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Missouri University of Science and Technology

Scholars' Mine
International Specialty Conference on ColdFormed Steel Structures

(1988) - 9th International Specialty Conference on


Cold-Formed Steel Structures

Nov 8th, 12:00 AM

Strength of cold-formed steel box columns


N. E. Shanmugam
S. P. Chiew
S. L. Lee

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Recommended Citation
N. E. Shanmugam, S. P. Chiew, and S. L. Lee, "Strength of cold-formed steel box columns" (November 8, 1988). International Specialty
Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures. Paper 7.
http://scholarsmine.mst.edu/isccss/9iccfss-session1/9iccfss-session1/7

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Ninth International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures


St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A., November 8-9,1988
STRENGTH OF COLD-FORMED STEEL OOX COLUMNS

N.E. Shanmugam 1 , M.ASCE, S.P. Chiew 2 , S.L. Lee 3 , F.ASCE

ABSTRACT
Cold-formed steel box columns have two obvious modes of failure;
they can reach the ultimate capacity either by overall column buckling
or local buckling.
This paper is concerned with a numerical method to
predict the ultimate load-carrying capacity of cold-formed steel box
columns subj ected to axial force and unequal end moments.
The method
accounts
for
the
effect
of
local
plate
buckling and
ini tial
imperfections
upon
the
ul timate
strength
of
columns.
Moment-curvature-thrust relationships are developed by using piecewise
linear stress-strain curves;
they are incorporated into the column
-analysis in which the differential equation of bending is numerically
integrated. Use of a suitable failure criterion and numerical procedure
makes it possible to obtain column curves.
For design purposes, column
curves from which ultimate strength of column under axial or eccentric
loading conditions can be easily obtained are presented.
INTRODUCTION
Thin-walled
stiffened
compression
elements
are
commonly
encountered in cold-formed steel box columns.
When such columns are
subj ected to compressive loading, with the onset of buckling the growth
of out of plane deflections in the plate elements results in changes in
the stress pattern which in turn reduces the plate stiffness.
This
reduction causes the failure of the column at a load less than its
classical Euler buckling load.
The design of cold-formed steel box
columns, therefore, requires the consideration of local plate buckling,
overall column buckling and the interaction between the local and
overall buckling. A close-form evaluation of ultimate strength of such
columns is well nigh impossible and the use of numerical procedure,
therefore, becomes necessary.
Numerous investigators (6,8,11,17) have studied the effect of
local buckling on the strength of plate elements subjected to
compressi ve loading.
Rigorous methods using large deflection theory
coupled with finite difference methods (12,14) and elasto-plastic finite

1.
2.
3.

Senior
Lecturer,
Department
of
Ci viI
Engineering,
National
University of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore 0511.
Structural Engineer, T.H. Chuah and Associates (Pte) Ltd, 190 Middle
Road, Fortune Centre, #11-04, Singapore 0718.
Professor and Head, Department of Civil Engineering, National
University of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore 0511.

129

130

element formulations (5,7) have been proposed for the ultimate strength
analysis of plate elements.
For design office use, however, simple
methods using the effective width concept were presented by Von Karman
(16) and Winter (18).
Ilimy of the design specifications (1,2,4) for
cold-formed steel structural elements have accepted the effective width
principle and it has been proved to yield satisfactory results.
A simple analytical method was presented recently by the authors
(10,15) for predicting the strength of thin-walled welded steel box
columns subjected to axial load and end moments.
The method accounts
for local buckling of component plates, welding residual stresses and
ini tial
column imperfections.
The method is
extended for
the
analysis of cold-formed
steel box columns in the present study.
Homent-curvature-thrust relationships are developed by using piecewise
linear stress-strain curves.
They are incorporated into the column
analysis in which the differential equation of bending is numerically
integrated. Use of a suitable failure criterion and numerical procedure
makes it possible to obtain the ultimate strength.
Results are
presented in the form of column curves which can be used readily by
designers.
THEORY
An exact analysis for ultimate strength of cold-formed steel box
columns is complicated because of the local buckling of component plates
and the non-linearity of the stress-strain curves.
However, the
solution can be greatly simplified by adopting approximate linearised
stress-strain curves.
Box columns can be treated as an assemblage of
long plates supported along the longitudinal edges as shown in Figure 1.
Local
buckling of
the
component plates,
which
are under axial
compression, is allowed for by applying an appropriate load-shortening
curve,
while
those
under
tension
are
treated
by assuming
an
elastic-perfectly plastic stress-strain curve.
Simplified piecewise linear stress-strain curves (Figure 2b) based
on approximations
of
stress-strain
curves
by Moxham,
Crisfield,
Harding et al. and Little (3) were proposed by Shanmugam et al. (15).
These curves represent unwelded plates having slenderness ratios equal
to 80, 55, 40 and 30 or less, and initial imperfection of b/1 000, 'b I
being the width of the plate in a direction normal to the compressive
loadings. These curves have been used to account for the local buckling
of the component plates of box columns and the moment-curvatures-thrust
(H-~-P)
relationships for column cross-sections were developed as
explained in the following sections.
MOMENT-CURVATURE-THRUST RELATIONSHIPS
It becomes imperative to formulate the moment-curvature-thrust
relationships for individual cross-sections in order to determine the
equilibrium curves defining the domain of stable equilibrium of moment,
thrust and
column length.
The M-~-P
relationship is computed
numerically using the method similar to that adopted by Nishino et al.
(13). The following assumptions are made in the analysis which follows:

131

(i)
(ii)

(iii)
(iv)
(v)

(vi)
(vii)

the material is homogeneous and isotropic in both


the elastic and plastic states,
elastic-perfectly plastic
stress-strain relation
(Figure 2a) is assumed for flange plate under
tension and the local buckling of the flange plate
under
compression
is
allowed
by
applying
an
appropriate stress-strain curve from the set of
curves given in Figure 2b.
The portion of the web
plate under compression is treated in a similar
manner
to
that of
the
compression flange by
applying
the
stress-strain
curve
with
the
assumption that 'b' is equal to the depth of the
compression zone,
the iocal buckling of the plate due to shear is
ignored,
the strain distribution is linear across the depth
of the cross-section (Figure 3),
the residual stresses in each component plate are
assumed to be in self-equilibrium and distributed
in the form shown in Figure 4,
the effect of strain reversal is negligible, and
the deflections are small so that curvature can be
expressed by the second derivatives of deflections.

Consider the cross-section as shown in Figure 3(a).


The neutral
axis is located at a distance R from the concave extreme fibre of the
cross section.
For purpose of obtaining the M-<j>-P relationship, the
cross section is discretised into 'n' elements.
The strain at any
element 'i' can be expressed in the non-dimensional form

(1 )

in which e:.

e:

total strain at element i, positive if in tension


strain at the centroid of the section

<j>

curvature
non-dimensionalised
by
the
initial yielding for bending, ~ ; 2e: y /d

Yi

distance of the centre of element i


axis

e:.

residual strain at element i

e: y

yield strain

depth of cross section

r~

curvature

at

from the centroidal

The corresponding stress cr. is obtained by making use of the


appropriate stress-strain curves ~i ven in Figure 2b, cr. being positive
if in tension.
~

132

The axial force and bending moment carried by the cross-section


can be easily obtained by using the equilibrium equations
n
E

2 (a)

i~1

where

n
E

2(b)

i~1

p
m
n

total number of elements

area of cross-section

plastic modulus of section

M.

area of element i

Py

squash load

My

plastic moment

ayz

The moment developed about the centroidal axis of a cross-section


can be determined numerically for any given value of axial thrust and
curvature 4>.
The computations involve the determination of the correct
posi tion of
the neutral axis.
Successi ve values of R can be
interpolated and the correct value is determined such that the net
compressive force from the reSUlting strain distribution defined by R
and 4> obtained from Eq. 2(a) together with Eq. 1 matched the given axial
thrust.
The resulting moment can be calculated from Eq. 2(b) and the
procedure repeated for other values of 4>.
Typical M-4>-P relationships
obtained are given in Figure 5. The variation of m ~ M/My wi th respect
to 4> ~ ~/~ for
p ~ PIP ~ 0.3,
is
plotted in Figure 5 for plate
slendernes~, bit ~ 40,
and 80.

55

ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF COLU!1NS


Box columns subjected to eccentric load can be treated by
considering the cantilever column under the action of axial force P,
transverse shear force Q and bending moment M at the free end as shown
in Figure 6.
Ini tial imperfection is assumed to be represented by
initial curvature which is constant throughout the length of the
column.
The equilibrium condition and the curvature-displacement
relation are given, respectively in the non-dimensional form as
m
d2w
dx 2

mf

Ar
Z

(pw + qx)

2r
(4) + 4>i) d

(3 )

(4)

133

in which mf

Mf/My

;g

Q/P

x;;f;,
y

Y
w

W/r

and

~i

~i/~y'

The deflected shape of a column for given values of mf' p and q


ana prescn.oea values of ~., can oe ootained oy integrating t:q. 4 J.n
view of Eq. 3 and the m~ment-curvature-thrust relationship for a
particular cross-section developed earlier.
In order to simplify the
integration of Eq. 4 a numerical procedure was adopted.
The method is
explained in reference 15 and hence it is not repeated herein.
Wi th the help of the numerical integration technique the relation
between m and x can be obtained for a set of p, q and ~. and various
assumed values of mf The m-x relationships thus obtained: are plotted
as shown in Figure 7 and they are referred to as equilibrium curves.
Applying Horne's (9) stability criterion the envelope of the equilibrium
curves can be constructed.
The envelope is the boundary of the stable
equilibrium domain of the cantilever column of certain length subjected
to the combined action of end moment, axial thrust and shear.
The
variation of the moment capacity along the length of the column for a
particular value of axial thrus t and shear is gi ven by the envelopes in
Figure 7.
It is more useful to present the ultimate strength of box columns
in the form of column curves.
The equations developed for cantilever
column can be extended to the treatment of simply supported box columns
subjected to unequal end moments with -1 " K " 1 as shown in Figure 8.
The simply supported column may be treated as two cantilever columns of
lengths X, and x2 with fixed ends at point O. The part of the colum to
the right of point 0 corresponds to the cantilever column of Figure 6.
With Q = M(1 - K)/L whilst the part to left of 0 corresponds to a column
under a transverse load Q opposite in sense to that shown in Figure 6
and hence care should be exercised in using the appropriate envelopes.
A typical envelope constructed for the whole length of a column
with particular values of ~. and q and various magnitudes of p is shown
in Figure 9.
The curves t..re plotted on the m-A plane in which A is
normalised slenderness ratio given by

(5)

The envelopes on the left correspond to the cantilever column of length


x1 and on the right to the cantilever column of length x2'
For given
values of p and q, at the limit of stability, the point (m, A1 ) and
(Kffi , A2 ) must be on the envelopes corresponding to p and q.
The
cri tical values of A, and x 2 are not known a priori, however, they mus t
satisfy the following equations:
(6)

134

z
q = Ar

m(1 - K)
'ITA

(7)

A value of A is first assumed along with the prescribed values of K, m


and p.
q is determined from Eq. 7 and the values of 1.1 and 1.2 and
hence A are obtained from the envelopes corresponding to the set of
value of p and q.
This process is repeated until the assumed value
of A matches the computed one.
A faml.ly of column curves (p-A curves)
for various values of m and K can be constructed. The steps involved in
the construction of column curves are illustrated in Figure 10.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The proposed method was applied to the analysis of the behaviour
of box columns having different plate slenderness ratios.
The
parameters were so chosen that they show the influence of end moment,
the moment ratio and column slenderness.
Column curves which were
generated from the results are presented in Figures 11-13.
In each of
these figures curves are given for moment ratios equal to 1.0, 0.0 and
-1 .0, respectively.
K equal
to one represents the case of a column
under equal end moments.
Results are presented for end moment (M/My)
equal to 0.0, 0.1 and 0.3 and plate slenderness ratio of 30, 40, 55 and
80.
All these curves were obtained assuming initial curvature, <l>.,
equal to 0.1 and fixed value of residual stress level shown in Figure

4.

The results for K = 0.0 and -1.0 clearly show the effect of
unequal end moments upon the strength of axially loaded box columns.
For all values of m the column strength increases with the decrease in K
values.
For example consider column curves in Figures 11 (a) and 13(a)
in which K = 1.0 and -1.0 respectively.
For A = 0.6 and m = 0.3 the
strength of column for K equal to 1.0 is 0.56 and the corresponding
value for K equal to -1.0 is 0.72 an increase of about 29 percent. It
is also observed that the columns under single curvature bending
(K = 0.0, 1.0) are normally weaker than those under double curvature
bending (K = -1.0). This effect is found to be more significant in the
case of intermediate column range. Similar observations can be made for
all values of K in the case of columns with other slenderness values
also.
It is obvious from the figures that the column strength drops
significantly as the plate slenderness increases.
For axially loaded
short columns this reduction is approximately 20 percent when the
slenderness ratio of the component plate is increased from 30 to 55.
The figures also show that the column strength is independent of A in
the lower range of column slenderness, this range increasing with plate
slenderness.
At low bit ratio the interactive buckling failure occurs
for the whole range of A, whereas for larger bit ratios the failure is
mainly due to local buckling upto a certain value of A. The interactive
buckling becomes predominant thereafter.
CONCLUSIONS
A simple analytical method to the analysis of cold-formed steel
box columns pinned at their ends and subjected to axial load and unequal

135

end moments has been presented. The method is capable of predicting the
load-carrying capacity of these columns which experience local buckling
of component plates and may have initial column imperfections. Results
presented in the form of column curves clearly show the adverse effect
of. the local buckling of component plates.
The ultimate ca.pacity of
these columns is reduced significantly for larger bit ratios of
component plates.
The columns subjected to double curvature bending
ha'le been found to be stronger than those under single curvature
bending.
The column curves provide the means for estimating the
ultimate strength of cold-formed steel box columns subjected to loads
with unequal eccentricity at the ends.
They should be useful design
tools and intermediate values can be obtained by interpolation.
APPENDIX I - REFERENCES
1.

2.
3.

4.

5.

6.
7.

8.

9.
10.

11.
12.

13.

14.

AISI,
"Specification
for
the design
of
cold-formed steel
structural
members",
American
Iron
and
Steel
Institute,
Washington D C, 1983, 46 pp.
Australian Standard "Rules for the use of cold-formed steel in
structures", AS 1538-1974.
Bradfield,
C.D. and Chladmy, E.
(1979),
"A review of the
elastic-plastic analysis of steel plates loaded in in-plane
compression", Report CUED/D
Struct/TR 77, Dept. of Engrs. ,
Cambridge Univ., Cambridge, U.K.
British Standard "Structural use of steelwork in building" Part 4
Code of Practice for design of floors with profiled sheeting, BS
5950: Part 4: 1982.
Crisfield, M.A. (1975), "Full-range analysis of steel plates and
stiffened panels under uni-axial compression, "Proc. Instn. Civ.
Engrs., Part 2, 59, 595-625.
Dwight, J .B. and Moxham, K.E. (1969), ''Welded steel plates in
compression", The Structural Engineer, 47(2), 49-66.
Frieze, P.A., Dowling, P.J. and Hobbs, R.E. (1975), "Steel box
girder bridges
parametric study of plates in compression",
CESLIC Report BG39, Engrg. Structures Lab., Civ. Engrg. Dept.,
Imperial CoIl., Londong, U.K.
Harding,
J.E.,
Hobbs,
R.E.
and
Neal,
B.G.
(1977),
"The
elasto-plastic analysis of imperfect square plates under in-plane
loading", Proc. Instn. Civ. Engrs., Part 2, 63, 137-158.
Horne, M.R. (1956), "The elastic-plastic theory of compression
members", Jl. Mech. Phys. Solids, Vol. 4, 104-120.
Lee, S.L., Shanmugam, N.E. and Chiew, S.P. (1988), "Thin-walled
box columns under arbitrary end loads", Jl. Struct. Engrs., Am.
Soc. Civ. Engrs., 114, in press.
Li ttle, G.H. (1974), "Rapid analysis of plate collapse by live
energy minimisation", Int. J. Mech. Sci., 19, 725-244.
Moxham, K.E. (1971), "Theoretical determination of the strength of
welded steel plates in compression",
Report No. CVED/C
StructjTR2
Nishino, F., Kanchanalai, T. and Lee, S.L. (1972), Ultimate
strength of wide flange and box columns", Proc. Colloq. on
Centrally Compressed Struts, Paris, France, IABSE, 254-265.
Rhodes, J. and Harvey, (1971), "Plates in uniaxial compression
with various support conditions at the unloaded boundaries, .!!!!!..

136

15.

16.

17.
18.

J. Mech. Sci., 13, 787-802.


Shanmugam, N.E., Chiew, S.P. and Lee, S.L. (1987), Strength of
thin-walled square steel box columns", .:J:..:I::..:.~.:::S..::t:.:r..::u~c:..:t:..:.~.:::E::.n:;;g!.!r:..;gL:.:.J,~.:;A:::m:..:....
Soc. Civ~ Engrs., 113(4), 818-831.
Von Karman, T., Sechler, E.E. and Donnel, L.H.L. (1932), The
strength of thin plates in compression", ..=T..=r..=a:.;n;;;:s;..;.:..-.:.;Am=._S;:.o=c.:..--=M,::e",c",h;:..:...
Engrs., 54, No.2.
WalKer, A.C. (1 ~o~),
"rne post-oucKll.ng oehaviour of silllfily
supported square panels", Aeronautical Quarterly, 20, August,
203-222.
Winter, G., (1947), "Strength of thin steel compression flanges",
Trans. Am. Soc. Civ. Engrs., 112, 527-54.

APPENDIX II - NOTATION

The following symbols are used in this paper:


A

area of column cross-section,

width of a compressed plate element

depth of column cross-section,

length of simply-supported column,

moment at any section along the column,

Mf

fixed end moment of cantilever column,

My

plastic moment and equals to cryz

total number of elements in cross-section,

axial force,

Py

squash load and equals to cryA

transverse shear force,

radius of gyration,

transverse deflection,

distance along the length of cantilever column,

Xl

length of left cantilever column,

X2

length of right cantilever column,

Yi

distance of the centre of element i from the centroidal axis,

137

plastic section modulus,

6A i

area of element i,

normal strain,

EC

strain at the centroidal axis of section,

Ei

total strain at element i,

Eri

residual strain at element i,

Ey

strain at yield point,

moment ratio,

normal stress,

arc

compressive residual stress,

ay

yield stress,

curvature caused by bending,

~i

initial curvature,

~y

curvature

at

initial

yielding

for

pure

bending moment

and

equals to (2Ey /d),

~\

ti

~i/~y

nondimensionalised
column,
A1

(X1/nr)~,

A2

(X2/nr)~.

slenderness

ratio

of

simply-supported

II] I I I I J 0

PLATE 3

TENSION

-~-------

.!L
T t::::=::::.::::::::IPI.=A~TE=1:::C::Z::::l -U1COMPRESSION

TENSION

COMPRESSION

FIG 1 - Loading on Component Plates in a Box Column

TENSION

COMPRESSION

1I J II J 1111

15

052

048

for all
bit

25

bIt =aD

b/t,.;30
b/t=40
I bit = 55

E')

20

0016 (b/t}!l-

:t

E' +

(a) Tension

10
15
E'=E/Ey

(b) Compression

E':E/Ey

0.0 rliC....._...L._.....L_---L_ _~-_7


00
05
1-5
10
20
25

0.5

CT"

05

;:t

fT'= 1

FIG 2 - Simplified Piecewise Linear


Stress-Strain Curves

-b

b- 1.0

--b

15

C;:>

00

......

~-

centroid"t

Ibl longitudinal
section showing
loading

tI

~.

"2",

ax~

lb

'91Jil> 41 ITTl ''l> 4JuF

FIG 4 - Residual Stress Distribution

c
.
bending

,~

~P~';'".
r-~~j

weld

tension

'-Xis

Icl strain distribution

_~,

~
I,

1& '

~c

'11

~I'i

~b=I'i

I ~mpressive

FIG 3 - Thin-Walled Box Column

la] cross-section

plate 2

plat. J

plat. ,

ten~te

D'

oV,

D'

02
b /I =10

bit = 55

bit =40

M-~-P

,I
Curves

'2 ,.] 1.4 '5 '6

M
~-::::--:::
- ~
~P
.. X

Deformed Centroidal Axis

FIG 5 - Typical

1/J:41I41y

,.,

Iii i i i iii I

__

02 D] 04 05 06 07 08 09'

p=P/P,=O.]

FIG 6 - Cantilever Column with Initial Curvature

t
---.;:::p~=
M,

0.4
03

II

05

~-0.6

07

08

09

.....

<D

cc

,..

- 0.2
-0.4

iii

iii

iii

Lower Envelope

iii ' iii

Xl

10

;;;;;;;;;" ......-

(b I Double - Curvature Bending (I:

11 ,

P-E-~

til

tM

~7P

1 0I

11

-< -1 0 I

-<

X2

I tM
~7P

(a I Single - Curvature Bending (I:

11 ~

X =(X/rIlEY

02 04 06 08 1 1-2 14 16 18 2 22 24 26 2B 3 3-2

iii

jl !l.l l l l l l i~ ~

I
P-E-~

-1

- --0806

01

:::E

:::E

p=P/P,=03
bit "" 30
q = 015
~i= CJ;c = 00

16

12

OB

bit "" 30
q = 015
~i = - CJr'c =o 0

FIG 8 - Simply-supported Columns


~

A =(X/n;rl

04

fEY

04

08

12

Left Cantilever - 1 - Right Cantilever

16

, FIG 9 - Envelopes of Equilibrium Curves

06
06
,.. 04
:::E 02
:::E
0
01
e -02
- 04
- 06
- OB
-1
-12

12

FIG 7 - Equilibrium Curves and Envelopes


~

.....

>..'
>..

la)

>"0.'

p.
p

left

Cantil~

FIG 10 - Construction of Column Curves

>"0.3

'i = CT;C = constant


m= mil .
Ie = Ie* given

q=..L mIl-tel
Ar 1t >..

'i = CJrc =constant


m = ml } given
te ~ tel

>..

I d)

correct column
curve can be
constructed

'i = CJrc = constant


m = ml }giVen
Ie = Ie'

>..
I b)

q =ql

-,t-Right Cantilever

I-'

H>-

I-'

06

06

06

08

lal

VEY

A= (Lhtrl

08

'2

'2

'4

'4

,6

,6

,8

'8

Q..

,.

02

0.. 0.4

II

Q..

......

Q..

FIG 11 - Column Curves

(K

1.0)

06

08

08

-M=D
-01
D]

(b)

'2

I
= ao

'6

1-4

f"'.....

'6

,8

-.J

"""'-

'8

1::::::::=1

Ie = 10 _

bit

'4

I ----,
'2

v'Y

f\- ....

A =(Llml

(d)

04

06

Ie)

02

04

A=(LlTullEy"

02

A =(LlmllEy"

o
o

02 -

e.04

II

~ 06

04

04

06

02

02

021

_08

II

0..04 II-+---+----I-~

'2 " ----,--r----,-----,-----,-----,----,--.-----.

_ oa

'2

O 2

0.. O 4

II

Q..

......

Q..

_08

'2

.,.......

143

v~

I......I

~c:;:,~
II

II

>----:::::
....

!.l
I'

..:.

./~J
7A7

-co .
-co
II

.I

II

-!w!

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