism.

24

Jean Metzinger Jean Metzinger 25
Jean Metzinger Jean Metzinger 25

Jean Metzinger

Jean Metzinger Jean Metzinger 25

Jean Metzinger

25

Jean Metzinger Jean Metzinger 26
Jean Metzinger Jean Metzinger 26

Jean Metzinger

Jean Metzinger Jean Metzinger 26

Jean Metzinger

26

Jean Metzinger Jean Metzinger 27
Jean Metzinger Jean Metzinger 27

Jean Metzinger

Jean Metzinger Jean Metzinger 27

Jean Metzinger

27

The exploration of form

The exploration of form Paul Sérusier Paul Sérusier 28

Paul Sérusier

The exploration of form Paul Sérusier Paul Sérusier 28

Paul Sérusier

28

Paul Sérusier Paul Sérusier, mural, St Julien church, Chateauneuf-du-faou Paul Sérusier 29

Paul Sérusier

Paul Sérusier Paul Sérusier, mural, St Julien church, Chateauneuf-du-faou Paul Sérusier 29

Paul Sérusier, mural, St Julien church, Chateauneuf-du-faou

Paul Sérusier Paul Sérusier, mural, St Julien church, Chateauneuf-du-faou Paul Sérusier 29

Paul Sérusier

29

Paul Sérusier Paul Sérusier, mural, St Julien church, Chateauneuf-du-faou Paul Sérusier 29
Juan Gris Juan Gris 30

Juan Gris

Juan Gris Juan Gris 30

Juan Gris

30

Juan Gris Juan Gris 31

Juan Gris

Juan Gris Juan Gris 31

Juan Gris

31

Juan Gris 32

Juan Gris

32

Juan Gris 33
Juan Gris 33

Juan Gris

33

Gino Severini 34
Gino Severini 34

Gino Severini

34

Gino Severini 35
Gino Severini 35

Gino Severini

35

Gino Severini, Montegufoni frescos 36
Gino Severini, Montegufoni frescos 36
Gino Severini, Montegufoni frescos 36

Gino Severini, Montegufoni frescos

36

Gino Severini, Montegufoni frescos, Combinations of the circle or phi theme (Carlo Cresti, Geometria per
Gino Severini, Montegufoni frescos, Combinations of the circle or phi theme (Carlo Cresti, Geometria per
Gino Severini, Montegufoni frescos, Combinations of the circle or phi theme (Carlo Cresti, Geometria per

Gino Severini, Montegufoni frescos, Combinations of the circle or phi theme (Carlo Cresti,Geometria per Montegufoni, in Gino Severini, Electa, Firenze, 1983)

37

Gino Severini, Montegufoni frescos, root 4 theme: square and double square (Carlo Cresti, Geometria per
Gino Severini, Montegufoni frescos, root 4 theme: square and double square (Carlo Cresti, Geometria per
Gino Severini, Montegufoni frescos, root 4 theme: square and double square (Carlo Cresti, Geometria per
Gino Severini, Montegufoni frescos, root 4 theme: square and double square (Carlo Cresti, Geometria per
Gino Severini, Montegufoni frescos, root 4 theme: square and double square (Carlo Cresti, Geometria per

Gino Severini, Montegufoni frescos, root 4 theme: square and double square (Carlo Cresti, Geometria per Montegufoni, in Gino Severini, Electa, Firenze, 1983)

38

Gino Severini, Montegufoni frescos, root 4 theme: double square (Carlo Cresti, Geometria per Montegufoni ,
Gino Severini, Montegufoni frescos, root 4 theme: double square (Carlo Cresti, Geometria per Montegufoni ,

Gino Severini, Montegufoni frescos, root 4 theme: double square (Carlo Cresti, Geometria per Montegufoni, in Gino Severini, Electa, Firenze, 1983)

39

Gino Severini Gino Severini 40
Gino Severini Gino Severini 40
Gino Severini Gino Severini 40

Gino Severini

Gino Severini Gino Severini 40
Gino Severini Gino Severini 40

Gino Severini

40

Gino Severini Gino Severini, Composition sur une courbe algebrique 41
Gino Severini Gino Severini, Composition sur une courbe algebrique 41

Gino Severini

Gino Severini Gino Severini, Composition sur une courbe algebrique 41

Gino Severini, Composition sur une courbe algebrique

41

Le Corbusier, Sketch for Le Poème de l'Angle droit , Tériade, Paris, 1955, lithographs in

Le Corbusier, Sketch for Le Poème de l'Angle droit, Tériade, Paris, 1955, lithographs in colors (Le Corbusier referred to this design as an iconostase, or iconostasis)

42

Le Corbusier, Le Poème de l'Angle droit , Tériade, Paris, 1955, lithographs in colors 43
Le Corbusier, Le Poème de l'Angle droit , Tériade, Paris, 1955, lithographs in colors 43

Le Corbusier, Le Poème de l'Angle droit, Tériade, Paris, 1955, lithographs in colors

43

Le Corbusier, Le Poème de l'Angle droit , Tériade, Paris, 1955, lithographs in colors 44

Le Corbusier, Le Poème de l'Angle droit, Tériade, Paris, 1955, lithographs in colors

44

Le Corbusier, Le Poème de l'Angle droit , Tériade, Paris, 1955, lithographs in colors 45

Le Corbusier, Le Poème de l'Angle droit, Tériade, Paris, 1955, lithographs in colors

45

Le Corbusier, Le Poème de l'Angle droit , Tériade, Paris, 1955, lithographs in colors 46

Le Corbusier, Le Poème de l'Angle droit, Tériade, Paris, 1955, lithographs in colors

46

Le Corbusier, Le Poème de l'Angle droit , Tériade, Paris, 1955, lithographs in colors 47

Le Corbusier, Le Poème de l'Angle droit, Tériade, Paris, 1955, lithographs in colors

47

Le Corbusier, Le Poème de l'Angle droit , Tériade, Paris, 1955, lithographs in colors 48

Le Corbusier, Le Poème de l'Angle droit, Tériade, Paris, 1955, lithographs in colors

48

Le Corbusier, Modulor, lithograph in colors, 1950 Le Corbusier, study for Le Poème de l'Angle

Le Corbusier, Modulor, lithograph in colors, 1950

Le Corbusier, Modulor, lithograph in colors, 1950 Le Corbusier, study for Le Poème de l'Angle droit

Le Corbusier, study for Le Poème de l'Angle droit

49

Le Corbusier Le Corbusier 50

Le Corbusier

Le Corbusier Le Corbusier 50

Le Corbusier

50

Le Corbusier Le Corbusier Le Corbusier 51

Le Corbusier

Le Corbusier Le Corbusier Le Corbusier 51

Le Corbusier

Le Corbusier Le Corbusier Le Corbusier 51

Le Corbusier

51

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 52

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 52

Jacques Villon

52

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 53
Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 53

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 53
Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 53

Jacques Villon

53

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 54

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 54
Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 54

Jacques Villon

54

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 55

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 55

Jacques Villon

55

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 56

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 56

Jacques Villon

56

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 57

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 57

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 57

Jacques Villon

57

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 58

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 58

Jacques Villon

58

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 59

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 59

Jacques Villon

59

Jacques Villon 60

Jacques Villon

60

Jacques Villon, Metz cathedral windows 61

Jacques Villon, Metz cathedral windows

61

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 62

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 62

Jacques Villon

62

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 63

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 63

Jacques Villon

63

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 64

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 64

Jacques Villon

64

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 65
Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 65

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon Jacques Villon 65

Jacques Villon

65

Albert Gleizes (In 1924 Gleizes published La Peinture et Ses Lois . His system was

Albert Gleizes (In 1924 Gleizes published La Peinture et Ses Lois. His system was based on transformational geometry – translations and rotations.)

et Ses Lois . His system was based on transformational geometry – translations and rotations.) Albert

Albert Gleizes

66

Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes 67

Albert Gleizes

Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes 67

Albert Gleizes

67

Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes 68

Albert Gleizes

Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes 68

Albert Gleizes

68

Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes 69
Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes 69

Albert Gleizes

Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes 69

Albert Gleizes

69

Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes 70

Albert Gleizes

Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes 70

Albert Gleizes

70

Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes 71

Albert Gleizes

Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes 71

Albert Gleizes

71

Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes 72

Albert Gleizes

Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes 72

Albert Gleizes

72

Albert Gleizes 73

Albert Gleizes

73

Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes 74

Albert Gleizes

Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes 74

Albert Gleizes

74

Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes 75

Albert Gleizes

Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes 75
Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes 75

Albert Gleizes

75

Serge Poliakoff, 1951 (Alexis Poliakoff, the painter’s son, wrote in his notes: “I find again

Serge Poliakoff, 1951 (Alexis Poliakoff, the painter’s son, wrote in his notes: “I find again my father’s painting which - before hiding it for ever – reveals its golden number, key to all his compositions to come”.)

it for ever – reveals its golden number, key to all his compositions to come”.) Serge
it for ever – reveals its golden number, key to all his compositions to come”.) Serge
it for ever – reveals its golden number, key to all his compositions to come”.) Serge

Serge Poliakoff

it for ever – reveals its golden number, key to all his compositions to come”.) Serge
it for ever – reveals its golden number, key to all his compositions to come”.) Serge

Serge Poliakoff

76

Serge Poliakoff Serge Poliakoff 77

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff Serge Poliakoff 77

Serge Poliakoff

77

Serge Poliakoff Serge Poliakoff 78

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff Serge Poliakoff 78

Serge Poliakoff

78

Serge Poliakoff (from Carolle Gagnon-Marier, Serge Poliakoff et le Nombre d’Or, Vie des Arts, XXV,
Serge Poliakoff (from Carolle Gagnon-Marier, Serge Poliakoff et le Nombre d’Or, Vie des Arts, XXV,

Serge Poliakoff (from Carolle Gagnon-Marier, Serge Poliakoff et le Nombre d’Or, Vie des Arts, XXV, 102, 1981)

79

Stefan Arteni Stefan Arteni 80

Stefan Arteni

Stefan Arteni Stefan Arteni 80

Stefan Arteni

80

Stefan Arteni 81

Stefan Arteni

81

Stefan Arteni 82

Stefan Arteni

82

Stefan Arteni 83

Stefan Arteni

83

Stefan Arteni 84

Stefan Arteni

84

Stefan Arteni 85

Stefan Arteni

85

Stefan Arteni 86

Stefan Arteni

86

Stefan Arteni 87

Stefan Arteni

87

Stefan Arteni 88

Stefan Arteni

88