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15 TO 18

18 TO 20
12 TO 15
20 TO 30

1. Beam sections should be designed for:

a. Moment values at the column face & (not the value at centre line as per
b. Shear values at distance of d from the column face. (not the value at
centre line as per analysis)
c. Moment redistribution is allowed for static loads only.
d. For beams spanning between the columns about the weak axis, the
moments at the end support shall be reduced more and distributed and
the span moments shall be increased accordingly to account for the above
e. Moment distribution shall be done in such a way that 15% of the support
moments shall be added to the span moment without the support
moments getting reduced.
f. The section within the span shall be designed for the increased span
moment which will account for the concentrated & isolated loading that
may act within one span.
g. Moment redistribution is not allowed if
1. moment co-efficient taken from code table
2. designed for earthquake forces and for lateral loads.
2. At least 1/3 of the +ve moment reinforcement in SIMPLE SUPPORTS &
the +ve moment reinforcement in CONTINUOUS MEMBERS shall extend
along the same face of the member into the support, to a length equal to
Ld/3. (Ld-development length)
3. Use higher grade of concrete if most of the beams are doubly reinforced.
Also when Mu/bd^2 goes above 6.0.
4. Try to design a minimum width for beams so that the all beam
reinforcement passes through the columns. This is for the reason that any

reinforcement outside the column will be ineffective in resisting

5. Restrict the spacing of stirrups to 8(200mm) or of effective depth
whichever is less.(for static loads)
6. Whenever possible try to use T-beam or L-beam concept so as to avoid
compression reinforcement.
7. Use a min. of 0.2% for compression reinforcement to aid in controlling the
deflection, creep and other long term deflections.
8. Bars of Secondary beam shall rest on the bars of the Primary beam if the
beams are of the same depth. The kinking of bars shall be shown clearly
on the drawing.
9. Length of curtailment shall be checked with the required development
10. Keep the higher diameter bars away from the N.A(i.e. layer nearest to the
tension face) so that max. lever arm will be available.
11. Hanger bars shall be provided on the main beam whenever heavy
secondary beam rests on the main beam.(Try to avoid the hanger bar if
secondary beam has less depth than the main beam, as there are enough
cushions available).
12. The detailing for the secondary beam shall be done so that it does not
induce any TORSION on the main beam.
13. For cantilever beams reinforcement at the support shall be given a little
more and the development length shall be given 25% more.
14. As a short cut, bending moment for a beam (partially continuous or fully
continuous) can be assumed as wl^2/10 and the same reinforcement can
be detailed at span and support. This thumb rule should not be applied for
simply supported beams.
One- way simply supported slab
One-way continuous slabs
Two-way simply supported slabs

Teo-way continuous slabs

38 for L/B=1.5
35 for L/B>1.5
40 for L/B=1.5
38 for L/B>1.5

1. Whenever the slab thickness is 150mm, the bar diameter shall be 10mm
for normal spacing.(It can be 8mm at very closely spaced).
2. Slab thickness can be 10mm,110mm,120mm,125mm,150mm, etc.
3. The maximum spacing of Main bar shall not exceed 200mm(8) and the
distribution bars @ 250mm(10).

4. If the roof slab is supported by load bearing wall(without any frames) a

bed block of 150/200mm shall be provided along the length of supports
which will aid in resisting the lateral forces.
5. If the roof is of sheet(AC/GI) supported by load bearing wall (without any
frames) a bed block of 150/200mm shall be provided along the length of
supports except at the eaves. The bed block is provided to keep the
sheets in position from WIND.
6. For the roof slab provide a min. of 0.24% of slab cross sectional area
reinforcement to take care of the temperature and other weathering agent
and for the ponding of rain water etc since it is exposed to outside the
building enclosure.
1. Section should be designed for the column moment values at the beam
2. Use higher grade of concrete when the axial load is predominant.
3. Go for a higher section properties when the moment is predominant.
4. Restrict the maximum % of reinforcement to 3.
5. Detail the reinforcement in column in such a way that it gets maximum
lever arm for the axis about which the column moment acts.
6. Position of lap shall be clearly mentioned in the drawing according to the
change in reinforcement. Whenever there is a change in reinforcement at
a junction, lap shall be provided to that side of the junction where the
reinforcement is less.
7. Provide laps at midheight of column to minimize the damage due to
moments(Seismic forces).
8. Avoid KICKER concrete to fix column form work since it is the weakest link
due to weak and non compacted part.
1. Never assume the soil bearing capacity and at least have one trial pit to
get the real site Bearing capacity value.
2. Check the Factor of Safety used by the Geotechnical engineer for finding
the SBC.
3. SBC can be increased depending on the N-value and type of footing that
is going to be designed. Vide IS-1893-2000(part-I).
4. Provide always PLINTH BEAMS resting on natural ground in orthogonal
directions connecting all columns which will help in many respect like
reducing the differential settlement of foundations, reducing the moments
on footings etc.
5. Always assume a hinged end support for column footing for analysis
unless it is supported by raft and on pile cap.
The Common assumption of full fixity at the column base may only be
valid for columns supported on RIGID RAFT foundations or on individual
foundation pads supported by

short stiff piles or by foundation walls in Basement. Foundation pads

supported on deformable soil may have considerable rotational flexibility,
resulting in column forces in the
bottom storey quite different from those resulting from the assumption of
a rigid base. The consequences can be unexpected column HINGES at the top
of lower storey
columns under seismic lateral forces. In such cases the column base
should be modeled by a rotational springs. (Ref:page 164-Seismic design of
Reinforced concrete and
Masonry buildings by T.Paulay & M.J.N.Priestley.)
Also refer the Reinforced concrete Designers Handbook by Reynold
where it is clearly mention about the column base support.
1. The minimum reinforcement for the RCC wall subject to BM shall be as
A. Vertical reinforcement:
a) 0.0012 of cross sectional area for deformed bars not
larger than 16mm in diameter and with characteristic
strength 415 N/mm^2 or greater.
b) 0.0015 of cross sectional area for other types of bars.
c) 0.0012 of cross sectional area for welded fabric not larger
than 16mm in diameter.
Maximum horizontal spacing for the vertical reinforcement
shall neither exceed three times the wall thickness nor
B. Horizontal reinforcement.
a) 0.0020 of cross sectional area for deformed bars not larger
than 16mm in diameter and with characteristic strength
415 N/mm^2 or greater.
b) 0.0025 of cross sectional area for other types of bars.
c) 0.0020 of cross sectional area for welded fabric not larger
than 16mm in diameter.
Maximum vertical l spacing for the vertical reinforcement shall
neither exceed three times the wall thickness nor 450mm.
NOTE: The minimum reinforcement may not always be
sufficient to provide adequate resistance to effects of
shrinkage and temperature.
2. The He/t for a RCC wall shall not exceed 30 as per IS:456=2000, where

He is the effective height of the wall and t is the thickness of the RC wall. He
for a braced wall will be :

a) 0.75 H, if the rotations are restrained at the ends by floors

where h is the height of the wall.
b) 1.0h .
Ref: (Principle of structures by Ariel Hanaor).
The Depth to span ratio for a truss is h/L=10. Beyond a certain optimal
value, increase in structural depth increases weight. The same principle applies
to trusses. An optimal
depth/span ratio for a planar truss is approximately 1/10. Although forces
in the CHORDS decrease with increasing depth, forces in the WEB are practically
increasing the depth increases the lengths of these members.
Approximately half the web members are in COMPRESSION and increasing their
lengths reduces their efficiency
due to the increased susceptibility to BUCKLING.
The span to depth ratio=1/8 to 1/10 are typical.
The compression on top chord or tension in the bottom chord for a UDL
loading is C=T= qL^2/8h where q is the udl and h is the depth.
A structure in pure TENSION having the funicular shape of its load is
termed as Cable.

Let us now invert the shape of a cable under a given load, that is the sag
at any point is turned into a rise. The point is now above the chord joining
the end points by the
same amount it was previously below it. A structure built according to the
funicular shape in COMPRESSION is termed as an ARCH.

The optional rise to span ratio for an arch is in the range of 1/6-1/4. The
depth to span ratio of an arch is usually in the range of 1/40 -1/70.

The typical depth /span ratio is in the range from 1/15 to 1/10.
A typical depth of a solid FLAT PLATE is 1/22 -1/18 of the effective span.
Supported on continuous stiff supports are in the range of 1/30-1/25 of
the lesser effective span.
Typical depth of flat plate ribbed slabs are in the range of 1/20-1/17 of
the lesser effective span.
The structural depth of DOMES is the full height of the dome from base to
crown. Depth to span ratio range from as low as 1/8 for shallow domes to
for deep domes.
A depth /span ratio of 1/5-1/4 is a common value which is near optimal
for many applications.