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An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Part 1

 Thermodynamics worked
examples
1. What is the absolute pressure, in SI units, of a fluid at a gauge pressure of 1.5 bar if
atmospheric pressure is 1.01 bar?

Solution
Absolute pressure = p = pg + pa
= 1.50 + 1.01 = 2.51 bar
= 251 kPa
o

2. Convert -25 C to a temperature in degrees Kelvin.

Solution
o

T[K] = T[ C] + 273.15 = -25+273.15


= 248.15K

3. Calculate the following:


(i)
the kinetic energy of a body which has a mass of 5 kg and a velocity of 10m/s;
(ii)
the change in potential energy of a mass of 5 kg when it is raised a height of 3m;
(iii)
the strain energy stored in a spring compressed by 18mm from its free length if
the spring constant is 1.50 MN/m;
(iv)
the increase in internal energy of a gas in a closed system during a process in
which -100 J of heat transfer and 400 J of work transfer take place.

Solution
(i) Kinetic energy = =

1
1
mc 2 = 5 100 = 250J
2
2

(ii) Change in potential energy =

mg z
= 5 9.81 3 = 147J

(iii) Strain energy stored =

1 2
kx
2

1
1.5 10 6 0.018 2 = 243 J
2

(iv) Increase in internal energy = U2 U1

First Law: W+Q = U2 U1 = 400 -100 = 300J

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An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Part 1

4. The piston in Figure 4.12 has no mass and is free to move. The point force F acting on
the piston is applied gently so that the piston moves slowly to the left. As the gas in the
cylinder is compressed, the product of pressure and system volume, pV, remains
2
3
constant. The piston area is 0.02 m and when x is x1 the system volume is 0.006m .
Atmospheric pressure is 1 bar. Calculate the distance (x2-x1) moved by the piston as F
increases from 0 to 70N.

Solution
Equilibrium of forces on piston:
p2A = 70 + paA

70
+ 10 5
p2 = 0.02
= 1.385 x 105 Pa
Given pV = constant

V2 =

p1 V1 = p2 V2

p1V1 10 5 0.006
=
1.385 10 5 = 0.00433m 3
p2
1.385 10 5
x2

x1

l2

Distance moved by piston:

l1
x 2 x1 = l 1 l 2

V1 V2
A

V2

= 0.3 0.2166 = 0.0834m or 83.4mm

5. Calculate the work input to the closed system undergoing the cycle shown in Figure 4.13
if the pressure during process (2) to (3) is raised from 1000 kPa to 1400 kPa.

Solution
1400
kPa

200
kPa

0.5m

1.0m

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W net = W 12 + W 23 + W 34 + W 41
5

= 0 + 14 x 10 (0.5 1.0) + 0 + 2 x 10 (1.0 0.5)

= -7 x 10 + 1 x 10 = -600kJ

6.
(i)

Calculate the efficiency of a reversible heat engine operating between a hot


reservoir at 900K and a cold reservoir at 500K.

(ii)

The temperature of one of the heat reservoirs can be changed by 100 degrees
kelvin up or down. What is the highest efficiency that can be achieved by making
this temperature change?

Solution
(i)

= 1

T2
500
= 1
= 44.44%
T1
900

(ii) The largest reduction in

T2
T1

is produced by subtracting the temperature change from the

lower temperature.

= 1

400
= 55.55%
900

7. A perfect gas at a pressure of 58 bar and a temperature of 450K has a density of 50


3
kg/m . The ratio of specific heats is 1.48.
~ , specific heat at constant pressure c and
(i)
Calculate the values of molar mass m
p

(ii)

specific heat at constant volume cv .


Calculate the change in specific entropy of the gas if the pressure is raised to 100
bar and the temperature is lowered to 400K.

Solution
(i) Perfect gas,

R=

p
= RT

p
58 10 5
=
= 257 .77J / kgK
T 50 450

~
3
~ = R = 8.314 10 = 322 .5kg / kmol
m
R
257.77

cp =

R 1.48
=
257 .77 = 794 .79J / kgK
1 0.48

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cv =

R
257 .77
=
= 537.02J / kgK
1
0.48

(ii) Specific entropy change

s 2 s1 = cp l n

T2
p
R ln 2
T1
p1

400
100
= 794.8l n
257 .8l n

450
58
= 234.0J/kgK

8. Calculate the dryness fraction x of saturated steam if it has a specific enthalpy of 800
kJ/kg and at the same pressure and temperature, the specific enthalpy of saturated liquid
is 505 kJ/kg and the latent heat of vaporization is 2202 kJ/kg.

Solution
h = hf + xhfg
x=

h hf 800 505
=
= 0.134
hfg
2202

9. A perfect gas with a value of 1.4 undergoes an expansion process from a pressure of
600 kPa. The ratio of specific volumes v2/v1 is 3.0. Calculate the pressure p2 at the end of
the process if this is (i) polytropic with an index n of 1.6, (ii) isothermal, (iii) isentropic.

Solution
(i)

p2 v 2
=
p1 v 1

p2 = 600 10 3 (3 )1.6 = 103 .4kPa

(ii)

pv = RT

pv = constant

v
p2 = 600 10 3 1 = 200kPa
v2

(iii)

p2 v 2
=
p1 v 1

p 2 = 600 10 3 x(3 )1.4 = 128 .9kPa

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10. A perfect gas with a value of 1.5 can be compressed in either a non-flow or a steady
flow process between the same initial and final states. Neglecting any change in kinetic
and potential energy, what is the ratio of the specific work done is the two cases if the
process is
(i)
polytropic with an index n of 1.4;
(ii)

isothermal;

(iii)

isentropic?

Solution
Refer to results given in Table 4.8

w flow
Ratio
w non flow

is:

(i) 1.4
(ii) 1
(iii) 1.5

11. Calculate the efficiency of the following ideal cycles when undergone by a perfect gas
with a value of 1.4:
(i)
a Stirling cycle operating between a hot reservoir at 600K and a cold reservoir at
300K;
(ii)
a Brayton cycle with a pressure ratio of 8;
(iii)
an Otto cycle with a compression ratio of 8;
(iv)
a Diesel cycle with a compression ratio of 12 and a cut-off ratio of 2.

Solution
(i)

= carnot = 1

T2
T1

= 50%

(ii)

= 1

pr

( 1) = 1 8 0.4 / 1.4

= 44.8%

(iii)

= 1

cr

( 1) = 1 8 0.4

= 56.5%

(iv) = 1

c 0 1

c r ( 1) (c 0 1)
1

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(2

1.4

= 1

12

0.4

(1.4 1)

= 56.7%
3

12. A perfectly insulated, rigid tank with a volume of 0.2 m contains a perfect gas which has
a molar mass of 18 kg/mol and a ration of specific heats of 1.45. Initially the pressure and
temperature in the tank are 9 bar and 320 K respectively. A fan inside the tank is spun at
3600 rev/min for 20 seconds. The torque required to turn the fan is 30 Nm. Calculate the
following:
(a) The R, cp and cv values of the gas and the mass of gas in the tank.
(b) The work input (given by torque x angular rotation in radians) to the gas from the fan.

(c) The final temperature of the gas. (Explain briefly why the temperature continues to rise for
a short time after the fan has stopped rotating.)

(d) The increase in entropy of the gas.

Solution
V = 0.2m 3
= 1.45
~ = 18kg / kmol
m
T1 = 320K
P1 = 9bar

Torque = 30 Nm
N = 3600 rev / min =

3600
= 60 rev / s
60

~
R 8314 .5J / kmolK
(a) R = ~ =
= 462J / kgK
m
18kg / kmol

R
Cp Cv
=

= 1 = 0.45
Cv Cv Cv

C v = 1026.7J / kg / K

Cp = C v = 1488.7kg / K

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m=

P1 V1 9 10 5 0.2
=
= 1.22kg
RT1
462.320

(b) Work input:

W fan = T = T (N 20 2)
= 30 60 20 2 = 226 .2kJ

(c) No heat transfer and constant volume proves so.


1st Law:
U 2 U1 = Q + W = W + W fan

where Q=0 and W has constant volume, =0


mC v (T2 T1 ) = W fan

T2 =

W fan
+ T1
mC v

226 .2 10 3
+ 320
1.22 1026 .7

= 180.6 + 320 = 500 .6K

(d)
V
T
S2 S1 = mR ln 2 + mc v ln 2
V1
T1
500 .6
= 0 + 1.22 1026 .7 ln

320
= 560 .5J / K
Temperature will continue to increase after the fan stops because the KE generated by the
fan takes a (short) time to dissipate from KE into internal energy.

13. A closed system containing argon undergoes a reversible isothermal process from an
3
initial state (1) where p1 = 50 bar, V1 = 0.03m and T1 = 450 K to state (2). The work done
during the process is -100 kJ. The system is then heated reversibly at constant volume to
final state (3). The total heat transferred during the two processes is 170 kJ. Treat argon
~ = 40 kg/kmol. Calculate the
as a perfect gas with cp = 520 J/KgK and molar mass m
following:

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(a) The mass of argon in the system.


(b) The heat transferred during the constant volume process (2)(3).
(c) The final temperature, T3.
(d) Sketch the processes on a pressurevolume diagram.

Solution
Argon
~ = 40 kg / kmol
m

Cp = 520 J / KgK
~
R 8.314 10 3
R= ~ =
= 207 .9 KJ / kgK
m
40

(a) Mass

m=

p1 V1
RT1

50 10 5 0.03
207 .9 450

= 1.603kg

(b) Isothermal (1)(2)

Q12 + W12 = U 2 U1 = 0
Q12 = W12 = 100kJ

But
Q12 + Q23 = 170kJ
Q23 = 170 100 = 70kJ

(c) Constant volume (2)(3)

Q23 + W 23 = U 3 U 2
where
W 23 = 0
U 3 U 2 = 70kJ = mC v (T3 T2 )

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and

T1 = T2 = 450 K

T3 450 =

((1)(2) Isothermal)

70 10 3
1.603 C v

C v = Cp R = 520 207.9 = 312.1J / kgK


T3 = 450 = +

70,000
1.603 312 .1
= 589 .9 K

(d)

(1)

(3)

isothermal

Constant
volume
(2)
V

14. A closed system containing steam undergoes a reversible constant pressure process
during which 400 kJ/kg of heat transfer takes place. Initially the steam has a dryness
fraction, x, of 1.0 and a temperature of 357C. Using the tables, and using linear
interpolation where necessary, determine:
(a) The specific enthalpy, temperature and specific internal energy of the steam at the end of
the process.
(b) The specific work transfer.
(c) State whether the process is an expansion or compression process and give two reasons
to support your choice.

Solution
(a) Initial conditions dry saturated (x = 1.0) at 357C

p1 = 100bar
u1 = 2375kJ / kg
h1 = hg = 2510kJ / kg
v g = v 1 = 0.00751m 3 / kg

Constant pressure process (reversible)


1st Law:

q + w = u 2 u1
q = p(v 2 v 1) + u 2 - u 1 = h2 h1
h2 = 400 + 2510 = 2910 KJ / kg

Temperature interpolate at 180 bar and 2910kJ

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(2910 2888 )
(3004 2888 )
= 400 + 25 0.1897 = 404 .74C
u 2 = h2 p 2v 2
T2 = 400 + ( 425 400 )

v2
10 2

= 1.191 + ( 1.338 1.191) 0.1897


= 1.219 m 3 / kg

v 2 = 0.01219m 3 / kg

u 2 = 2910 180 10 5 0.01219 10 3 kJ / kg


= 2690.6kJ/kg

(b) 1st Law:

q + w = u 2 u1 = 315 .6kJ / kg
w = 400 + 315 .6
= 84.4kJ / kg

(c) Expansion.
(i) w is negative
(ii) v2>v1

15. Air flows through an open system at the steady mass flow rate of 5 kg/s. At inlet the air
velocity is negligible, the pressure is 1 bar and the temperature is 15C. The air flow is
compressed isentropically and leaves the system at a pressure of 5 bar through a pipe
with an internal diameter of 80 mm. Calculate:
(a) the temperature of the air as it leaves the system;
(b) the velocity in the exit pipe;
(c) the power input to the air;
2

~ &&
(d) Explain why the power input is not given by W = m
v dp

Assume for air, R=287 J/kgK and

=1.4.

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Solution
Q& = 0

W&
m&
(1)

(2)

C=o
p = 1 bar
T = 273 + 15 = 288K

= 80mm
p = 5 bar

(a) Isentropic compression

P2 T2 1
=
P1 T1
T2 = 288.5 0.286 = 456K

(b) mass continuity

& = Ac
m
&
m
c=
A

p
5 10 5
=
= 3.82kg / m 3
RT 287 456
d 2
A=
= 0.08 2 = 5.03 10 3 m 2
4
4
5000
c=
= 260m / s
3.82 5.03
=

(c) S.F.E.E
2
& (h2 h1 + c 2 )
Q& + W& = m
2

260 2
W& = 5(cp ( 456 288 ) +
)
2
= 5( 1005 .168 + 33800 ) = 5 x202 .6 kW
= 1013 kW

(d)

~ vdp
W& = m

c2
neglects changes in 2

And potential energy between (1) and (2). Would underestimate by 33.85 kW in this
example.

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16.
(a) Determine the rate of heat rejection from a reversible heat engine operating between a hot
reservoir at 900K and a cold reservoir at 400K if the engine produces a power output of 400
kW.

(b) A pipe with an inside diameter of 80 mm, a wall thickness of 30 mm and a thermal
conductivity of 0.09 W/mK is lagged with a 20 mm thick layer of lagging with a thermal
conductivity of 0.02 W/mK. The ambient temperature is 24C and the inner surface of the pipe
wall is maintained at 180C. The heat transfer coefficient at the outer surface of the lagging is
18 W/m2K. Calculate:

(i) the rate of heat transfer per unit length of pipe;


(ii) the temperature at the inner surface of the lagging.

Solution
(a)
Reversible, and two reservoirs so:

= carnot

900k

T
= 1 2
T1

400
900
= 55.55%
= 1

QR=?
400k

W&
= 0.5555
Q&
S

Q& s =

40
= 72 kW
0.5555

First law:

Q& R = Q& S W& = 72 40 = 32 kW

(b)

k=0.02 W/mk
30
20
(2)
h=18 W/m2k

180oC
(3)
T2=?

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T
q& =
=
R TH

180 24
70
90
ln
ln
40 +
70 + 1000
2.0.09 2.0.02 2.90.18

156
156
=
0.990 + 2.00 + 0.098 3.09

= 50.5 W / m

T T
180 T2
q& = 1 2 =
= 50.5
70
0.990
ln
40
20.09

T2 = 180 50.5 0.99 = 130 C

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