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Manicoba (Manihot sp.

)
Datasheet
Description
Nutritional aspects
Nutritional tables(active tab)
References
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits,
horses, fish and crustaceans

Common names

Manioba, manicoba, tree cassava, ceara rubber tree [English]; caoutchouc de Ceara
[French]; cauchotero de cear [Spanish]; mpira [Swahili]
Pornuna, pornuncia, mandioca de sete anos (manicoba-cassava hybrid)

Species
Manihot caerulescens Pohl ; Manihot carthagenensis subsp. glaziovii (Mll. Arg.) Allem ; Manihot
dichotoma Ule ; Manihot pruinosa Pohl ; Manihot pseudoglaziovii Pax. et K. Hoffm. [Euphorbiaceae]

Synonyms
Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg.

Taxonomic information
Several Brazilian cassava tree species are called manicoba, including manioba do Cear (Manihot
carthagenensis subsp.glaziovii (Mll. Arg.) Allem syn. Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg.), manioba do
Piau (Manihot caerulescens subsp. caerulescens) and manioba da Bahia (Manihot dichotoma Ule
and Manihot caerulescens Pohl). Manihot pseudoglaziovii Pax. et K. Hoffm. dominates in the region
of Sub-mdio So Francisco (Andrade, 2006). Manihot pruinosa Pohl is another species. There are
also natural hybrids of manicoba species and cultivated cassava, such as the pornuna (Araujo et
al., 2002).

Feed categories

Forage trees
Other forage plants
Plant products and by-products

Related feed(s)

Cassava leaves and foliage

Description
Manicoba (Manihot carthagenensis subsp. glaziovii (Mll. Arg.) Allem and other Manihot species) is
a wild relative of cassava growing in the semi-arid region of North-Eastern Brazil. Manicoba is a
shrub or tree up to 6 m high, occasionally taller (Orwa et al., 2009). Like cassava, it has a welldeveloped tuberous root system that provides resistance to drought (Andrade, 2006). The manicoba
tree was cultivated from 1845 to 1912 for its rubber-like sap (ceara rubber) and was introduced for
this purpose into Africa and Asia, until better rubber sources were developed. The roots are rich in
starch but they are hard and woody, and contain HCN. In Gabon and East Africa, they are only
occasionally cooked as a vegetable and eaten in times of food scarcity (Orwa et al., 2009). Today,
manicoba species are usually grown for forage and are particularly valuable in semi-arid conditions.
The pornuna is a natural cassava-manicoba hybrid that used to be cultivated for its roots and is

now planted as a shade or ornamental plant. Manicoba leaves are fed fresh, dried (hay) or ensiled
(Araujo et al., 2002).

Distribution
Manicoba species are typical of the caatinga vegetation in the north-eastern part of Brazil (Andrade,
2006). Manicoba is also found in East Africa and South-East Asia (Malaysia, Singapore). A droughtresistant tree, it grows with 600-700 mm of annual rainfall (Orwa et al., 2009). It is one of the first
species of the caatinga to develop its foliage soon after the beginning of the rainy season (Andrade,
2006). The tree tolerates a wide range of soils including very poor and acidic soils (Orwa et al.,
2009).

Forage management
Manicoba species can be propagated either from cuttings or direct seeding (Orwa et al., 2009). The
fodder production of manicoba varies during the year. Yields of more than 1.1 t DM/ha/year have
been obtained. In an assay for fodder production where trees were planted at a density of 10,000
plants/ha, it was possible to obtain forage yields of 4 to 5 t DM in two cuts, with the first cut
performed three months after the onset of rains and the second two to three months after the first
(Andrade, 2006).

Potential constraints
HCN toxicity
Like cassava, manicoba produces HCN. Amounts are variable and depend on the species and
variety, but typical values are about 1000 mg/kg DM in the aerial parts. Sun-drying decreases the
HCN down to 300 mg/kg DM. No toxic effects were found in cattle fed exclusively on manicoba for
10 days ad libitum. However, in goats, the level of voluntary intake produced no symptoms of toxicity
but forced feeding at higher levels did (Salviano et al., 1988).

Tannins
Manicoba contains moderate amounts of condensed tannins (1.6% DM) (Cruz et al., 2007). It is
possible to reduce tannin content by urea-treatment though it tends to increase ADF (Vitti et al.,
2005).

Ruminants
Used as hay or silage and combined with other alternative forages during periods of fodder scarcity,
manicoba can be a valuable option for improving the feed efficiency of livestock production systems
in semi-arid areas, due to its high drought-tolerance, low production cost, longevity and palatability
(Araujo et al., 2002).

Cattle
In 2 and 3 year-old Zebu-cross bullocks, the addition of 2.5 kg manicoba to the ad libitum diet
of Cenchrus ciliaris hay significantly increased intake and daily live-weight gain from 132 to 757 g in
a 70-day trial (Salviano et al., 1989).

Sheep and goats


Manicoba hay is palatable to sheep and goats. Including manicoba hay in lamb diets from 30 to 70%
increased DM intake from 59 to 71 g/kg W0.75 (Araujo et al., 2001). In another experiment the
digestibility of manicoba hay in sheep and goats was found to be quite low (40-50% for DM, protein
and energy), possibly due to its high lignin content. However, the total energy supply was
considered to be satisfactory due to the high DM intake (98-99 g/kg W 0.75). Nitrogen degradability
was probably low due to nitrogen binding in ADF (Barros et al., 1990). Supplementing sheep with
different levels of manicoba hay resulted in moderate live-weight gains and nutrient intakes, thus
making it a good supplement during periods of forage scarcity (Araujo et al., 2001; Araujo et al.,
2004). Lambs given manicoba hay as the sole feed gained 100 g/d and it was suggested that added
concentrates would increase weight gain (Almeida et al. cited by Araujo et al., 2002). Diets
consisting of 30% manicoba hay and 70% concentrate have been used routinely in practice
(Cartaxo et al., 2009).

Poultry
Broilers

Replacing up to 10% of a maize-soybean diet for broilers with manicoba hay can be economically
viable when ingredients prices are high or when the broiler market price is low (Costa et al., 2007a).
The energy value decreases with the inclusion rate: AMEn is 11.7 and 9.5 MJ/kg DM when
manicoba hay is included at 15 and 30% respectively (Costa et al., 2007b).

Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value

Manicoba (Manihot sp.)


Manicoba (Manihot sp.) foliage, fresh
Manicoba (Manihot sp.) foliage, silage
Pornuna (Manihot carthagenensis x esculenta) foliage, fresh

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum
value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Manicoba (Manihot sp.)

Main analysis
Dry matter
Crude protein
Crude fibre
NDF
ADF
Lignin
Ether extract
Ash
Gross energy
Secondary metabolites
Tannins, condensed (eq. catechin)
Ruminant nutritive values
Energy digestibility, ruminants
DE ruminants
ME ruminants
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants
Pig nutritive values
Energy digestibility, growing pig
DE growing pig
Poultry nutritive values
AME poultry
AMEn poultry

Unit
% as fed
% DM
% DM
% DM
% DM
% DM
% DM
% DM
MJ/kg DM
Unit
g/kg DM
Unit
%
MJ/kg DM
MJ/kg DM
%
Unit
%
MJ/kg DM
Unit
MJ/kg DM
MJ/kg DM

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

Avg
90.2
14.7
17.8
52.4
26.6
12.4
5.3
7.8
18.8
Avg

SD

Min

Max

3.6
3.8

86.3
11.0

93.3
18.0

10.2

40.7

58.6

7.7
4.0
6.8
18.4

17.1
6.6
9.7
18.8

1.3

SD

Min

Max

SD

Min

Max

16.4
Avg
45.1
8.5
6.9
43.9
Avg

43.8
8.1

46.4
8.6

41.9

45.8

SD

Min

Max

SD

Min

Max

62.1
11.7
Avg
12.1
10.6

11.0
9.5

13.2
11.7

References
Araujo et al., 2004; Barros et al., 1990; Costa et al., 2007; Cruz et al., 2007
Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:41

Manicoba (Manihot sp.) foliage, fresh

Main analysis
Dry matter
Crude protein
NDF
ADF
Ash
Minerals
Calcium
Phosphorus
Potassium
Magnesium

Unit

Avg

% as fed
% DM
% DM
% DM
% DM

SD

Min

28.7
19.0
35.2
22.7
7.1

Unit

Avg

g/kg DM
g/kg DM
g/kg DM
g/kg DM

Max

22.8
18.9
34.9
21.7
6.8
SD

34.7
19.1
35.4
23.7
7.5

Min

13.2
1.6
4.7
3.8

Max

12.8
1.5
4.1
3.6

13.5
1.7
5.3
3.9

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References
Ferreira et al., 2009
Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:41

Manicoba (Manihot sp.) foliage, silage

Main analysis
Dry matter
Crude protein
NDF
ADF
Lignin
Ash
Ruminant nutritive values
OM digestibility, Ruminant
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants

Unit
% as fed
% DM
% DM
% DM
% DM
% DM
Unit
%
%

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Avg

SD

Min

Max

SD

Min

Max

27.7
19.1
46.8
35.7
8.9
7.7
Avg
62.2
69.8

Dantas et al., 2007


Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:41

Pornuna (Manihot carthagenensis x esculenta) foliage, fresh

Main analysis
Dry matter
Crude protein
NDF
ADF
Ash
Minerals
Calcium
Phosphorus
Potassium
Magnesium

Unit
% as fed
% DM
% DM
% DM
% DM
Unit
g/kg DM
g/kg DM
g/kg DM
g/kg DM

Avg

SD

26.4
25.6
35.3
22.5
6.3
Avg
11.0
1.8
5.8
3.5

Min
24.0
23.6
33.7
20.2
6.1

SD

Min
9.7
1.8
5.0
3.3

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References
Ferreira et al., 2009
Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:41

http://www.feedipedia.org/node/629

Polylactic acid (PLA) is a bio-degradable polymer that can be produced from


lactic acid, which can be fermented from crops such as maize. This makes it an
ideal candidate for use in certain energy rich, cash poor areas of the world.
PLA is harder than ABS, melts at a lower temperature (around 180C to 220C),
and has a glass transition temperature between 60-65 C, so is potentially a very
useful material. It does exhibit higher friction than ABS however which can make
it difficult to extrude and more susceptible to extruder jams.

Max
28.8
27.6
37.0
24.7
6.6
Max
12.2
1.8
6.5
3.7

poliasamlaktat (PLA) merupakan polimer bio-degradable yang dapat dihasilkan


dari asam laktat, yang dapat difermentasi dari tanaman seperti jagung. Hal ini
membuat calon yang ideal untuk digunakan dalam energi tertentu yang kaya,
uang tunai daerah miskin di dunia.
PLA lebih sulit daripada ABS, meleleh pada suhu yang lebih rendah (sekitar 180
C sampai 220 C), dan memiliki suhu transisi gelas antara 60-65 C, sehingga
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dari ABS namun yang dapat membuat sulit untuk mengusir dan lebih rentan
terhadap kemacetan extruder.
http://reprap.org/wiki/PLA

Compostable Plastics

Compostable Plastics Quick Facts

Generally Freezer safe

Depending on resin can handle hot food till 200F.

Fully compostable in commercial composting operations

Feel and look like plastics for the most part

Est. Home Composting Time: Varies, See Table

Est. Commercial Composting Time: Varies, See Table

Reports and Test Results

Compostable Plastics
Compostable Plastics are a new generation of plastics which are biodegradable through composting.
They are derived generally from renewable raw materials like starch (e.g. corn, potato, tapioca etc),
cellulose, soy protein, lactic acid etc., are not hazardous/toxic in production and decompose back into
carbon dioxide, water, biomass etc. when composted. Some compostable plastics may not be
derived from renewable materials, but instead derived made from petroleum or made by bacteria
through a process of microbial fermentation.
Currently, there are a number of different compostable plastics resins available in the market and the
number is growing every day. The most commonly used raw material for making the compostable
plastics is corn starch, which is converted into a polymer with similar properties as normal plastic
products. Other compostable resins are available made from potato starch, soybean protein, cellulose
and as well from petroleum and petroleum by products. It is counter intuitive to think that compostable
resins could be derived from petroleum, when all normal plastic products are derived from petroleum
and are non compostable. However, there are certified compostable resins available in the market,
derived from petroleum and the field of compostable plastics is constantly evolving with new materials
and technologies being worked on and being brought to market. There is even research underway to
make compostable plastics from carbon dioxide.
Properties The compostable resins for the most part mimic plastic properties, and different resins
have different properties related to heat resistance, tensile strength, impact resistance, MVTR, oxygen
barrier etc. One of the main compostable resin PLA, for example has a heat resistance of only 110F,
while other compostable resins can have a much higher heat resistance.
Biodegradability & Compostability
Bioplastics can take different length of times to totally compost, based on the material and are meant
to be composted in a commercial composting facility, where higher composting temperatures can be
reached and is between 90-180 days. Most existing international standards require biodegradation of
60% within 180 days along with certain other criteria for the resin or product to be called compostable.
It is important to make the distinction between degradable, biodegradable and compostable. These
terms are often (incorrectly) used interchangeably.

Compostable Plastic is plastic which is "capable of undergoing biological decomposition in a compost


site as part of an available program, such that the plastic is not visually distinguishable and breaks
down to carbon dioxide, water, inorganic compounds, and biomass, at a rate consistent with known
compostable materials (e.g. cellulose). and leaves no toxic residue." American Society for Testing &
Materials (ASTM). In order for a plastic to be called compostable, three criteria need to be met:
1. Biodegrade - break down into carbon dioxide, water, biomass at the same rate as
cellulose (paper).
2. Disintegrate - the material is indistinguishable in the compost, that it is not visible and
needs to be screened out

3. Eco-toxicity - the biodegradation does not produce any toxic material and the
compost can support plant growth.
Biodegradable Plastic is plastic which will degrade from the action of naturally occurring
microorganism, such as bacteria, fungi etc. over a period of time. Note, that there is no requirement
for leaving "no toxic residue", and as well as no requirement for the time it needs to take to
biodegrade.
Degradable Plastic is plastic which will undergo a significant change in its chemical structure under
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or any of the other criteria required for compostable plastics.
A plastic therefore may be degradable but not biodegradable or it may be biodegradable but not
compostable (that is, it breaks down too slowly to be called compostable or leaves toxic residue).
Estimated Composting Times

Product

Home
Composting

Commercial
Composting

Wheat Straw or Sugarcane Fiber Plates, Takeout


Contianers, Bowls, Cups and Trays

Upto 6 months

1-3 Months

Ingeo Cold Cups, Clear Containers, Straws

Not
recommended

3-6 Months

TPLA Heat Resistant & Non Heat Resistant Utensils

Not
recommended

3-6 Months

Trash/Kitchen Bags

Upto 1 year

2-4 Months

The rate of biodegration for different biocompostables is dependent upon the composition and
thickness of the material as well as composting conditions. Commercial composting facilities grind the
materials, turn over the piles and reach high temperatures, thus reducing the amount of time it takes
to compost and, is thus, the recommended method for composting these products. Home composting
rates are slower and can vary, depending on how frequently the pile is turned over, the moisture and
material content and the temperature. Composting utensils at home is not recommeded, due to their
thickness and they may not break down for few years. Similarlry, Ingeo products are not
recommended to be composted at home.
Standards
There are currently few international organizations which have established standards and testing
methods for compostability, namely:

American Society for Testing and Materials

European Standardization Committee (CEN) EN13432

ASTM-6400-99

International Standards Organization (ISO) ISO14855 (only for biodegradation)

German Institute for Standardization (DIN) DIN V49000


The ASTM, CEN and DIN standards specify the criteria for biodegradation, disintegration and ecotoxicity for a plastic to be called compostable.

Biodegradability is determined by measuring the amount of CO 2 produced over a certain time


period by the biodegrading plastic. The standards require 60% conversion of carbon into carbon
dioxide within 180 days for resins made from single polymer and 90% conversion of carbon into
carbon dioxide for co-polymers or polymer mixes.

Disintegration is measured by sieving the material to determine the biodegraded size and less
than 10% should remain on a 2mm screen within 120 days.

Eco toxicity is measured by having concentrations of heavy metals below the limits set by the
standards and by testing plant growth by mixing the compost with soil in different concentrations and
comparing it with controlled compost.