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DEBREMARKOS UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY

Department of electrical and computer engineering


Semester project for
Modeling Multi-Source Pocket Energy Generation (MPEG)
Project report Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the
award of the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical engineering
(Power stream)

Student member

ID NO

1. G/tsadik Begashaw .....................TER/2991/04


2. Bogale Abate .............................TER/2168/04
3. Biruk Adnew ..............................TER/3352/04
4. Fikremaryam kestu ......................TER/3407/04
5. Abebaw Tadie .............................TER/2535/04

Supervisor: Ambachew

CERTIFICATE/DECLARATION
This is to certify that the project report entitledModeling multi-source pocket energy generation
(MPEG) being submitted by
1. G/tsadik Begashaw .....................TER/2991/04
2. Bogale Abate .............................TER/2168/04
3. Biruk Adnew ..............................TER/3352/04
4.Fikremaryam kestu ......................TER/3407/04
5.Abebaw Tadie .............................TER/2535/04
In partial fulfillment for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical
Engineering to DebreMarkos University is a record of bonafied work carried out under my
guidance and supervision.
The results embodied in this project report have not been submitted to any other University or
Institute for the award of any Degree or Diploma.
Guide Name
Signature

Head of the Department

Acknowledgement
First we would like to thank Debremarkos University electrical and computer engineering
department for giving our first choice semester project title and for fulfilled our needs like
computer class, full blown research format.
We would like to thank our advisor Ambachew A.for his indispensable, guidance and supervision
of this project work from the motivation up to end of paper. He was very friendly and he always
advises us on the way of thinking every challenge has its own solution.
We would also like to thank Dr. Ruvel J. Cuasito for sharing his research experiences and tireless
encouragement throughout this project work. Your input and encouragement has always been
incredible.

ABSTRACT

In this study, a hybrid energy system consisting of a renewable resource (solar, wind and hydro)
and battery is proposed. This paper discussed and determined the modeling and simulation of a
hybrid renewable energy system. The MATLAB/SIMULINK software is used to study and
design the proposed hybrid renewable energy system model. The considered renewable energy
system comprises of solar photo voltaic (PV) system, wind turbines and hydroelectric system are
sustainable system compared with already existing in use conventional traditional electricity
generation based on fossil fuel. This proposed alternative renewable energy systems includes
battery as storage device.

KEYWORDS Photo voltaic module, wind module, hydroelectric system, battery,


Hybrid power system, Mat lab/Simulink.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION..............................................................................1
1.1 BACKGROUND............................................................................1
1.2 Statement of problem.........................................................................3
1.3 Objectives of the study.......................................................................3
1.4 Methodology..................................................................................4
1.5 Scope and limitation of the study............................................................4

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE/STUDIES..........................................5
2.1 Brief current evolution of the technology of interest.......................................7
2.2 Significance of the study......................................................................7

CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHODS.................................................................9
3.1 Modeling the solar photo voltaic system....................................................9
3.2 Modeling the wind energy system.........................................................13
3.3 Modeling the hydroelectric system........................................................18
3.4 Modeling the storage device................................................................23
CHAPTER FOURE
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION................................................................28
CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION.................................................................................31
RECOMMENDATION........................................................................32
REFERENCES.................................................................................33

Table of content
Certificate..i
Acknowledgement ...ii
Abstract....iii
Llist of figures..iv
Nomenclaturev
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction.............................................................................1
1.1 Background ......................................................................1
1.2 Problem statement................................................................3
1.3 Objectives.............................................................3
1.4 Methodology............................................................................4
1.5 Scope and limitation ...................................................4
CHAPTER TWO
2. Review of literature.......................................................5
2.1 Brief current evolution of the technology of interest..................................................7
2.2 Significance of the study..7
CHAPTER THREE
3. Materials and methods ....................................................9
3.1 Modeling the solar photo voltaic system............................................................9
3.2 Modeling the wind energy system........................................................13
3.3 Modeling the hydroelectric system...................................................18
3.4 Modeling the storage device
....22
CHAPTER FOUR
Result and discussion..............................................................................28

CHAPTER FIVE
Conclusion..............................................................31
Recommendation .......................................................................................32
REFERENCES.33

LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 3.1.1 Solar power plant layout.9
Fig.3.1.2 Equivalent circuit diagram of a solar cell..10
Fig.3.1.3 Mat lab Simulink library PV model..12
Fig.3.1.4 Mat lab Simulink implementation of the PV module...13
Fig.3.2.1 Wind power plant layout...14
Fig.3.2.2 Flow through a wind energy converter.....15
Fig.3.2.3 The Mat lab Simulink model of the wind generator module....16
Fig.3.2.4 Equivalent circuit diagram of a small wind generator...17
Fig.3.2.5 mat lab Simulink model of the generator..18
Fig.3.3.1 Hydroelectric power system layout ..19
Fig.3.3.2 the Mat lab Simulink model of the hydroelectric System.23
Fig 3.4.1 Thevenin equivalent battery model...26
Fig 3.4.2 the Mat lab Simulink model of the battery storage device....27
Fig 4.1 Simulation model of a hybrid renewable system..29

LIST OF TABLE

NOMENCLATURE
MPEG

Multi-source pocket energy generation photo voltaic

HRES

Hybrid renewable energy systems Graph Theoretic Modeling

WTG

wind turbine generator photovoltaic generator

PVG

photovoltaic generator

Rs

Series resistance

Rp

Parallel or shunt resistance

Capacitor

constant (1.3806* 10-23 J/K)

Reference temperature of solar cell

Elementary charge (1.6021*10-19As)

Solar cell voltage (v)

IO

saturation current of the diode (A)

IPV

photo voltaic current (A)

kinetic energy

air mass flow

V2

speed back of the pales

V1

speed in front of the wind turbines pales

power
v

med

mean air speed

air mass volume

Time

Air density

Pmax

a maximum power value taken by the wind

Pwind

wind power

Pe

electrical power

Ce

represents the total net efficiency coefficient

Cp

represents the mechanical power coefficient

Ra

rotor winding resistance

Ex

generator separate excitation winding;

Ie

current through winding generates the main field

Ue

induced voltage in the rotor

Terminal voltage

PWM IGBT pulse width modulation integrated gate bipolar transistor


P

hydrostatic pressure

water

water density

Acceleration of gravity

the water height

Vwater

velocity of the water flow

pup

upstream hydrostatic pressure

pdown

downstream hydrostatic pressure

hup

upstream geodesic water height (head water)

hdown

downstream geodesic water height (tail water)

vwater,up upstream water velocity


vwater,down downstream water velocity
K

loss coefficient.

turbine

turbine efficiency

Rc

charging of the battery

Rd

discharging of the battery

Rp
Vo

internal resistance of the battery


open circuit voltage of the battery

VP

internal capacitor voltage of the battery

Vb

terminal voltage of the battery

10

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND
A Multi-source pocket energy generation (MPEG) is a portable and constant power source that
can be utilized anywhere around the world. The MPEG receives energy from renewable
resources like wind, solar or hydro and convert it in to an electrical energy. The world is in
frequent power failure. The MPEG is the best choice of interest for the utilization of alternate
energies, facilitated with high portability. [1]
Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from selfrenewable resources such as sun, wind, water, plants, etc. Renewable energy technologies offer
important benefits compared to those of conventional energy sources. Worldwide, 1000 times
more energy reaches the surface of the earth from the sun than is released today by all fossil fuels
consumed. Photo voltaic and wind generation are also an attractive source of energy because of
their benign effect on the environment.
Increased population growth and economic development are accelerating the rate at which
energy, and in particular electrical energy is being demanded. All methods of electricity
generation have consequences for the environment, so meeting this growth in demanded, while
safeguarding the environment poses a growing challenge.
Hybrid power system consists of a combination of renewable energy sources such as photo
voltaic (pv), wind generator, hydro, etc., to charge batteries and provide power to meet the
energy demand, considering the local geography and other details of the place of installation.
These types of systems, which are not connected to the main utility grid, are also used in standalone applications and operate independently and reliably. The best applications for this system
are in remote places, such as rural villages, in telecommunications, etc.
The importance of hybrid systems has grown as they appeared to be the right solution for a clean
and distributed energy production. It has to be mentioned that new implementations of hybrid
systems require special attention on analysis and modeling.

A major importance for the theoretical study of hybrid systems based on renewable energy
(photo voltaic, wind, hydroelectric systems), is the availability of models, which can be used to
study the behavior of hybrid systems.

Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) are becoming popular for remote area power
generation applications due to advances in renewable energy technologies and subsequent rise in
prices of petroleum products. A hybrid energy system usually consists of two or more renewable
energy sources used together to provide increased system efficiency as well as greater balance in
energy supply.
Renewable energy is sustainable as it is obtained from sources that are inexhaustible (unlike
fossil fuels). Renewable energy sources include wind, solar, biomass, geothermal and hydro, all
of which occur naturally.
The uncertainty and variability of renewable generation can pose challenges for grid operators.
Variability in generation sources can require additional actions to balance the system. Greater
flexibility in the system may be needed to accommodate supply-side variability and the
relationship to generation levels and loads. Sometimes wind generation will increase as load
increases, but in cases in which renewable generation increases when load levels fall (or vice
versa), additional actions to balance the system are needed. System operators need to ensure that
they have sufficient resources to accommodate significant up or down ramps in wind generation
to maintain system balance. Another challenge occurs when wind or solar generation is available
during low load levels; in some cases, conventional generators may need to turn down to their
minimum generation levels. [2]
A variety of options are available to address integration challenges. Key considerations in
selecting methods to address the variability and uncertainty of the renewable generation are the
cost-effectiveness of the method and the characteristics of the existing grid system. Grid
infrastructure, operational practices, the generation fleet, and regulatory structure all impact the
types of solutions that are most economic and viable.
Generally, systems need additional flexibility to be able to accommodate the additional
variability of renewable. Flexibility can be achieved through institutional changes, operational
practices, storage, demand-side flexibility, flexible generators, and other mechanisms. [3]

1.2 Statement of problem


In Africa, as a developing region, the introduction of sustainable energy presents an opportunity
to provide a large number of people with a better source of energy resulting in a better quality of
life while reducing the impact of global warming that caused by anthropogenic activities.
Electricity is not available to many communities in Africa because the large capital investment
required for the traditional electrical infrastructure has resulted in that a good reliable supply is
only available in regions with strong economic and industrial activity and an existing grid
infrastructure. The fact that renewable energy sources are also distributed sources offers an
opportunity to save on the capital investment for the transmission and distribution of electricity.
This research assesses rural villages in Africa and investigates what kind of renewable energy
resources available and how feasible those to be used for generating electricity. By doing that
investigation and energy calculation for that site the model of hybrid renewable energy system
and its components have to be designed.

1.3 Objectives of the study

The general objective of the study is generating electrical power using renewable energy
resources.

The specific objectives are:

Modeling the components of hybrid renewable energy system using Simulink mat lab.

Mat lab implementation of a hybrid renewable energy system.

Modeling the whole hybrid renewable energy system.

1.4 Methodology
In general the methodology of making this project based on some steps, starting from modeling each
component (photo voltaic module, wind power generator, hydro power generator and storage battery) of
hybrid renewable energy resources. By combining these components we modeling the whole
interconnected hybrid renewable energy power generation.

The hybrid renewable power generation modeling used in the study follows the input process
output relationship as shown in Table 1.1
Table 1:1 hybrid framework
Input
Hydroelectric

Process
Bus

Output
Electricity

solar energy

converters

or

wind energy

controllers

power

1.5 Scope and limitation of the study


The premise of the study covers the Modeling the components of hybrid renewable energy
resource power generation using Simulink mat lab. Solar, wind and hydro power are included in
this study, i.e. the other renewable resources are not included in the study. Because our project
title is very vast and have not any time to finish this project.

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE/STUDIES
Gupta et al (1995) developed a model employing Graph Theoretic Modeling (GTM) for a
standalone solar photo voltaic system. This is a unique model of a standalone photo voltaic
powered system. However, the disadvantage of this model is that a system of equations are not
developed and solved simultaneously. The model developed was demonstrated for a solar PV
based ventilator and pumping system. Also the application of the above model can be much
useful in incorporating into a software package for simulating the long term performance of PV
powered systems. [4]

Bhattacharaya et al (2001) developed a simplified design approach and economic appraisal of a


solar PV system. In this model, the PV array and battery bank sizes for a standalone PV system
were estimated. Also a cost comparison of the standalone PV system with a PV diesel hybrid
system was presented. The results indicate that the hybrid systems were cost effective than
standalone systems for a given location. [5]

Baigarin et al (2001) have discussed about the potential of wind energy resources available in
central Asia. The equations used for determining the distribution of wind energy output, energy
density, energy cost and efficiency have been discussed in detail. [6]

Suresh et al (2001) have developed a model to investigate the optimum sitting of wind turbine
generators based on site and wind turbine type. The methodology of analysis was based on the
accurate assessment of wind power potential of various sites. The analytical computation of
annual and monthly capacity factors has been carried out by using the weibull statistical model
employing cubic mean cube root of wind speeds. A judicious choice of potential sites and wind
turbine generator systems can be made using the model proposed. [7]

Yang (2001) adopted the same principle for determining the power generation by a wind machine
and discussed about the utilization of excess wind power for hydrogen storage and subsequent
secondary power generation. [8]

Gomaa et al (1995) developed a model to design a hybrid solar photovoltaic and wind energy system and
presented a case study for a location, Alexandria in Egypt. Hoque and Ahsan (1995) have investigated the
potential and scope of wind turbine generator (WTG) and a photovoltaic generator (PVG) for power
generation in an isolated area. Both reliability and cost aspects have been taken into account in the
analysis. A temperature dependent probabilistic model for WTG and PVG was developed to compare
their impact on the reliability and cost of generation with that of a conventional unit. The results indicated
that the reliability of the system with the increase of installed capacity is low in the case of WTG and
PVG. [9]

Beyer et al (1996) developed a set of equations that linked the size of the hybrid system
components namely the wind, photovoltaic and battery system directly with parameters that
characterized the meteorological conditions at the respective site for a high level of reliability.
But this approach is restricted to the case systems with a low loss of load probability. [10]

Mcgowan et al (1999) have summarized the recent progress on wind PV diesel hybrid system.
They mainly concentrated on system configurations, hardware design, modeling tools used and
recent applications. It was concluded that more concentration was required on component
reliability, accurate documentation, monitoring system performance and cost effective
improvements on system components. [11]

Elhadidy et al (2000) carried out a parametric study on wind solar diesel hybrid generating
system. In their study, hourly wind speed and solar radiation were taken from meteorological
monitoring station of Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The impact on parameters such as PV array area,
number of wind machines and battery storage capacity on the operation of hybrid system to
satisfy the annual demand were studied. However, the cost aspects have not been taken into
account for optimization. [12]

2.1 Brief current evolution of the technology of interest


There are so many ways to produce electricity electron can flow between certain different
materials, provide a current, as in a common battery (such as the reliable and portable chemical
battery which runs down easily). To provide the large amount of steady power demanded by the
modern societies, alternate source of power generation is needed which includes hydro, solar,
and wind respectively. Accordingly, all these source of power generation involves a generator
except solar. Therefore for proper analysis, generator have two important parts: the rotor (which
rotates) and the stator (which remains stationary).Generator use the principle of electromagnetic
induction, which exploits the relation between magnetism and electricity. In large AC generation,
an outer shell with powerful magnet rotates around a stationary armature which is round
with heavy wire. It is importance to recognize that electricity is not mined or harvested, it must
be manufactured at time of demand, electricity is a form of energy, but not an energy source.
Different generating plant harness different energy sources to make electric power.

2.2 Significance of the study


Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) are becoming popular for remote area power
generation applications due to advances in renewable energy technologies and subsequent rise in
prices of petroleum products. Economic aspects of these technologies are sufficiently promising
to include them in developing power generation capacity for developing countries. Research and
development efforts in solar, wind, and other renewable energy technologies are required to
continue for, improving their performance, establishing techniques for accurately predicting their
output and reliably integrating them with other conventional generating sources. [13]
Renewable energy is sustainable as it is obtained from sources that are inexhaustible (unlike
fossil fuels). Renewable energy sources include wind, solar, biomass, geothermal and hydro, all
of which occur naturally. Renewable energy, generally speaking, is clean energy and nonpolluting. Many forms do not emit any greenhouse gases or toxic waste in the process of
producing electricity. It is a sustainable energy source that can be relied on for the long-term.
Renewable energy is cost-effective and efficient.
Combining more than one form of the renewable energy generation will enable the power
generated from a renewable energy sources to be more reliable and affordable.

The main benefits (advantages) of a hybrid system can be summarized as:

The possibility to combine two or more renewable energy sources, based on the natural
local potential of the users.

Environmental protection especially in terms of CO2 emissions reduction.

Low cost renewable energies can be competitive with nuclear, coal and gas especially
considering possible future cost trends for fossil and nuclear energy.

Diversity and security of supply.

Rapid deployment - modular and quick to install.

Fuel is abundant, free and inexhaustible.

Costs are predictable and not influenced by fuel price fluctuations although fluctuations
in the price of batteries will be an influence where these are incorporated.

CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Modeling the solar photo voltaic system
Solar panels are the medium to convert solar energy into the electrical energy. Solar panels can
convert the energy directly or heat the water with the induced energy. PV (Photo-voltaic) cells
are made up from semiconductor structures as in the computer technologies. Sun rays are
absorbed with this material and electrons are emitted from the atoms .This release activates a
current. Photo voltaic is known as the process between radiation absorbed and the electricity
induced. Solar power is converted into the electric power by a common principle called photo
electric effect. The solar cell array or panel consists of an appropriate number of solar cell
modules connected in series or parallel based on the required current and voltage.

Figure 3.1 solar power plant layout

System Meter: Measures and displays the solar PV systems performance and
status.

A photo voltaic PV generator consists of an assembly of solar cells, connections, protective parts,
supports, etc. Solar cells are made of semiconductor materials (usually silicon), which are
specially treated to form an electric field , positive on one side (backside) and negative on the
other (towards the sun). When solar energy (photons) hits the solar cell, electrons are knocked
loose from the atoms in the semiconductor material, creating electron hole pairs. [14]
If electrical conductors are then attached to the positive and negative sides, forming an electrical
circuit, the electrons are captured in the form of electric current (photo current).

The model of the solar cell can be realized by an equivalent circuit that consists of a current
source in parallel with a diode (fig .3.2). [15][16]
In fig(.3.2) Rs, Rp and C components can be neglected for the ideal model.

10

Figure.3.2 equivalent circuit diagram of a solar cell

The PN junction has a certain depletion layer capacitance, which is typically neglected for
modeling solar cells.
At increased inverse voltage the depletion layer becomes wider so that the capacitance is reduced
similar to stretching the electrodes of a plate capacitor. Thus solar cells represent variable
capacitance whose magnitude depends on the present voltage. This effect is considered by the
capacitor C located in parallel to the diode.
Series resistance Rs consists of the contact resistance of the cables as well as of the resistance of
the semiconductor material itself.
Parallel or shunt resistance Rp include the linkage currents at the photo voltaic cell edges at
which the ideal shunt reaction of the PN junction may be reduced. This is usually within the kiloohm region and consequently has almost no effect on the current-voltage characteristic. [16]
The diode is the one which determines the current-voltage characteristics of the cell. The output
of the current source is directly proportional to the light falling on the cell. The open circuit
voltage increases logarithmically according to the Shockley equation which describes the
interdependence of current and voltage in a solar cell. [16][17]
Id = Io[e qu/kt-1] ..3.1
I=Ipv-Io[equ/kt-1].......................................................3.2
U= (KT/q) ln[1-(I-Ipv)/Io] .................................. 3.3

11

Where: Id-current of diode (A


K- constant (1.3806* 10-23 J/K);
T- Reference temperature of solar cell;
q- Elementary charge (1.6021*10-19As);
U- Solar cell voltage (v);
IO- revers saturation current of the diode (A);
IPV- photo voltaic current (A).
Equations (3.2) and 3.3) lead to the development of a Mat lab Simulink model for the PV module
presented in fig.3.3

Figure.3.3 Mat lab Simulink library PV model

The solar system model consists of three Simulink blocks: the solar model block, the PV model
block and energy conversion modules.
The solar model block implements the mathematical model of the solar radiation. This is done by
using standard Simulink and mat lab modules and functions. This block allows selecting
different type of patterns for the solar radiation. [18]

12

The PV module block implements the equivalent circuit of a solar cell shown in fig.3.2 Standard
functions and blocks of mat lab and Simulink were used to obtain this model. Its structure is
presented in fig.3.3
The output of the PV module is proposed by an energy conversion block implemented with a
PWMIGBT inverter block from standard Simulink/simpowersystems library.

Figure.3.4 Mat lab Simulink implementation of the PV module.

3.2 Modeling the wind energy system


The wind energy is a renewable source of energy. Wind turbines are used to convert the wind
power into electric power. Electric generator inside the turbine converts the mechanical power
into the electric power. Wind turbine systems are available ranging from 50 W to 3-4 MW. The
energy production by wind turbines depends on the wind velocity acting on the turbine. Wind
power is able to feed both energy production and demand in the rural areas. It is used to run a
windmill which in turn drives a wind generator or wind turbine to produce electricity.

13

Figure.3.5 Wind power plant layout


A wind turbine is a machine for converting the kinetic energy in wind into mechanical
energy.
Tower on which the wind turbine is mounted;
Nacelle which houses the equipment, including the generator that converts the mechanical
energy in the spinning rotor into electricity.
The rotor captures the kinetic energy of the wind and converts it into rotary motion to
drive the generator.
The flow air mass has certain energy. This energy is obtained from the air movement on the
earth's surface determined by the difference in speed and pressure. This is the main source of
energy used by the wind turbines to obtain electric power. The kinetic energy W taken from the
air mass flow m at speed v1 in front of the wind turbines pales and at the back of the pales at
speed v2 is illustrated by equation (3.4):
W=

1
2
2
2 m (v1 -V2 )...................................................................3.4

The resulted theoretical medium power P is determined as the ratio between the kinetic energy
and the unit of time and is expressed by equation (3.5):

14

W
t =

P=

1m
2 t

(V12-V22) =

1 V
2
2
2 t (V1 -V2 ).................................... 3.5

Where: v- air mass volume;


t- Time;
- Air density.
Assuming the expression of the mean air speed v

med

1
2 (V1+V2) the mean air volume

transferred per unit time can be determined as follows:


Vmed=V/t=A v

med

.............................................................. 3.6

Figure.3.6 Flow through a wind energy converter

The equation for the mean theoretical power is determined using equation (3.7):
P=

1
2
2
4 A (V1 -V2 ) (V1+V2) =

1
3
2
2
4 AV1 (1-v2 /v1 ) (1+V2/V1)........................ 3.7

We can conclude that an adequate choose of V2/V1 ratio leads to a maximum power value taken
by the wind converter from the kinetic energy of the air masses as shown by equation (3.8):
Pmax=

8
V 3 ............................................................................. 3.8
1
27 A

15

This power represents only a fraction of the incident air flow theoretical power given by:
Pwind=

AV13 ............................................................................ 3.9


2

Equations (3.8) and (3.9) lead to:


P max=

8
v 3=
1
27 A

1
2

A V13*0.59=Pwind*Cp ................................ 3.10

Where Cp represents the mechanical power coefficient which expresses that the wind kinetic
energy cannot be totally converted into useful energy. This coefficient, meaning the maximum
theoretical efficiency of wind power, was introduced by Betz. [19]
The electrical power obtained under the assumption of wind generators electrical and
mechanical part efficiency is given by:
Pel =

CeAV13 ...3.11
2

Where Ce: represents the total net efficiency coefficient at the transformer terminals. [20]
A Mat lab Simulink model, based on the equations mentioned above, was developed for the wind
generator module. This module is shown in fig.3.7

Figure.3.7 the Mat lab Simulink model of the wind generator module

16

The wind system model consists of three Simulink blocks: the wind model block, the wind
generator model block and energy conversion module.
The wind model block implements the mathematical model of the air mass flow. This is done by
using standard Simulink and Mat lab modules and functions. This block allows the selection of
different patterns for the air mass flow and the equations mentioned above were used in the
design of this model.
The wind energy generator model was implemented by a module having configurable parameters
based on equation (3.11) and using the equivalent model of a generator. This model takes the
following form and is shown in fig.3.8

Figure.3.8 Equivalent circuit diagram of a small wind generator

In the equivalent circuit diagram of a small wind generator the notations are:
Ra- rotor winding resistance
Ex- generator separate excitation winding; current Ie through this winding generates the mainfield
Ue- induced voltage in the rotor (armature)
U- Terminal voltage U=Ue-RaIa

17

The resulted mat lab Simulink model for the wind generator is a particular case of the more
general model of an electrical generator, which is presented in fig.3.9

Figure.3.9 mat lab Simulink model of the generator


The output of the wind energy generator module is processed by an energy conversion block
implemented with a PWM IGBT inverter block from the standard Simulink/simpowersystems
library.

3.3 Modeling the hydroelectric system


Hydro power systems are derived from the hydrological climate cycle, where water precipitated
in high regions (mountains) develops high energy potential. This energy potential through water
flow will turn water turbines coupled to generators to produce electricity.

18

Figure.3.10 Hydroelectric power system layout

Catchment area and water reservoir . The area behind the dam, which
collects rain water, drains into a stream or river, is called catchment area. Water
collected from catchment area is stored in a reservoir, behind the dam. The purpose of
the reservoir is to store the water during rainy season and supply it during dry season.

Dam and the Intake. Adam is a structure of masonry earth and/or rock fill
built across a river. It has two functions:
(a) To provide the head of water,
(b) To create storage or pondage
The intake house includes the head works, which are the structure at the intake of
conduits, tunnels or flumes.

19

Inlet water ways.

Inlet water ways are the passages through which water is

conveyed from the dam to thePower house. It includes canal, penstock (closed pipe) or
tunnel, flume, fore way and also surge tank.

Tunnel is made by cutting the mountains where canal or pipeline cannot be used due

to topography. Tunneling provides a direct and a short route for the water passages.

Penstocks. Water may be conveyed

to turbines through open conduits or closed

pressure pipes called penstocks made of reinforced concrete or steel.

Surge Tanks.

These are additional storage spaces near the power unit, usually

provided in high head or medium head plants when there is considerable distance
between the water source and the power unit, needs along penstock. The surge tank
furnishes; space for holding water during load rejection by the turbine and for furnishing
additional water when the load on the turbine increases.

Forebay. The water carried by the power canals is distributed to various penstocks

leading to the turbine, through the forebay, also known as the head pond. Water is
temporarily stored in the forebay, in the event of a rejection of load by the turbine and
there is withdrawal from it when the load is increased.

Spillways.

These structures provide for discharge of the surplus water from the

storage reservoir into the river on the downstream side of the dam. Spillway is considered
a safety device for a dam, which acts as a safely valve, which has the capacity to
discharge major floods without damage to the dam.

Power House and Equipments. The power house is a building in which


the turbines, alternators and the auxiliary plants are housed. Here conversion of energy
of water to electrical energy takes place.

Tail Race and Outlet Water Way. Tailrace is a passage for discharging
the water leaving the turbine into the river and in certain cases; the water from the tail
race can be pumped back into the original reservoir. Water after doing work on turbine
runner passes through the draft tube to tail race.

Small hydroelectric power plants harness the falling water kinetic energy to generate electricity.
Turbines transform falling water kinetic energy in to mechanical rotation energy and then, the

20

alternator transforms the mechanical energy to electricity. Water flows within a river from a
higher geodesic site to a lower geodesic site due to gravitation. This is characterized by different
particular kinetic and potential energy at both sites. The correct identification of the resulting
energy differences of the out-flowing water can be assumed by considering a stationary and
friction-free flow with incompressibility. The hydro dynamic Bernoulli pressure equation applied
in such conditions is written according to equation (3.12)
P+
Where

gh + (1/2)

water

2
water water

=constant .................................. 3.12

p- hydrostatic pressure;

water

- water density;

g- Acceleration of gravity;
h- The water height;
Vwater- velocity of the water flow.
Equation (3.12) can be transformed so that the first term expresses the pressure level, the second
term the level of the site and the third term the water velocity level.
P/ (

The term

1
2

water

g) + h +

1
2

(V2water/g) =constant .......................................3.13

(vwater2/g) refer to the dynamic height and is defined as the height due to the speed

of water flow and can be identified by the term of kinetic water energy.
The usable head hutil of a particular section of river can be determining by considering: the
difference in pressure, the geodesic difference in height and the different flow velocities of the
water, using equation (3.14). It must be mentioned that the equation is used to analyze an ideal
case and does not consider the losses due to the friction of the individual water molecules among
each other and the surrounding water.
hutil= (pup-pdown)/ (

water

*g) + (hup-hdown) + (v2water, up-v2water, down)/2g................ 3.14

Where pup- upstream hydrostatic pressure;


pdown- downstream hydrostatic pressure;
hup- upstream geodesic water height (head water);

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hdown- downstream geodesic water height (tail water);


vwater, up- upstream water velocity;
vwater,down-downstream water velocity.
Considering equation (13), the power of a water supply Pwater can be determined using (3.15):
Pwater=watergqwaterhutil................... 3.15
Where qwater is the volume-related flow rate.
According to equation (14), the power of a water supply is determined by the volume-rated flow
rate and usable head. The water flow assumes high values in lowland areas, while large heads
can be achieved in mountain areas.
Considering two specific points of a river, the theoretical power of the water P water,th, can be
calculated based on:
Pwater,th=pwatergq'water(hup-hdown) ................................................... 3.16
Where q'water is the volumetric flow rate through a hydroelectric power plant.
In the real case, considering the energy balance between two specific points of a river, and also
the energy losses, the hydro dynamic Bernoulli pressure equation can be written according to
equation (3.17):
Pup/(

, *g)+hup+v2water,up/2g=Pdown/(

water up

water,down

*g)+hav+(v2water,down/2g)+

(kv2water,down/2g)=const
ant 3.17
Where P/ (

water

*g) - hydro dynamic pressure energy;

h- Potential energy of the water;


v2water/2g- kinetic energy of the water;
k v2 /2g- energy losses;
water
k- loss coefficient.
The energy losses are represented by the part of the rated power which is converted in to ambient
heat by friction and cannot be used technically.

22

In the turbine, pressure energy is converted in to mechanical energy. The conversion losses are
described by the turbine efficiency turbine. Equation (3.18) describes the part of the usable water
power that can be converted in to mechanical energy at the turbine shaft Pturbine.
Pturbine=turbinepwatergq'waterhutil........................................................................ 3.18
hutil is the usable head at the turbine, and the term (p watergq'waterhutil) represents the actual usable
water power. [16]
The water model described by the equations mentioned above was introduced in a Mat lab
Simulink model of the hydroelectric system. This model is shown in fig.8 and it encapsulates the
model of the hydroelectric plant connected to the water model. Measurement of power and
voltage is also provided by this model.
The model of the hydroelectric plant (generator) has the same form as the one presented in fig.
(3.9) and also an equivalent diagram as the one we considered for the wind generator presented
in fig.(3.8)

Figure.3.11 the Mat lab Simulink model of the hydroelectric System

23

3.4 Modeling the storage device


The batteries in the system provide to store the electricity that is generated from the wind or the
solar power. Any required capacity can be obtained by serial or parallel connections of the
batteries. The battery that provides the most advantageous operation in the solar and wind power
systems are maintenance free dry type and utilizes the special electrolytes. These batteries
provide a perfect performance for long discharges.
The energy storage device/equipment is used basically for three purposes: energy stabilization,
ride through capability and dispatch ability.
The energy stabilization permits the hybrid system to run at a constant stable output level with
the help of the energy storage devices, even if the load fluctuates rapidly.
The ride through capability is the capability of the energy storage device which provides the
proper amounts of energy to loads. When the hybrid system generator units are an available, (e.g.
the solar supply system during the night time or when components of any type are being
maintained or repaired). The hybrid system owner who needs power has two options during such
periods. The first one is to use another backup or use the utility grid. The second way is to meet
out the needs with energy stored when the source is unavailable. [21]
For energy sources like photo voltaic and wind energy system the power production depends
upon the availability of the resources like sunlight or wind. This makes the nature of power
available to loads intermittent

, thus making them non-dispatch able sources. However, the

energy storage systems with non-dispatch able energy can be deployed as dispatch able energy
sources. This only needs a proper design of the energy storage system, by looking in to the load
curve. [22]
Batteries are the basic components of an energy storage system. A battery consists of one or more
electrochemical cells that are electrically connected. The basic components of an electrolytic cell
like a lead-acid cell are a positive electrode, a negative electrode, a porous separator and an
electrolyte. During cell operation, ions are created and consumed at the two electrode/ electrolyte
interfaces by oxidation/reduction reactions. The electrolyte, which can either be a solid or liquid
chemical, has high conductivity for ions but not for electrons, because if electrolyte conducts
electrons then the battery will self-discharge. The electrolyte completes the internal circuit
between the electrodes.

24

The parameters associated with battery modeling are: [23]

Internal resistance:

Self-discharge resistance:

- the resistance associated with the

electrolysis of water at high voltage levels and slow leakage across the battery
terminal at low voltage inversely proportional to the temperature and very
sensitive to it.

Charge and discharge resistance (Rc/Rd):-

the resistance

associated with the electrolyte resistance plate resistance and fluid resistance,
variable during charging and discharging.

Over charge and over discharge resistance :

- the resistances

attributed to the electrolyte diffusion during over charging and over


discharging.

Polarization capacitance: - the capacitance due to the chemical diffusion within


the battery which does not necessarily represent a purely electrical capacitance.

Discharge type:

Continuous discharging:

the battery continuously delivers energy to the

load which leads to continuous drop in the battery capacity;


Intermittent discharge:-the battery delivers energy to the load at regular or
irregular intervals of time.

Discharge mode:
Constant load mode:-the battery delivers energy to a constant load and
the load current decreases proportional to the decrease in the battery terminal
voltage;

Constant current mode:-the

battery supplies constant current to the

load; this is achieved by continuously reducing the load resistance to match


with the decreasing battery terminal voltage in order to maintain a constant
current to the load.

Constant power mode: -the battery supplies constant electrical power


to the load; the load current increases to compensate for the drop in voltage in
order to maintain constant power to the load.

25

Rate of charge and discharge:-the rate of charge and discharge should not be too
high in order to expend service life of the battery; the frequency of charging and
discharging cycles affects the battery life significantly.
In figure( 3.12) the Thevenin equivalent battery model is represented

Figure. 3.12 Thevenin equivalent battery model

The open circuit voltage, internal capacitor voltage and the terminal voltage are represented by
Vo, VP, and Vb. The charging, discharging and the internal resistance of the battery are
represented by Rc, Rd and Rp and the polarization capacitance of the battery is represented by C.
The current Ib is taken as positive if discharging and negative otherwise. [24]
The equations for the circuit model are:

Vp'=1/C [(Vo-Vp /Rd)-Ib] ..................................................... 3.19


Vb=VP-IbRb ......................................................................... 3.20

26

Based on this model and equation above, a Matlab-Similink model was developed for the battery
storage device. This model is shown in figure.3.13

Figure. 3.13 the Mat lab Simulink model of the battery storage device

CHAPTER FOURE
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A major importance for the theoretical study of hybrid systems, based on renewable energy
(photovoltaic, wind, hydroelectric systems), is the availability of models, which can be used to
study the behavior of hybrid systems, and most important, software simulation environments.
The modeling of renewable energy hybrid systems has to be made by knowing all types of
renewable energy used in the model. For a good understanding of the system, equivalent models,
based on large scale used components, should be considered.
In order to implement a real hybrid system a theoretical preliminary study is required. Such study
can be performed on simulation model. A simulation model is presented in fig.4.1

27

The simulation model basically consists of the models presented above connected together to
form an isolated hybrid system.

28

Figure.4.1 Simulation model of a hybrid renewable system

29

From the above simulation model of hybrid renewable energy system we have seen that, the
three renewable energy power generations (PV power system, wind power generation and
hydroelectric power generation) with a DC voltage output are interconnected on a DC bus bar.
Each has a power measurement and scope that shows this power.
The DC loads or customers are connected from the output of the DC bus bar. The DC value of
the generation converted to AC value using DC to AC converter. On DC to Ac converter the two
DC feeders converted in to a three phase AC bus bar.
The customer gets a three phase AC power source from AC bus bar. We use voltage and current
measurements to measure the voltage and current of the three phase AC power source.
Vabc - measure the voltages of the three phase line.
Iabc measure the current on the three lines.
Voltage controller used to control the three phase voltages that go to the customer.

30

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION
The components and the whole hybrid simulation model have developed in this paper using
Simulink/Mat lab environment. It has been discussed here that the standalone hybrid system
consisting of PV module, Wind generator, hydroelectric power generation and battery system.
Compared to any fossil fuel based power system the running cost of this system is very low
when installed in proper location. Because renewable energy resources are obtained in naturally
and continuously.
The promotion of energy production from renewable sources represents an imperative objective
in present times justified by environment protection, the increase of energetic independence by
supplying sources diversity and economic and social cohesion reasons.
Hybrid or multi-source pocket energy generation is very important rather than single power
generation. Because, hybrid power generation produce reliable power than single power
generation.
Generally, a hybrid (wind, solar, hydro) renewable energy power generation is very important in
rural area. These renewable energy resources are non-pollutant, easy to install and maintain, less
running cost and produce reliable power.

31

RECOMMENDATION
Ethiopia has a huge potential of renewable energy resources which can be used for rural
electrification through the off-grid system. There are, however, many challenges like low
purchasing power of the rural community, unfavorable conditions towards the utilization of
renewable energies, absence of awareness how to use these resources, etc.
Thus the government, non-governmental organizations and the private sectors should make
combined efforts to overcome these challenges by using more flexible approaches to improve the
current poor status of rural electrification in Ethiopia.
As far as the environmental aspects are concerned, this kind of hybrid systems have to be wide
spread in order to cover the energy demands of rural areas, and in that way to help reduce the
greenhouse gases and the pollution of the environment. This is an important point to be taken
into consideration.

32

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