25.2
25.3
1
1
1
1
1 1
1
1
From p + q = f , we have: q = f  p = 0.250 m  1.50 m , and from this,
30.0 cm. Thus the image is formed 30.0 cm beyond the lens.
q
30 cm
1
M =  p =  150 cm =  5 .
q = 0.300 m=
h'
q
The magnitude of the magnification is: M = h = p .
p
Therefore h = h' (q )
From the thin lens equation,
pf
(100 m)(52.0 mm)
q=pf =
= 52.0 mm.
100 m  52.0 x 103 m
p
100 m
The object height is then: h = h' (q ) = (92.0 mm)(52.0 mm ) = 177 m
Consider rays coming from opposite
edges of the object and passing
undeviated through the center of the
lens as shown at the right. The
angle between these rays is the
angular width of the object. If the
object is very distant, the image
distance is equal to the focal length
of the lens. Then, if f = 55.0 mm
and = 20.0, the image size may be
angular width
of obj ect =
h (image size)
25.5
h'
q
The magnitude of the magnification is M = h = p .
q
Therefore h' = h (p )
The object distance is: p = 3.84 x 108 m and with the object so far away,
The object size is the diameter of the moon. Thus,
h = 2(1.74 x 106 m) = 3.48 x 106 m and the image size is:
(3.48 x 106 m)(120 x 103 m)
h' =
= 1.09 x 103 m = 1.09 mm.
(3.84 x 108 m)
q = f = 120 mm.
1
256 s
1
The exposure time is being reduced by a factor of: 1
=8
32 s
Thus, to maintain correct exposure, you need to get 8 times more light on the film. To do this the
aperture opening will have to be 8 times the original area, or: (new diameter) =
8 (original diameter) ,
or D2 = 8 D1.
focal length
From the definition of the fnumber, f# = Diameter so
f#new =
f#lens
f#lens
=
=
D2
8D1
f#lens
D1
8
f#old
8
4
= 2.83 = 1.41.
To properly focus the image of a distant object, the lens must be a distance equal to the focal length
away from the film ( q1 = 65.0 mm). For the closer object:
1
1
1
1
1
1
becomes 2000 mm + q = 65.0 mm , and q2 = 67.2 mm.
p2 + q2 = f
2
The lens must be moved away a distance D = q2  q1 = 2.20 mm.
25.7
To double the energy delivered to the film while using the same exposure time, you must double
D2new
D2old
the area of the aperature. Then, we have A2 = 2A1 or
=
2(
), or Dnew = 2 Dold
4
4
.
flens
From the definition of the fnumber, f# = D . In this case, the focal length of the lens is
constant.
flens
flens
f#old 11
Thus, f#new = D
=
=
=
= 7.78.
new
2Dold
2
2
There is no f/7.78 setting on a camera, so one should use the f/8 setting.
25.8
She needs a lens that forms a virtual image at the near point
1 = 1 , so
60 cm f
1 1 1
p + q = f : becomes:
1
24.0 cm +
f = + 40.0 cm.
25.9
For the right eye, a virtual image of the most distant object should be 8.44 cm in front of the lens
(i.e., q = 8.44 cm when p = ). Thus,
1
1
1
1
1
p + q = f gives: 0 + 8.44 cm = f , or f = 8.44 cm = 0.0844 m, and
1
P = 0.0844 m = 11.8 diopters.
For the left eye, as in the above, the needed lens has a focal length of:
1
f = (far point), so f = 0.122 m, and P = 0.122 m = 8.20 diopters.
25.10
(a)
(b)
25.11
(a)
(b)
When an object is at 25.0 cm in front of the lens (p = 25.0 cm), the image must be virtual
and 100 cm in front of the lens so that the eye can focus on it. (q = 100 cm).
1
1
1
1
1
1
Thus, p + q = f becomes: 25.0 cm + 100 cm = f ,
from which,
f = 33.3 cm.
1
1
P = f = 0.333 m = +3.00 diopters.
If the far point is at 50.0 cm, we need an image distance of
1
1
1
q = 50.0 cm when p = infinity. Thus, p + q = f becomes:
1
1
0 + 50.0 cm = f , and f = 50.0 cm = 0.500 m, so the power is:
1
1
P = f = 0.500 m =  2.00 diopters.
To be seen by the eye, the virtual image cannot be any closer than 13.0 cm to the lens. Thus,
1
1
1
1
let us find the smallest value the object distance can have: p + q = f becomes: p +
1
1 =
0.130 m 0.500 m , which gives p = 0.176 m = 17.6 cm. Thus, the near point when
glasses are worn is 17.6 cm.
25.12
Considering the image formed by the eye as a virtual object for the implanted lens, we have:
p = (2.53 cm + 2.80 cm) = 5.33 cm, and q = 2.80 cm
1
1
1
1
1
1
Thus, p + q = f becomes: 5.33 cm + 2.80 cm = f , which gives
1
f = +5.90 cm and P = 0.059 m = +17.0 diopters.
25.13
(a)
(b)
To correct nearsightedness, the image of distant objects ( p = ) should be virtual and located
at the far point (q = 1.5 m). Thus,
1
1
1
1
1 1
p + q = f becomes: 0 + 1.5 m = f , or f = 1.5 m. The power is then P = f =
1 = 0.67 diopters.
1.5 m
To correct farsightedness, objects at p = 25 cm should form a virtual image at the near point
1
1
1
(q = 0.30 m). p + q = f becomes:
1
1 1
0.25 m + 0.30 m = f , from which f = +1.5 m, and
(a)
(b)
25.15
25.16
Objects at the far point (p = 125 cm) are focused on the retina (q = 2.00 cm). The focal
1
1
1
length of the lenscornea combination in this case is: 125 cm + 2.00 cm = f , or ffar
far
= 1.97 cm,
1
1
and Pfar = f
= 0.0197 m = + 50.8 diopters.
far
Objects at the near point (p = 10.0 cm) are also focused on the retina (q = 2.00 cm). Thus,
1
1
1
10.0 cm + 2.00 cm = fnear , or
fnear = 1.67 cm, and Pnear = +60.0 diopters.
A diverging corrective lens must be used to form virtual images (located at the eye's far
point) of very distant objects, ie.,
1 1 1
(q =  125 cm when p = ). Thus, p + q = f gives:
1
1
1
 125 cm = f , or f =  125 cm, and the power of the needed corrective lens is:
1
1
P = f = 1.25 m =  0.800 diopters.
(b)
1
1
1
1
1
1
+
=
becomes:
+ 25 cm = 7.5 cm ,giving p = 5.8 cm.
p
q
f
p
With the virtual image at the normal near point, the angular magnification of a simple
25 cm
25.0 cm
magnifier is M = 1 + f
. In this case, we have: M = 1 + 5.8 cm = 5.3.
(a)
With the image at the normal near point, the angular magnification is: M = 1 +
(a)
25 cm
=1+
f
25 cm
25 cm = 2.0.
25.17
(a)
(b)
25.18
(a)
M=
25 cm 25 cm
= 25 cm = 1.0.
f
(b)
1.22(4.99) = 6.08.
25.19
(a)
(b)
(c)
25.20
L
M1 = f = 50.0. Thus,
L
20.0 cm
fo = 50.0 = 50.0 = 0.400 cm.
25.0 cm
25.0 cm
Me =
= 20.0, and fe = 20.0 = 1.25 cm.
fe
M = M1Me =  (50.0)(20.0) =  1000.
o
he
he
= 29.0 cm = 1.43 x 103 rad, so he =
qe
1
1
1
po + qo = fo , or
1
1
1
po + 28.1 cm = 1.622 cm , so po = 1.72 cm,
qo 28.1 cm
The magnitude of the lateral magnification produced by the objective is: Mo = p = 1.72 cm =
o
16.3, and the overall magnification is:
M = MeMo = (31.5)(16.3) = 513.
he 4.15 x 102 cm
Therefore, ho = M =
= 0.810 m.
513
25.21
If the eye is relaxed, the final image is at infinity. Thus the object position for the eyepiece is: pe =
25.0 cm
fe =2.50 cm, and the angular magnification of the eyepiece is: me =
= 10.0
fe
The image position for the objective lens is:
qo = L  fe = 15.0 cm  2.50 cm = 12.5 cm.
[Note: The approximation that the the image distance for the objective is nearly equal to the length
L
of the microscope is a poor one in this case. Hence, we should not use M1 = f .]
o
We now find the object position for the objective:
1
1
1
1
1
1
po + qo = fo , becomes po + 12.5 cm = 1.00 cm , so po = 1.09 cm.
Thus, the lateral magnification produced by the objective lens is:
qo
12.5 cm
M1 = = 1.09 cm = 11.5,
and the overall magnification of the microscope is:
po
Moverall = M1me = (11.5)(10) = 115
25.22
fo
75 cm
M =  f = 4.0 cm = 19
e
25.23
(a)
(b)
25.24
f = 15 m
o
3.8 x 108 m
1 cm
25.25
L = fo + fe = 92 cm. (1)
fo
The angular magnification is: M = f = 45, so fo = 45 fe
(2)
e
Substitute (2) into (1) to obtain: 45 fe + fe = 92 cm, or fe = 2.0 cm
Then (2) gives: fo = 45(2.0 cm) or fo = 90 cm.
25.26
Use the larger focal length (lowest power) lens as the objective element and the shorter focal length
1
(largest power) lens for the eye piece. The focal lengths are: fo = 1.20 diopter = 0.833 m = 83.3
cm, and
1
fe = 9.00 diopters = 0.111 m = 11.1 cm.
fo
(a) The angular magnification (or magnifying power) of the telescope is then: M = f =
e
83.3 cm
11.1 cm = 7.50.
(b) The length of the telescope is:
L = fo + fe = 83.3 cm + 11.1 cm = 94.4 cm.
25.27
Consider first the lens used for the left eye. The near point is at 50.0 cm
(q = 50.0 cm when p = 25.0 cm). Thus,
1
1
1
1
1 1
p + q = f becomes: 25.0 cm + 50.0 cm = f , and f = 50.0 cm.
For the right eye lens, we have a near point of 100 cm (q = 100 cm when p = 25 cm).
1
1
1
1
1 1
p + q = f becomes: 25.0 cm + 100 cm = f , and f = 33.3 cm.
(a) The angular magnification of the telescope (using the longest focal length lens for the
fo
50.0 cm
objective) is: M = f = 33.3 cm = 1.50.
e
(b) We shall use the 50.0 cm lens as the objective, and we shall require that a virtual final image
be formed at qe = 25.0 cm for maximum magnification. The object distance for the eyepiece
is:
1
1
1
1
1
1
pe + qe = fe , or pe + 25.0 cm = 33.3 cm , yielding pe = 14.3 cm.
o
overall magnification is then found to be:
Moverall = M1me = (1.09)(1.75) = 1.91.
These steps can be repeated with the 33.3 cm lens as the objective and the 50 cm as the
eyepiece of the microscope. For that case, the overall magnification will be 1.80. Thus, the
arrangement used above gives the greater magnification.
25.28
500 x 109 m
m = 1.22 D , so D = 1.22
= 1.22
m
7.9 x 107 rad
= 0.77 m (about 30 inches.)
25.29
If just resolved:
1.00 m
Thus the altitude is: h =
=
= 4.93 x 105 m = 493 km.
The limit of resolution in air is: air = 1.22 D = 0.60 rad. In oil, the wavelength becomes oil =
air
oil
oil = 1.22 D =
25.31
air
1.22(n )
oil
air
=n
oil
0.60 rad
= 0.40 rad.
1.5
s
=r =
2.0 m
= 2.0 x 104 rad.
10.0
x 103 m
= m = 1.22 D , so D =
, or
(a)
vac
medium = n
medium
500 nm
= 1.33 = 376 nm. The limiting angle is then:
2.00 x 103 m
(b) r =
25.33
The diameter of the aperature is: D = 20 in = 51 cm = 0.51 m. Since the two stars are barely
resolved,
25.35
1.00 x 102 m
= 43.7 m
2.29 x 104rad
s = r = (8.0 ly)
Thus,
25.34
m = 1.22 D = 1.22
5.00 m
separation is:
s = rm = (1.22 x 107 rad)(8.0 x 107 km) = 9.8 km
27.36
A fringe shift occurs when the mirror is moved a distance of 4 . Thus, if the mirror is moved a
distance L = 0.180 mm = 1.80 x 104 m and the wavelength is = 550 nm, the number of fringe
shifts observed is:
L
4(L) 4(1.80 x 104 m)
fringe shifts =
=
=
= 1.31 x 103 m
(/4)
550 x 109 m
25.37
A fringe shift occurs when the mirror is moved a distance of 4 . Thus if 310 fringe shifts are
If the number of wavelengths that will fit in the length of the tube changes by N, there will be
4(N) fringe shifts observed. When the tube is evacuated, the number of wavelengths in its length
L
is N =
When the tube is filled with gas, the number of wavelengths is:
vac
N' =
gas
ngasL
L
=
Thus, the number of fringe shifts observed as the tube fills
(vac/ngas)
vac
will be:
ngasL
fringe shifts = 4(N) = 4(

vac
vac
)=
4L
(n  1) .
vac gas
vac
ngas = 1 + 4L (#shifts)
If 600 nm light is used, L = 5.00 cm and 160 fringe shifts are observed, we have:
+
600 x 109 m
4(5.00 x 102 m)
(160) = 1.0005
ngas = 1
Note that changing the number of wavelengths that will fit within the length of the cell by N will
produce 4(N) fringe shifts since this is equivalent to increasing the length of the interferometer
arm by (N). As the air is evacuated from the cell, the wavelength of the light within the cell
vac
nair
vac
to N' =
vac
air =
vac
# fringe shifts =
25.40
vac
vac
4(5.00 x 102 m)
(1.00029  1) = 98.3, or 98 complete shifts.
590 x 109 m
vac
When this space is filled by a medium of refractive index nm , the number of wavelengths in the
nmt
t
same distance t is N' =
=
Thus, the number of fringe shifts that will occur is:
medium
vac
nmt
vac
vac
4t
)=
vac
(nm  1) .
4(15 x 106 m)
(1.40  1) = 40
600 x 109 m
n
(2)(502.nm)
= sin30.0
= 2008 nm.
sin
(a)
1
d = 3660 lines/cm = 2.732 x 104 cm = 2.732 x 106 m = 2732 nm.
d sin
n .
at = 13.7, = 647 nm; and
= 19.4.
, and
sin
2
for the second order: (2)= dsin Combining these equations gives: sin = d = 2
sin = 2 sin .
10
(a) The longest wavelength in the visible spectrum is 700 nm. The number of complete spectra
that can be seen is therefore the same as the number of visible orders of the 700 nm light. From
the grating equation, we have:
dsinmax
nmax = dsinmax or nmax =
. The slit spacing is:
1
d = 600 line/mm = 1.67 x 103 mm.
(1.67 x 106 m)sin90
Thus, nmax =
= 2.39,
700 x 109 m
and we see that only two complete orders of the visible spectrum can be seen.
(b) For the violet edge of the first order:
n (1)(400 x 109 m)
sinV1 = d =
= 0.240, and V1 = 13.9.
1.67 x 106 m
For the red edge of the first order:
n (1)(700 x 109 m)
sinR1 = d =
= 0.419, and V1 = 24.8.
1.67 x 106 m
Therefore, the angular width of the first order visible spectrum is:
= R1  V1 = 24.8  13.9 = 10.9
25.44
(a)
1
d = 1500 lines/cm = 6.667 x 104 cm = 6.667 x 106 m = 6667 nm, and
(b)
25.45
dsin
(6667 nm)sin90
= 13.3.
500 nm
Thus, 13 complete orders will be observed.
For 15,000 lines/cm: d = 666.7 nm, and
dsin (666.7 nm)sin90
n=
=
= 1.33.
500 nm
The wavelengths for the sodium doublet are: A = 588.995 nm, and
B = 589.592 nm. For the given grating,
1 cm
d = 2500 = 4.0 x 104 cm = 4000 nm. Using the grating equation,
m
m
dsin= m, or sin = d , and
= arcsin d .
Thus, for m = 1:
(1)(588.995 nm)
A = arcsin 4000 nm = arcsin(0.14725) = 8.4675, and
(1)(589.592 nm)
25.46
d=
25.47
1 cm
We use dsin= m, with m = 1, and d = 4000 = 2.5 x 106 m = 2500 nm.
11
m (1)400 nm
For the blue light, sin = d = 2500 nm = 0.160 and blue = 9.21.
m (1)650 nm
For the red light sin =
= 2500 nm = 0.260 and red = 15.1.
d
1
d = 5000 slits/cm = 2.00 x 104 cm = 2000 nm.
21 2(480 nm)
In the second order, 2 = dsinso sin1 = d = 2000 nm = 0.480, and
2(610 nm)
1 = 28.7. Also,
sin2 = 2000 nm = 0.610, giving 2 = 37.6.
y1 = L tan1 = (2.00 m) tan28.7 = 1.095 m,
y2 = L tan2 = (2.00 m) tan37.6 = 1.540 m, and
y = y2  y1 = 0.445 m = 44.5 cm
25.49
(a)
(b)
25.50
R=
= mN. Thus,
N=
656.20 nm
N = (1) (0.18 nm) = 3646 slits.
656.20 nm
N = (2) (0.18 nm) = 1823 slits.
R = Nm =
Error!
The highest order of 600 nm light visible is:
dsinmax (1670 nm)sin90
mmax =
=
2.78 or 2 orders.
600 nm
600.000 nm
= 0.003 nm =
2.00 x 105.
These two spectral lines cannot be resolved using this grating.
25.51
(a)
(b)
25.52
Corrective lenses must form a virtual image at q = 75.0 cm for objects which are 25.0 cm in
front of the lens (p = 25.0 cm).
1
1
1
1
1 1
p + q = f becomes: 25.0 cm + 75.0 cm = f ,
and f = 37.5 cm = 0.375 m.
1
1
Thus, P = f = 0.375 m = 2.67 diopters.
If q = 75.0 cm when p = 26.0 cm rather than 25.0 cm as assumed in part(a), we have:
1
1 1
26.0 cm + 75.0 cm = f' ,
and f' = 39.8 cm = 0.398 m.
1
1
Thus, P = f' = 0.398 m = 2.51 diopters, (0.16 diopters too low).
1
1
1
1
1
1
(a) p + q = f gives: 100 cm + 2.00 cm = f , and f = 1.96 cm
f
min
1.96 cm
= 0.200 cm = 9.80,
12
(a)
25.54
d=
25.55
(a)
1.96 cm
= 0.600 cm = 3.27
L = fo + fe = 101.5 cm.
fo 100 cm
(b) M = f = 1.50 cm = 67.
e
n
(3)(546.1 nm)
= sin81.0
= 1.66 x 103 nm= 1.66 x 103 mm.
sin
1
1
Thus, lines/mm = d =
= 602.
1.66 x 103 mm
The resolving power is given by:
(b)
R=
= mN.
589.00 nm
=
= 980.
m (1)(0.60 nm)
589.00 nm
N=
=
= 330.
m (3)(0.60 nm)
Thus,
25.56
f
max
N=
vac
. If this
space is then filled with material having a refractive index n, the number of wavelengths which can
t
nt
now be fitted in is N' = =
. Since four fringe shifts occur when the path length increases
vac
by one wavelength, the number of fringe shifts observed as the material is introduced will be:
vac
nt
t
# fringe shifts = 4(N) = 4(
) . Therefore, n = (1 + 4t ).
vac vac
Therefore,
n=1+
vac
4t (#fringe shifts) .
1 cm
The grating spacing is: d = 2750 lines = 3.64 x 104 cm = 3640 nm.
The violet end of the second order spectrum occurs at:
m 2(400 nm)
sin = d = 3640 nm = 0.220, or = 12.7 = 0.222 radians.
The red end of the second order spectrum is located at:
m 2(700 nm)
sin = d = 3640 nm = 0.385, or = 22.6 = 0.395 radians.
The angular width of the second order spectrum is thus:
= (0.395  0.222) radians = 0.173 radians.
At distance, L, the arc length included is: s = L(), so
s
1.75 cm
L=
. If s = 1.75 cm, then:
L = 0.173 radians = 10.1 cm.
25.58
(a)
1
1
1
First find the location and size of the image formed by the objective lens: p + q = f
o
o
o
becomes:
13
(b)
(c)
(d)
25.59
1
1
1
2
40.0 m + qo = 8.00 x 102 m , and qo = 8.02 x 10 m is the image distance. The
image size is:
hqo
(30.0 cm)(0.0802 m)
h' =  p = =  6.02 x 102 cm.
(40.0 m)
o
Now, treat the eyepiece lens. With the image at q = , we have:
1
1
1
pe + = 2.00 cm , so pe = 2.00 cm. (p < 0 means a virtual object)
Distance between lenses is qo + pe,
or L = 8.02 cm  2.00 cm = 6.02 cm.
fo
8.00 cm
M = f = 2.00 cm = 4.00.
e
1
The image of a very distant object is formed at q = 5.0 cm. Thus, the focal point is: 0 + 5.0 cm
1
= f , or f = 5.0 cm.
(a) The maximum magnification occurs when the image is at the near point of the eye. Thus, we
see that q = 15 cm. We find:
1
1
1
15
p + 15 cm = 5.0 cm , yields p = 4 cm. The magnification is:
q
15 cm
M =  p =  15
= 4.0.
cm
4
h
h
(b) We have: o = 15 cm , and = f . Therefore,
15 cm 15 cm
M=
= f
= 5.0 cm = 3.0.
o
A
B
I mage
plane
d
B'
A'
25.60
30 cm
d = 1f, and
d
2 = 30.0 cm , so
1f
140
2 = 30.0 cm = ( 6.10 x 106 rad)30.0 = 2.85X 105 rad = 28.5 rad
25.61
14
1
dsin m
with m 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .
1 long long
short
occurs is
m 3 short
. If this maximum coincides with the firstorder minimum for long ,
d
d
3 short long
then
, or
d
2d
long 469 nm
short
78.2 nm.
6
6
sin
Obje c tive
Ey e piec e
Obje c t
D
p o = 300 c m
qo
fo = 20 c m
h'
p e = fe
par a lle l ra y s
e m e rge
fe = 2 cm
the angle subtended by the object. These angles are labeled in the sketch. Note that since the
telescope is adjusted for minimum eyestrain, the final image is at infinity. Thus, the image formed
by the objective lens (serves as object for eyepiece) must be located at the focal point of the
h'
h'
eyepiece. From triangle ABD,
tano = q , and using triangle BCD, tan= f .
o
e
Assuming small angles tanand o tano , these equations become
qo
h'
h'
qo , and fe , so M = o fe .
To find qo, apply the thin lens equation to the objective lens:
1
1
1
1
1
1
300 cm + qo = 20.0 cm , giving
po + qo = fo becomes:
21.4 cm
qo =21.4 cm. Therefore,
M = 2.00 cm = 10.7.
25.63
We use:
Thus,
25.64
n1
n2 n2  n1
+
, with p = infinity.
p
q = R
1.34  1.00
n2  n1
R = q n = 2 cm 1.34 = 0.507 cm = 5.07 mm.
15
2. The light from the flashlight consists of many different wavelengths with random time
differences between the individual waves. Thus, there is no coherence between the two
sources and no possibility of interference.
4. The shutter of a camera is a close approximation to the iris of the eye. The retina of the
eye corresponds to the film of the camera, and a close approximation to the cornea of the
eye is the lens of the camera.
6. You want a real image formed at the location of the paper. To form such an image, the
light source should be farther away from the paper than the focal point of the lens.
8. The telescope forms an inverted image. Thus, the astronauts could find themselves
exploring the northern hemisphere when they were planning to explore the southern
hemisphere. It is highly unlikely that a civilization advanced enough to travel to the Moon
would ever face such a problem.
10. A magnified image of an object is produced by a converging lens when the object is
placed somewhere between the focal point and the lens. Hence, the distance of the object
from the lens should be less than 15 cm.
12. The image formed on the retina by the lens and cornea is already inverted.
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