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Composition and uses

The term resilient as used here, refers to the
underfoot comfort of the floor covering, its ability to recover from
indentations from foot traffic and other loads of short duration.
The base of the floor coverings to be discussed in this
part of the text is a resilient material such as cork, asphalt, plastic
or rubber. This material is combined with a binding cement to
produce the finished floor covering. The composition varies with
each type of floor covering, and the particular combination of
base and binder determines the characteristics of the floor
covering and the area in which it should be used.
At one time, resilient floor covering were used only in
kitchens and bathrooms. Today you will find the various types of
these floor coverings used in every room of the home: laundry
room, dining room den, recreation room, play room, workshop,
and nursery. Often you will find them in living rooms and
bedroom, where with throw rugs or the right design, colour and
size, some very interesting effects can be achieved.

Types and Characteristics of Resilient Floor

There are two types of resilient floor covering. The first and
the most common consists of a finished material applied in thin
sheet strips, or small units such as squares, rectangles and other
shape. Included in this type are asphalt, rubber, and cork tile, and
linoleum. The second type consists of a mix which is toweled to a
finish. In the discussions that follow, only the first type will be
covered, since on that one will be of interest in decoration or

Most of the resilient floor coverings are available in a will

variety of colures and patterns or designs, making them
adaptable just about any conceivable dcor. The only exception to
the availed variety would be in the cork tiles, which are available
only in varying shades of brown.
The most important characteristics of resilient floor
coverings a cleanliness and comfort. The degree of resilience and
quietness variety rug is noted for being a rug that gives quality
at a low cost. These rugs, particularly the velvet ones, are
generally referred to a bedroom when they are over fifty-four
inches in width.
The main disadvantage of this rug is that the pile
tufts may be rather easily pulled out or worn down, revealing the
jute and cotton backing.

Machine- Knotted Rugs (Anglo-Persian)

These machine- knotted rugs, developed in 1919,
duplicate are nearly as possible the double knot of the handwoven oriental rugs. In place of human finger, steel fingers tie
each knot. The colours and the design are controlled by the
complicated jacquard mechanism. The knots are held in place by
weft shots. Like the hand-knotted oriental the yarn comes though
to the back of the rug, showing the design and making it possible
to determine how closely the yarns have been woven. Worsted,
rather than woolen yarns are used, adding to the luster, beauty,
and durability of this quality product. Designs are faithful
reproductions of those used in hand-made oriental rugs.

Luster or Sheen Rugs

Although this is not a distinctive type of rug, being
woven either on the Wilton or the Axminster loom, its
manufacture is a significal attempt to make a luxurious rug that
will simulate the beauty of the hand-made oriental. In fact, these

rugs are often incorrectly called domestic oriental rugs. In

addition to designs that are adapted from the oriental rugs, a
luster or sheen is imparted to the pile yarns be ironing or pressing
the pile in one direction, and by a chemical bad see washed
rugs that employs acids or alkalis to enhance are highlight the
yarns even more.
The ordinary Wilton or Axminster has jute and
cotton backer that reveals no pattern on the underside. The luster
rug, however even though woven on the same looms, often has
only cotton backer yarns. These are soft and pliable, and the pile
yarns show though the back of the rug to reveal the pattern,
colours, and the closeness the weave.

Patent-Back Carpets
Another type of rug, which may be woven on
various looms, known as the patent-back or rubber-backed
carpeting. More commonly it is woven on the velvet loom. After
weaving till becomes worn the colour and pattern remain.
Embossed inlaid linoleum; the difference is that the spaces, or
joints, between the designs are depressed, thus making the
designs stand out. Available in all the standard gauges, embossed
inlaid is used to imitate slate, tile and wood planking.
Felt-base floor covering is often referred to as
painted linoleum. It has a felt backing and is produced only in the
very thin gauges. The design is printed on the surface only. Feltbase floor covering is used in locations where economy is the
main consideration.
The body and surface of individual tiles are the
same as those of the regular, or roll-type, linoleums. Linoleum, tile
can be better adjusted to any irregularities in the floor than can
the roll-type linoleum. Most important, if and when repairs are
required, a few tiles can be easily and quickly replaced. Linoleum

tile is available in various colures in plain, jasper, or marbleized

surfaces and in standard and light gauges. The usual sizes are 9
by 9 inches and 6 by 12 inches. Linoleum tile costs less than most
of the other resilient floor coverings.

Cork tile
Cork tile is made of first-quality pure cork. Its
composition is the same from face to back, and it is evenly
bonded with a special binder. It is accurately cut in sizes of 6 by 6,
6 by1 12, 9 by 12 and 12 by 24 inches and in thicknesses of 1/8,
3/16, and 5/16 inch. There are several shades of cork tile, varying
from light to dark-brown. Different shades may be used together
to produced interesting designs.
Cork tile is the most resilient of the floor tiles. Because of its close
texture. It can be readily washed. It is used primarily where
people gather, such as family room, kitchen or corridor. You
should not, however, use cork in entrance halls or vestibules
where the surface may be spoiled by sand and grit. Cork should
never be used outdoors.
Waxing cork tile after it is laid will increase the
life of the flooring and will bring out the full beauty of the natural
cork colour. Nearly all cork tiles is now finished at the factory with
an initial coat of wax.
Cork tile can be laid on any type of suspended
subfloor. It can be laid over concrete, provided the grade slopes
away from the foundation of the house and the tile is laid with a
waterproof adhesive.

Rubber tile is made of a rubber composition
that is free of objectionable odors and contains well-dispersed
reinforcing fibers and fillers. The colour and design

though to the back of the tile, except for those tiles which are
mounted on a special sponge-rubber backing. Rubber tile is made
in plain and marbleized colour and in two or more tones. The
choice of colures is almost as wide as that of the linoleums.
The usual thicknesses of rubber tile are 1/8 and
3/16 inch, but other gauges up to inch can be obtained for
special purposes. Sizes inches 6 by 6, 9 by 9, 12 by 12 and 18 by
36 inches. Special shapes for various designs can be obtained
from the manufacturers.
Because of its durability, its resistance to ordinary
stains, such as ink and grease, and its high degree of resilience,
rubber tile is particularly suitable for use in the kitchen, bathroom,
and family room. It is used most widely, however, in commercial
structures- banks, churches, stores offices and reception rooms in
large buildings. Rubber tile can be used on suspended subfloors;
and with the proper cements it can be used on floors that are
either on grade or below grade.
The wiping up of spilled water or other materials is made
easier by this type of floor. Most important, the resiliency of the
tile makes it comfortable to walk on, while maintain the desired

Asphalt tile is generally composed of inert
materials, such as asbestos- fiber, with a natural asphalt binder
and mineral pigment. The pigment provides the colour, which
extends though the thickness of the tile. The usual thicknesses of
asphalt tile are 1/8 and 3/16 inch, but other thickness are
available, though in fewer colour. The usual size in 9 by 9 inches,
but it can be had in the 18 by 24 inch size. An initial coat of wax is
usually applied at the factory.

Asphalt tile comes in a wide range of colures; it

also includes many of the marbleized effects found in linoleum
and rubber tile. Asphalt tile is recommended for use in basements
and on grade level concrete floors, because it is not affected by
dampness, and there is nothing in its composition to cause rotting
or deterioration. It is resistant to fire and to heavy wear, and it will
withstand the action of mild acids and alkalis. There are special
grease proof types of asphalt tile use where resistance to grease,
oils, or fats must be considered.

A flexible plastic flooring that is composed of
vinyl resins, other plastic compounds and alkali resisting pigments
is made in sheet or tile form. The material is dense, resilient, and
highly resistant to abrasion, grease, and solvents. The sheet form
has a backing of resin-saturated felt and is slightly more than 1/16
inch thick. The tile form does not have a backing; it is accurately
cut with square edges, and it comes in thickness of 1/18 and 3/32
inch. Sometimes the sheet form is cut into tile sizes. Vinyl plastic
tile can withstand a furniture load of 200 pounds per square inch
without being deformed in any way. In general, plastic tile should
be laid only on suspended subfloors. The better quality, however,
can be installed on subfloors below grade.
There is a tile formed of a completely blended
composition of vinyl plastic resins, asbestos fibers, and alkaliresisting pigments and fillers which is suitable for use on any type
of subfloor. This vinyl asbestos tile is made in thicknesses of 1/8
and 1/10 inch. It is extremely durable and highly resistant to
alkaline moister, oil, grease, and household chemicals. Thus, vinyl
asbestos tile is particularly suitable for use in kitchens. Like most
tiles, plastic tile can be had in a wide range of colures and