Sei sulla pagina 1di 5

Week 10 Nouns, Determiners and Pronouns

Practical course Vocabulary and Grammar

Determiners
Specific definite article the
possessives my, your, his, her, its, our, their, whose
demonstratives this, that, these, those
interrogative which
General a, an, any, another, other, what
A/An, The or No Article
A/an = indefinite articles used with singular countable nouns only and to talk about one of something when we assume the listener/reader doesnt know which specific thing
The = definite article used with countable and uncountable nouns and to talk about a specific example of something we think is known to both ourselves and the listener/reader
No Article to talk about things generally, we use uncountable or plural nouns without a/an or the.
Using the or no article
1) The with nouns that are always singular the is nearly always used with some singular nouns only one in existence the sun; the moon; the Earth; the air; the ozone
layer; the past; the future; the countryside; the EU; the UN; the seaside; the world; the Vietnam War; the presidency; the Government
2) Nouns without articles uncountable and plural nouns [-article] refer to general ideas and categories Cars and buses are a major source of pollution in cities.
many uncountable abstract nouns are used this way intelligence; laughter; advice; anger; beauty; chaos; courage; education; excitement; fun; hospitability;
happiness; history; information; knowledge; laughter; luck; music; patience; poetry; progress; violence
3) General or specific Adding THE the + countable & uncountable nouns [+ abstract nouns] to refer to a specific example of something
to make clear the specific example may add a qualifying clause with of (or other preposition); a relative clause or an adjective
e.g. I like this kind of music. (general) The music of Skalkottas is virtually unknown outside Greece.
NOUNS
Singular, plural, uncountable
1) Nouns that are always plural made of two parts trousers, underpants, pyjamas, tights, scissors, shorts, pliers, tweezers, tongs, glasses
to make them singular we use a pair of a pair of trousers
made of many parts belongings, goods, people, police
2) Uncountable nouns ending in s + a singular verb news, maths, economics, athletics, genetics, linguistics, mechanics, politics, aerobics, rabies
3) Singular or plural? - Collective nouns some nouns referring to groups can be either singular or plural army, jury, family, band, press, school, union, community,
audience, staff, committee, cast
we use the with these collective nouns The media is/are interested in the story.
4) There is / There are after these forms the first noun normally determines whether the verb is singular or plural Theres a chair ... / There are two tables ...
5) Uncountable or countable plural? some nouns that are often uncountable cam also be countable singular or plural
I was asked if Id had any previous experience. (uncountable) He had many hilarious experiences to tell us. (countable plural)
Death by chocolate what a great way to go! (uncountable) The accident caused a number of deaths. (countable)
6) Uncountable or countable singular? nouns that are often uncountable can be used with a / an nouns are usually qualified by an adjective or phrase
Life is short. (uncountable) He led a life of unimpeachable rectitude. (countable)
Other examples a good sleep; a deep distrust; a history of; a necessary evil; a better knowledge of; a hard time; a tolerance that...
Classifying
1) Ways of referring to a group Plural noun without an article most common way of referring generally to a whole group Seagull are found close to the coast.
Singular noun with a/an to give a definition Whats a seagull? A seagull is a large white and grey bird.
not in phrases that refer to the whole group Tigers are in danger of becoming extinct.

Week 10 Nouns, Determiners and Pronouns

Practical course Vocabulary and Grammar

Singular noun with the to describe typical characteristics in academic or formal language + singular verb The seagull is a scavenging bird.
2) Special groups 3 groups of things that we commonly refer to as a general class with the
Parts of the body I looked him straight in the eye. / Hes a pain in the neck.
especially when the noun is related to the object of the sentence and especially in PPs The bird was shot in the wing.
when the noun is related to the subject of the sentence, possessives are more common That seagull had hurt its wing.
Musical instruments generically + the The horn is one of the most difficult orchestral instruments to play.
when talking about bands, recordings etc. the can be omitted Does that recording have Clapton on guitar?
Scientific inventions + the in some cases It would be difficult to imagine life without the telephone.
the is not used with all inventions It would be very difficult to imagine life without video / e-mail.
Adjectives and verbs as nouns
1) Adjectives as personal nouns the + adjective for group or class of people the unemployed, the wounded, the young, the rich, the dead, the penniless, etc.
same pattern for nationalities the Swiss, the British, the French, the Japanese
there are a few examples that can refer to one person + sg. vb. The accused is a young man... / The deceased has left a will.
2) Adjectives as abstract nouns the old, the new, the supernatural, the impossible, the ultimate, the unknown, the former, the latter
some are common phrases into the open, for the common good, out of the ordinary, in the extreme, on the loose, to the full
3) Gerunds most verbs can be turned into nouns by adding ing; they can be the subject or object of a sentence; we use a singular verb
Spitting is a bad habit. / Another awful habit is picking your nose.
the before gerunds can also be used The waiting is the worst part of a visit to the dentist.
Singular, plural, uncountable: common phrases
1) Countable and uncountable countable nouns used uncountably We went on foot.; We dont see eye to eye.; They walked arm in arm/hand in hand.
uncountable nouns used as countable plurals He goes out in all weathers.; The rains are early this year.
2) Singular and plural some nouns are singular, but we used them as plurals in common phrases
with the Im sorry, Ill have to report you to the authorities.; He raised his eyes to the heavens.
with possessives (e.g. my, his) Well need to keep a close eye on their activities.
without an article She puts on ridiculous airs and graces. ; Do you need to claim travel expenses?
Compounds
1) Noun + Noun the first noun is usually singular and qualifies the second a cookery book, a computer game
some collocations are used so often that we consider them to be one word they have become compound nouns some are written as one word (seafood), some are written
as two words (brain drain) and some are hyphenated (T-shirt) no fix rules
e.g. laptop, city centre, willpower, evening class, flowchart, animal rights, phone-card, watch-strap
more than 2 nouns can be combines a road tax disc (= a printed notice providing that road tax has been paid); a motorway service station
2) Adjective + Nouns collocations or compounds mobile phone; parting shot; fizzy drink; loudspeaker; musical instrument
3) Adjective + Adjective compound adjectives absent-minded, big-headed, good-looking, short-lived
may collocate with particular nouns cold-blooded murder, clear-cut case, run-down area, shop-soiled goods, keep-fit fanatic
4) Other combinations we combine other parts of speech, especially several words, to make compound nouns
e.g. grass roots opinion, law and order, bride-to-be; comrade in arms, fork-lift truck

Week 10 Nouns, Determiners and Pronouns

Practical course Vocabulary and Grammar

DETERMINERS AND PRONOUNS


- General pronouns and determiners all, the whole, none, no, both, neither, either, each, every, one(s), another, other(s), one another, each other
- Quantifying pronouns and determiners much, many, a lot of, (a) few, (a) little, most, some, any, somewhere, anywhere, somebody, nothing
Pronouns or determiners?
Pronouns are used:
- on their own instead of a noun Which one do you want? Either is fine by me.
- With of before the pronoun They ate nearly all of it.
- With of before the, this, those etc. + noun They havent looked at any of the alternatives.
Determiners are used:
- before nouns Have you got some money?; I see no objection to doing it.
- most Det. follow the same patterns as pronouns with of but there are some exceptions
I dont like either of the films. or I dont like either film.
NB: no and every are determiners, never pronouns; none and somebody, everyone, nowhere, anywhere etc. are pronouns, never determiners.
1) ALL and BOTH can be used as both pronouns and determiners Virtually all chocolate tastes the same.; All children love chocolate.; Both types are disgusting.; Both
you and I are agreed on that.; Have you eaten both those pieces?; All of the chocolate in this country tastes the same.
both can be a pronoun used on its own (Both taste the same to me.); we rarely use all as a pronoun on its own, except when it is followed by a relative
clause (Give me all youve got.)
2) THE WHOLE + singular countable nouns, especially with places, we often use the whole instead of all the The whole town was shocked by her death.
we must use of with proper names and words like the, this, these, those etc. Ive travelled around the whole of France.; I was off sick for the whole week.
3) NEITHER and EITHER used to talk about 2 things; they can be both pronouns and determiners Neither type is particularly nice. (formal); Either type is fine by me.;
To be honest, I like neither.; Im not particularly fond of either.
+ singular verb (usual); + plural verb in spoken English
PPs on either side, at either end = on both sides, at both ends
4) NO and NONE used before singular, plural and uncountable nouns Bad chocolate is better than no chocolate.; Bad chocolate is better than none.
formal English none + singular verb; but none + plural verb = common None of the people I work with likes chocolate at all. None of these
brands taste the same.
5) EACH and EVERY Differences in meaning they are similar in meaning; in some contexts both are possible Each/Every person in the group was fit and healthy.
each when thinking of all the separate individuals in the group Each person chose a different route to the beach.
every refers more to the group as a whole Every route was of about the same length.
Differences in use both are used as determiners with a singular noun and a singular verb Every one of the walkers knows the area well.
every after a possessive I listened to his every word.
with some abstract nouns to emphasise that something is correct/necessary You had every right to say that.
with plural nouns in phrases of frequency We go to the seaside every few weeks.
with adverbs like almost, nearly, just about, practically Practically every route was over two miles.
each with of + noun Each of them took far longer than expected.
on its own There were six people in the group, and each was determined to win the race.

Week 10 Nouns, Determiners and Pronouns

Practical course Vocabulary and Grammar

after nouns and pronouns for emphasis John and Angela each had their own supply of biscuits.
Singular or plural? they are followed by singular verbs; however, we commonly use a plural pronoun to refer back Every person I asked says that
they are going to enjoy the walk.
in formal English, after each, he/she is considered more correct than they, although they is common Each person claimed
he/she/they would get to the beach first.
6) ONE/ONES and ANOTHER one/ones are used to replace a countable noun They are all nice but I really like the red one.
one of the... + singular verb One of the many/main/countless reasons I resigned is that I cant stand the boss.
another = the same again or a different one That piece of cake was good. Ill get another. This shop is no good lets try another.
another is often used with few or numbers + plural noun I need another few minutes.; You owe me another ten pounds.
7) ONE ANOTHER and EACH OTHER used as objects of verbs; they mean the same thing 0 each of two or more people does something to or for the other(s)
They all tried to help each other / one another.
COMMON PHRASES: Tell me all about it.; They left me all alone.; That's all: there's nothing else to add.; All too often a sunny day ends in rain.; He could be listening
outside for all I know.; Shes no friend of mine.; There's no reason why you shouldn't pass.; It's none of your business.; It was none other than George at the door.;
'Haven't you got any?' 'None whatsoever. '; Her leadership qualities are second to none.; On the whole, you're probably right.; I'm afraid your excuses are neither here nor
there.; They were all late, each and every one of them.; Luckily, I only go there every now and then / every so often / every once in a while.; On the other hand, I go to
Belgium practically every other week.; Brussels is every bit as romantic as Paris.; I met Larry the other day.; One of these days youre going to get a nasty surprise.; I was
talking to none other than the Prime Minister yesterday.; They arrived one after the another/the other.; They arrived one by one.; We were talking about something or other.
8) much, many, a lot of, (a) few, (a) little, most act in a similar way, but there are a few individual peculiarities
a) Article problems we can use much of / most of / a lot of / little of + proper nouns without the I havent seen a lot of Sarah lately.; I dont think much of London.
+ common noun of with the, my, your etc., and this, that etc. Much of my time is spent driving between jobs.
with few after very and quite, we use a/an in different positions Quite a few people have complained.; A very few people have voiced their support.
[- a/an] few and little = negative connotations A few people came. (= at least some people) Few people came. (= not enough)
b) Uses in positive, negative and questions much and many mainly in negative statements and questions You havent eaten very much food.; Are there many good
restaurants here?
very much as a Det. is almost never used in positive sentences; we use a lot of or a great deal of instead Ive eaten a lot of food.
in positive sentences, quantifiers are common with comparatives Bahrain was much better than Id expected.
c) Differences in formality positive sentences many and much = typical of formal English; plenty (of), a lot (of), Lots of, loads of etc. = more informal
Much rubbish has been written on this subject. (A lot of ... is more usual); Loads of people have rather extreme views on it.
Little and few can be fairly formal; we use not much / not a lot of / only a little or not many to be more informal Little is known about his private life.;
There is little time left.; Few people know much about him.
COMMON PHRASES: I dont feel up to much today.; Im afraid Im not much of a cook.; Theres many a time that Ive wished I could quit.; Manys the time Ive had to talk
to him about that.; Lets make the most of the good weather.; Im not that old: Ive got a good few years left in me yet.; He seems to have precious little idea of whats going
on.; The weather was fine for the most part.; Theres an awful lot of onion in this dish.
9) any, some, somewhere, anywhere, etc.
a) SOME and ANY generally used to talk about indefinite amounts Ive got some good news.; Have you got any news?
as pronouns on their own to replace a noun I didnt bring my money with me. Dont worry, Ive got some.

Week 10 Nouns, Determiners and Pronouns

Practical course Vocabulary and Grammar

with of + the, my, your, etc., this, these, etc. Some of the information in last nights broadcast was incorrect.
with of + pronoun Can you be quiet? Some of us are trying to work.; Are any of them here yet?
as determiners any in positive sentences, = it doesnt matter who, what, which or if any exists Any news you have could be useful.
in conditionals If any news comes in while Im away, let me know.
intensified with at all or whatever/whatsoever I havent got any news at all / whatsoever.
some in questions when we expect the answer yes Do you want to hear some good news?
with expressions of measurement to mean quite a large amount or number Theyve lived there for some time.
meaning approximately The suspect weighs some 70 kilos.
+ singular nouns to indicate we dont know who or what is being referred to Some idiot has tried to blow up the UN building.
b) SOMEWHERE, ANYWHERE etc. somebody, anybody, nobody, everybody, someone, anyone, no one, everyone, something, anything, nothing, everything, somewhere,
nowhere, and anywhere pronouns that can sometimes be used as adverbs + singular verb I think youll find everything you need to know is in this report.
can be followed by else or by adjective or qualifying clauses Im going to go somewhere else.
COMMON PHRASES: There are reported to be few, if any, survivors.; Pass me a book: any old book will do.; 1 don't think it's true and in any case it's not important.; You
couldnt lend me 10, could you, by any chance?; I am not by any means an expert in this subject.; He should be arriving any moment now.; These discussions dont seem to
be getting anywhere.; He keeps on phoning me for some reason or other.; Come up and see me some time.
AMOUNT AND EXTENT
1) EXTENT and DEGREE many adjectives and phrases collocate with extent and degree To some extent / degree she is right.; to a lesser / greater / large / small / great /
considerable / marked degree / extent
extent used in common phrases The true / full extent of her injuries only gradually became apparent.; I agree with you to a certain extent.
other expressions that have the same meaning Thats true up to a point, but youre forgetting something.; They won by a substantial / considerable /
narrow margin.
2) Words to express quantity high incidence; one of the highest crime rates; the proportion of men to women; nominal sum; volume of traffic; quota system; work load;
a pool of; a stock of
GROUPS OF AND PARTS OF
1) Different ways of describing groups many different words can be linked using of + uncountable and plural nouns to indicate quantity and other categories of meaning
MASS a mountain of work, a pile of washing; A SMALL AMOUNT a spot of rain, a pinch of salt; A PART - a portion of chicken, a segment of orange; A FIXED SHAPE
a ball of wool, a stick of dynamite; A PORTION OF LIQUID a drop of milk, a pool of blood; SPEED OF MOVEMENT a jet of water, a gush of blood; A GROUP a
flock of sheep, a gang of youths; A CONTAINER - a bottle of beer, a packet of cigarettes; AN EXAMPLE OR PART OF AN UNCOUNTABLE NOUN an article of clothing,
an item of news.
2) Informal phrases a blob of glue; a bit of land; a heap of papers; piles of homework; stacks of replies; mountains of washing
COMMON PHRASES: a shred of evidence; a ray of hope; a speck of dust; a torrent of abuse; a wall of silence; crumb of comfort