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VoIP technology

1) What does VoIP stand for?

Voip stand for voice over Internet Protocol. It is a way for making phone calls using the
2) What is the main benefit of VoIP?
VoIP could dramatically reduce the cost of long distance calls.
3) What do codecs do?
Codecs reduce the digital data by audio compression.
4) How does VoIP deal with the problem of packet loss?
VoIP deals with packet loss by dividing the data into 30 miliseconds packets. If such a small
is lost, you won't notice.
5) How does VoIP combat jitter?
Jitter is the term used for differences in the time packets take to arrive.. VoIP uses a buffer
at the receiving end to store and sequence packets. In this way, the differences are
smoothed out but this can cause delays.
6) What is latency?
Latency is the delay between the packets reaching the receiver and you hearing the sound.
If the delay is too long it makes conversation difficult.
7) Does the recipient need any special equipment?
You can make a call in three different ways.
The easiest way is computer to computer. All you need is program like Skype, microphone,
speakers and fast Internet connection.
Another way is through the use of a device called an ATA, an analogue telephone adapter,
which converts analogue signals into digital signals.
Third way, you can use a special VoIP phone with an Ethernet connector, which plugs
directly into your internet connection. There are also wireless VoIP phones that let you make
calls from any Wi-fi access.
8) What is an ATA? What is its function?
ATA is an analogue telephone adapter, which converts analogue signals of your gtraditional
phone into digital signals.
9) What is the advantage of Wi-Fi phones over mobile phones?
With a Wi-fi phone you are using the Internet, so the calls are free or at least much cheaper.
And you don't have to pay roaming fees when you go abroad.

10) Do you need to have a VoIP service provider?

Yes, you need to have a service provider. They usually offer free calls to their subscribers
and flat rates for other VoIP calls. Some providers charge a few cents for long distance
11) What is spit?
Spit spam over internet telephony. This means that our phones could be blocked with
unwanted voice messages.
12) Using the diagram from the textbook Infotech (p. 138), explain VoIP technology in
your own words.

Broadband Communications
1) What does ISDN stand for?
ISDN stand for Integrated Services Digital Network.
2) How many channels does an ISDN system commonly use?
ISDN system commonly use three channels: two Bearer (B) channels and one Data (D)
3) What is a Bearer (B) channel?
Digital channel used to carry ISDN data.
4) What is a Data (D) channel?
Digital channel used to carry ISDN signalling and supervisory information to the network.
5) What types of wireless systems are named in the text Broadband Communications?
There are two wireless systems: satellite and cellular.
6) Explain satellite systems.
Satellite systems require the use of a modem to maintain the upload. Downstream
bandwidht is provided via a dedicated satellite dish, connector hardware and proprietary
7) Explain cellular systems.
Cellular systems use assigned radio frequencies and are based around a network of
transmitters that are arranged in a cellular network, much like cellular mobile phone
8) What types of cables are used in cable network systems?
There are two types of cables: copper coaxial and fibre infrastructure

9) What does DSL stand for?

DSL stand for Digital Subscriber Line
10) Explain how DSL technology works.
DSL technology capitalises on the existing network of copper infratsructure, but allows
signals to be carried rather than analogue. It allows the full bandwidht of the copper
twisted-pair telephone cabling to be utilized.
11) What needs to be upgraded when using a shielded DSL system?
The shielded option involvesno installation, but the telephone company's equipment and
some of your equipment might need upgrading.
12) What does ADSL stand for?
ADSL stand for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
13) Explain how ADSL technology works.
With ADSL most of the duplex bandwidht is devoted to the downstream direction, with
only a small proportion of bandwidht being available for upstream.
14) Which type of broadband service is the cheapest?
DSL-based services are a very low-cost option when compared to other solutions offering
similar bandwidth, so they can be made available to the customer at extremely competitive

C) Networking
47. Telecommunications infrastructure in developing countries
48. Why are some developing countries not developing their wired networks?
49. What suggests that Wi-Max and 3G are equally suitable for developing countries?
50. According to the text, what will happen to Wi-Max and 3G in the future?
51. New vocabulary from the unit.

D) Data Security
The anatomy of a virus
52. Based on Fig. 1 (Oxford English for IT, p. 124), explain how one type of virus
53. How are computer viruses like biological viruses?
54. What is the effect of a virus patching the operating system?
55. Why are some viruses designed to be loaded into memory?
56. What examples of payload does the writer provide?

57. What kind of programs do viruses often attach to?

58. How does a Trojan differ from a virus?
59. Name the four virus routines and explain their functions.
60. Explain the 10 computer crimes we discussed during classes.
Safe Data Transfer
61. What are the three main goals of secure transactions across the Internet?
First, the two parties engaging in a transaction (say, an email or a business purchase) don't
want a third party to be able to read their transmission. Some form of data encryption is
necessary to prevent this.
Second, the receiver of the message should be able to detect whether someone has tampered
with it in transit. This calls for a message-integrity scheme.
Finally, both parties must know that they're communicating with each other, not an impostor.
This is done with user authentication.
62. What system is commonly used for encryption?
Today's data encryption methods rely on a technique called public-key cryptography.
Everyone using a public-key system has a public key and a private key. Messages are
encrypted and decrypted with these keys.
63. What is the function of the public key?
For the system to work, two parties engaging in a secure transaction must know each other's
public keys and only your public key can decipher your private key's encryption.
64. What is the function of the private key?
Private keys are closely guarded secrets known only to their owners. When I want to send you
an encrypted message, I use your public key to turn my message into gibberish. I know that
only you can turn the gibberish back into the original message, because only you know your
private key.
65.What do we need the message-digest function for?
This function within an application produces a number called a message-authentication code
(MAC). The system works because it's almost impossible for an altered message to have the
same MAC as another message. Also, you can't take a MAC and turn it back into the original
message so it is extremely secure.
66. What is a MAC?
Message-authentication code
67.What information does a digital certificate give to a client?

A digital certificate contains information about the company operating the server, including
the server's public key.