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IGCSE chemistry

SET X (Ionic Bonding)

A7 The structures of two ionic lattices are shown below.


O2
Mg2+

Mg2+

O2

Mg2+

O2

Mg2+

magnesium oxide

Cl

Na+

Na+

Cl

Na+

O2

Cl

Cl

Na+
sodium chloride

(a) Explain why these two solids do not conduct electricity.


..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[1]
(b) (i)

Explain why magnesium oxide has a very high melting point.


...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................

(ii) Suggest why the melting point of magnesium oxide is much higher than that of
sodium chloride.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
[2]
(c) Draw the electronic structure of a magnesium ion and of an oxide ion.
magnesium ion

oxide ion

[2]
Total / 5

IGCSE chemistry

SET X (Ionic Bonding)

A6 The structure of sodium chloride is drawn below.


Na+
Cl

Na+

Cl
Na+

Cl

Na+
Cl

(a) Sodium chloride is an ionic solid.


Draw the electronic structure of both a sodium ion and a chloride ion.
sodium ion

chloride ion

[2]
(b) Sodium chloride has a melting point of about 800 C.
(i) Explain why sodium chloride has a high melting point.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(ii) Magnesium oxide, MgO, has a similar structure to sodium chloride. Suggest why
the melting point of magnesium oxide is higher than that of sodium chloride.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
[3]
(c) Explain why solid sodium chloride will not conduct electricity but molten sodium chloride
will.
..........................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................[1]
Total / 6

IGCSE chemistry

SET X (Structure)

A5 The structures of diamond, graphite and silicon carbide are shown below.
= carbon atom
= silicon atom

diamond

graphite

Silicon carbide

(a) Suggest the formula for silicon carbide.


..................................................................................................................................... [1]
(b) Explain why graphite conducts electricity but silicon carbide does not.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [2]
(c) Silicon carbide has a very high melting point.
(i) Explain why silicon carbide has a very high melting point.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(ii) Suggest why the melting point of diamond is higher than that of silicon carbide.
...................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
IGCSE chemistry

SET X (Structure)

A2 Boron nitride, BN, exists in two physical forms. The structures of these forms are shown below.

Structure A

Structure B

These two forms of boron nitride resemble two allotropes of carbon.


(a) Suggest why boron nitride with structure A can be used as a lubricant.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [2]

(b) Suggest why boron nitride with structure B does not conduct electricity.
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [1]
(c) Suggest why boron nitride with structure B can be used in cutting tools and drill bits.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [2]
[Total: 5]
IGCSE chemistry

SET X (Bonding)

A5 Chlorine forms some compounds that are covalent and others that are ionic.
(a) Draw a dot-and-cross diagram for carbon tetrachloride, CCl4.
You only need to draw the outer electrons of the carbon and chlorine atoms.

[2]
(b) Calcium reacts with chlorine to form calcium chloride.
Draw diagrams to show the electronic structures and charges of both ions present in
calcium chloride.

[2]
[Total: 4]
IGCSE chemistry

SET X (Bonding)

A6 Sodium is stored under oil because it rapidly oxidises to form sodium oxide, Na2O.
(a) Draw a dot and cross diagram to show the bonding in sodium oxide, Na2O. You need only show
outer shell electrons.

[2]
Total / 5
IGCSE chemistry

SET X (Bonding & Diffusion)

A6 Methane, CH4, is the major constituent of natural gas.


(a) Draw a dot-and cross-diagram to show how the outer shell electrons are arranged in methane.
show hydrogen electrons as
show carbon electrons as x

[1]

IGCSE chemistry
7

SET X (Bonding, Acids & Electrolysis)

Hydrogen chloride can be made by burning hydrogen in chlorine.


(a) Complete the equation for this reaction.
H2

...

......

HCl
[2]

(b) Draw a dot and cross diagram for a molecule of hydrogen chloride.
Show all the electrons.
use o for an electron from a hydrogen atom
use x for an electron from a chlorine atom

[2]
(c) Hydrochloric acid is formed when hydrogen chloride gas dissolves in water.
Suggest the pH of hydrochloric acid.
Put a ring around the correct answer.
pH 1

pH7

pH9

pH 13
[1]

(d) Complete the equation for the reaction of hydrochloric acid with zinc.
zinc

hydrochloric acid

zinc chloride

[1]

(e) Describe how dry crystals of zinc chloride can be obtained from a solution of zinc
chloride.

[2]

(f) A student electrolysed molten zinc chloride.


State the name of the product formed at

(i) the anode,

[1]

(ii) the cathode.

[1]
[Total: 10]

IGCSE chemistry
2

SET X (Structure)

The list describes five types of chemical structures.


giant covalent
giant ionic
metallic
simple atomic
simple molecular
(a) The diagrams below show four types of chemical structures.
A
K+

I K+

K+ I

K+

I
K+

I K+

I K+ I K+
(i)

Ar

Ar

Ar
Ar
Ar

Cl Cl

Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn

Cl

Zn Zn Zn Zn

Cl Cl

Zn Zn Zn Zn Zn

Cl
Cl Cl

Use the list to match these structures with the diagrams.

structure A is ........................................................................................................ [1]


structure B is ........................................................................................................ [1]
structure C is ........................................................................................................ [1]
structure D is ........................................................................................................ [1]
(ii)

Which two of the structures A, B, C or D have low melting points?


.......................................................... and ......................................................... [1]

(b) Sodium chloride is an ionic solid.


Complete the following sentences using words from the list.
electrons

ionic

molecular

molten

solid

Sodium chloride does not conduct electricity when it is a .........................................


because the ions cannot move. When it is ................................... sodium chloride does
conduct electricity because the ions are free to move.

[2]
[Total: 7]

IGCSE chemistry
7

SET X (Structure, Bonding & Crude Oil)

Three forms of carbon are diamond, graphite and Buckminsterfullerene.


(a)
(ii)

State two differences in structure between graphite and diamond.


....................................................................................................................................
carbon
atom
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(b)
State the type of bonding between
diamond
graphitethe carbon atoms in diamond.
..................................................................................................................................... [1]
(c) Suggest why graphite is used as a lubricant.
Refer to the layers in your answer.
...........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [1]
(d) State one use for diamond.
..................................................................................................................................... [1]

[1]
(ii)

Draw a diagram to show the arrangement of the electrons in a molecule of methane, CH


.
4
Use
for an electron from a carbon atom
for an electron from a hydrogen atom

[1]

...........................................................................................................................

..

IGCSE chemistry
7

SET X (Structure, Electrolysis and Separating & Analysis)

The diagram shows the structures of calcium chloride, calcium and chlorine.
Cl
Cl

Cl

Cl

Ca2+
Cl

Cl

Ca2+

Ca

Cl

Cl

Ca Ca Ca Ca
Ca Ca Ca
Ca Ca Ca Ca

2+

Cl

Cl
Cl

Cl
Cl

Cl

Cl

Ca2+

Cl

calcium chloride

calcium

chlorine

(a) Use ideas about structure and bonding to explain the following:
(i) Calcium chloride conducts electricity when molten but not when solid.

[2]
(ii) At room temperature, calcium is a solid but chlorine is a gas.

..
[2]

(b) Calcium is manufactured by the electrolysis of molten calcium chloride.

water-cooled
steel cathode

calcium

molten calcium
chloride

(i) State the products formed

at the anode,
at the cathode.

[2]

(ii) Suggest a non-metal that can be used as an anode in this electrolysis.


[1]
(iii) A stream of inert gas is blown over the calcium as it is removed from the molten
calcium chloride.
Suggest why a stream of inert gas is blown over the hot calcium.
[1]
(iv) State the name of a gas which is inert.
[1]
(c) Aqueous sodium hydroxide or aqueous ammonia can be used to test for calcium ions in
solution.
Describe the results of these tests
with aqueous sodium hydroxide,
[2]
with aqueous ammonia.
[1]
[Total: 12]

IGCSE chemistry
SET X (Bonding)
2 Complete the following table.
electrical
electrical
type of
particles present
conductivity conductivity of
structure
of solid
liquid

ionic

positive and negative


ions

poor

macro
molecular

atoms of two different


elements in a giant
covalent structure

poor

and

good

metallic

example

poor

copper

[Total: 6]

IGCSE chemistry
5

SET X (Bonding)

Strontium and sulphur chlorides both have a formula of the type XCl 2 but they have different
properties.
property

strontium chloride

sulphur chloride

white crystalline solid

red liquid

melting point / C

873

-80

particles present

ions

molecules

electrical conductivity of solid

poor

poor

electrical conductivity of liquid

good

poor

appearance
o

(a) The formulae of the chlorides are similar because both elements have a valency of 2.
Explain why Group II and Group VI elements both have a valency of 2.

[2]
(b) Draw a diagram showing the arrangement of the valency electrons in one covalent
molecule of sulphur chloride.
Use x to represent an electron from a sulphur atom.
Use o to represent an electron from a chlorine atom.

[3]
(c) Explain the difference in electrical conductivity between the following.
(i) solid and liquid strontium chloride
[1]
(ii) liquid strontium chloride and liquid sulphur chloride
[1]

IGCSE chemistry
2

SET X (Bonding)

The table shows the melting points, boiling points and electrical properties of the six substances
A to F.

electrical
conductor of
substance
dissolved in water

substance

melting point / C

boiling point / C

electrical conductor
at room
temperature

961

2193

good

does not dissolve

113

444

does not conduct

does not dissolve

100

very poor

very poor

803

1465

does not conduct

good

5 to -10

102 to 105

good

good

-85

-60

does not conduct

does not dissolve

(i) Which three substances are solids at room temperature?


[1]

(ii) Which one is an ionic compound?


[1]

(iii) Which one is a gas at room temperature?


[1]

(iv) Which two substances are liquids at room temperature?


[1]

(v) Which substance is a metal?


[1]

(vi) Which one is an impure substance?

[1]
IGCSE chemistry
3

SET X (Bonding)

Magnesium reacts with bromine to form magnesium bromide.


(a) Magnesium bromide is an ionic compound. Draw a diagram that shows the formula of
the compound, the charges on the ions and the arrangement of outer electrons around
the negative ion.
The electron distribution of a bromine atom is 2, 8, 18, 7.

Use x to represent an electron from a magnesium atom.


Use o to represent an electron from a bromine atom.

[3]

(b) In the lattice of magnesium bromide, the ratio of magnesium ions to bromide ions is
1:2.
(i) Explain the term lattice.

[2]
(ii) Explain why the ratio of ions is 1:2.
[1]
(iii) The reaction between magnesium and bromine is redox. Complete the sentences.
Magnesium is the

agent because it has


electrons.

Bromine has been


electrons.

because it has
[4]
[Total: 10]

IGCSE chemistry

SET X (Bonding)

10 The physical properties of a substance are related to its structure and bonding.
Magnesium oxide has a high melting point.
Carbon dioxide has a low melting point.
(a) Look at this diagram. It shows part of the giant ionic lattice of magnesium oxide.

Mg2+

O2

O2

Mg2+

O2

Mg2+

Mg2+

O2

Magnesium oxide has a high melting point.


Explain why.
...................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................ [1]
(b) Look at this diagram. It shows the displayed formula of carbon dioxide.
O

Draw a dot and cross diagram for carbon dioxide.


The electronic structure for carbon is 2, 4 and for oxygen is 2, 6.

[2]
(c)
Carbon dioxide has a low melting point.
Explain why.
Use ideas about

structure

intermolecular forces.

...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................ [2]
[Total: 5]
IGCSE chemistry

SET X (Bonding)

11 This question is about different types of bonding.


(a) One type of bonding is ionic bonding.
Describe ionic bonding.
...................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[2]
(b) The bonding in ammonia is covalent.
Look at the dot and cross diagram for ammonia, NH3.

xx

H
Draw a dot and cross diagram for water,
H2O. The electronic structure for oxygen is
2.6.
You only need to show the electrons in the outer shell for oxygen.

[2]
(c) Sodium chloride solution conducts electricity.
Pure water does not.
Explain why pure water does not conduct electricity.

...................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................[1]
[Total: 5]
IGCSE chemistry

SET X (Bonding)

10 Sodium chloride, NaCl, and magnesium oxide, MgO, are both ionic compounds.
(a) Look at the diagram. It shows the giant ionic structure of sodium chloride.
Na+
Cl

Na+

Cl
Na+

Cl

Na+
Cl

Sodium chloride contains sodium ions, Na+, and chloride ions, Cl .


(i) Sodium ions are made from sodium atoms.
Describe how.
.................................................................................................................................... [1]
(ii) Solid sodium chloride does not conduct electricity.
Explain why.
.................................................................................................................................... [1]
(iii) Sodium chloride solution does conduct electricity.
Explain why.
.................................................................................................................................... [1]
(b) Draw a dot and cross diagram for magnesium oxide.
The electronic structure for magnesium is 2.8.2 and for oxygen is 2.6.
Include in your answer

the electronic structure of the ions formed

the charges on the ions.