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INTRODUCTION

Sewerage is the infrastructure that conveys sewage. It encompasses components such as


receiving drains, manholes, pumping stations, storm overflows, and screening chambers of
the combined sewer or sanitary sewer. Sewerage ends at the entry to a sewage treatment plant or
at the point of discharge into the environment. It is the system of pipes, chambers, manholes, etc.
that conveys the sewage or storm water. According to this definition, sewerage and sewage are
two different terms. To make it simple, sewage is municipal waste water from domestic use,
storm water and in infiltrated ground water while sewerage is the system for collection and
conveyance of municipal waste water to Sewage Treatment Plant (STP).

Sewerage systems are one of the most important infrastructures in construction of


residential, industrial or commercial project as it determines the quality of life enjoyed by a
community. It consists of a network of underground sewer pipes, pump stations, sewage
treatment plants and sludge treatment facilities. This system usually operates based on by gravity
due to the slope of the pipe which reduces the high cost required for pumping. The main part of a
sewerage system is made up of large pipes (i.e. the sewers, or "sanitary sewers") that convey the
sewage from the point of production to the point of treatment.
Sewerage system can be classify into several type which is separate system, combined
system and partially separate system.

a) Separate system.

Separate sewer systems are designed to convey wastewater and storm water in separate pipes.
When sanitary and storm water sewer network are laid separately then the system is called
separate system. Sanitary sewer carries a mixture of household and commercial sewage n
industrial water waste. Storm sewer carries mainly surface storm runoff from roof, street and

parking lots. Sanitary sewer systems may also collect wet weather flow via illicit connections
from house drains or storm sewers, as well as through defects in the pipes and manholes. The
construction costs can be higher than for the combined sewer system because two separated
networks are necessary. They provide a high level of hygiene and comfort. In a properly
constructed separated system the sewage is transported in a closed system directly to the
treatment plant and cannot overflow into the environment. Suitable for urban areas with
resources to implement, operate and maintain the system. Appropriate when a centralized
treatment facility is available. Especially suitable in areas where irregular, heavy rainfall is
expected to avoid frequent combined sewer overflows. Figure 1 show the separate system
concept.

Figure 1: Separate System.

Advantages and disadvantages of Separate system:

ADVANTAGES
Surface run-off, grey water and black water

DISADVATAGES
Needs a reliable supply of piped water

can be managed separately


Limited or no risk of sewage overflow

Difficult to construct in high-density areas,

No nuisance from smells, mosquitoes or flies


No problems related to discharging industrial

difficult and costly to maintain


Need for pumping on flat ground
Problems associated with blockages and

wastewater
Moderate operation costs

breakdown of pumping equipment


Adequate treatment and/or disposal required

Convenience (minimal intervention by users)

for a large point source discharge


High capital costs, more expensive than

Low health risk


Surface run-off and rainwater can be reused

combined sewer system


Requires skilled engineers and operators

(e.g. for landscaping or agriculture)

b) Combines system.

Combined sewer systems are large networks of underground pipes that convey domestic
sewage, industrial wastewater and storm water runoff in the same pipe to a centralized treatment
facility. There are mostly found in urban areas. These systems do not require on-site pretreatment or storage of the wastewater. Transport all their wastewater to a waste water treatment
plant (WWTP) where it is treated and discharged to a water body.
Because the wastewater is not treated before it is transported, the sewer must be designed
to maintain self-cleansing velocity (i.e. a flow that will not allow particles to accumulate),
generally obtained with a minimal flow of 0.6 to 0.75m/s. A constant downhill gradient must be

guaranteed along the length of the sewer to maintain self-cleansing velocity. When the required
slope cannot be maintained, a pumping station must be installed. Primary sewers are laid beneath
roads, at minimal depths of 1.5 to 3 m to avoid damages caused by traffic loads. Access
manholes are set at regular intervals along the sewer, at pipe intersections, at changes in pipeline
direction and at drops.
This type provides a high level of hygiene and comfort for the user at the point of use.
The ultimate health and environmental impacts are determined by the treatment provided by the
downstream wastewater treatment facility. The initial cost is high (50 to 80% more than
simplified sewer systems). Maintenance costs are high compared to decentralized systems and
consists mainly inspection, unblocking and repair. Extension of the system can be difficult and
costly.
Manholes are installed wherever there is a change of gradient or alignment. The
maintenance required trained professionals.

It is suitable for urban areas with resources to implement, operate and maintain the
system. Also appropriate when a centralized treatment facility is available. The Planning,

construction, operation and maintenance require expert knowledge. The Infiltration may hamper
the performance combined sewers. Figure 2 show the concept of combines sewer.

Advantages and disadvantages of combined system:

ADVANTAGES
Convenience (minimal intervention by users)
Low health risk
No nuisance from smells, mosquitoes or flies

DISADVATAGES
High capital costs
Need a reliable supply of piped water
Difficult to construct in high-density areas,

difficult and costly to maintain


Storm water and wastewater can be managed Recycling of nutrients and energy becomes
at the same time
difficult
No problems related to discharging industrial Unsuitability for self-help, requires skilled
wastewater
Moderate operation and maintenance costs

engineers and operators


Problems associated with blockages and
breakdown of pumping equipment
Adequate treatment and/or disposal required

c) Partially separate system.

In this system part of the storm water especially collected from roofs and paved courtyards of
the buildings is admitted in the same drain along with sewage from residences and institutions,
etc. The storm water from the other places is collected separately using separate storm water
conduits. If a portion of storm water is allowed to enter in sanitary sewer and remaining storm
sewer into open drain, the system is called partially separate system. Usually only one
underground sewers is laid. Figure 3 shoe the concept of partially separate system. The system
constructed and function different according to the weather.

Advantages and disadvantages of partially separate system:

ADVANTAGES
DISADVATAGES
It combines the advantage of both the Storm water increase the load on treatment
separate as well as the combine systems.
The storm water permitted in sewers Storm water also increase the cost of
eliminates its chances of chocking.
pumping
Work of house plumbing is reduced as storm In dry weather, the self-cleaning velocity
water and waste water can be taken in same may not be achieved.
pipe
Sewers are of reasonable size n cleaning is
not very difficult.

DISCUSSION
Sewerage system is very important as it helps people to transport the wastes or sewage
away from their places. Therefore, the system must be functioning well because improper
functioning system will lead to pollution and contamination of various aspects of our
surrounding which affect human life and health. Hence, regular maintenance must be done to the
existing sewerage system and appropriate design must be applied to the new sewerage systems to
ensure the sewerage systems are in good condition.
We had done a survey on Taman Rona Parit Raja. During the survey we had observe the
sewerage system that had been used in Taman Rona. We assume that Taman Roana used a
partially separate system. We found out that the grey water from the house mainly was been flow
into the house septic tank. Since the residential also had an open channels and drain which serve
as the secondary drainage. We believe that the system that used in Taman Rona is partially
separate system. Only a portion of storm water is allowed to enter in sanitary sewer and
remaining storm sewer into open drain.
Open drain or open channel is a conveyance in which water flows with a free surface.
Although closed conduits such as culverts and storm drains are open channels when flowing
partially full, the term is generally applied to natural and improved watercourses, gutters, ditches,
and channels. An open channel or drain system generally consists of a secondary drainage
system, with a network of small drains attached. These small drains bring the water to a primary
drainage system, composed of main drains (also called interceptor drains), which serve large

areas. The main drains are generally connected with natural drainage channels such as rivers or
streams.
We also had taken a reading with water quality testing equipment. We found out that the
dissolve oxygen content in the main drainage is 0%. While the tap water show the value of
51.3%. The dissolve oxygen is the proof that the water supply to Taman Rona are in a good
condition. The dissolved oxygen (DO) mean is oxygen that is dissolved in water. A high DO
level in a community water supply is good because it makes drinking water taste better.
However, high DO levels speed up corrosion in water pipes. For this reason, industries use water
with the least possible amount of dissolved oxygen. Water used in very low pressure boilers have
no more than 2.0 ppm of DO, but most boiler plant operators try to keep oxygen levels to 0.007
ppm or less. Within this reading we found out that the residential had their periodically
maintenance for the sewerage system since the treatment of water is in a good condition.

ATTACHMENT
Reading of equipment in drainage water. (figure order are for 1,2 and 3 reading)
The reading for the first two minute is high since the equipment is still on the process of taking a
constant water reading. Since the water flow is not constant. So we take the value of the reading
at minute 3 which reading is in constant flow.

Reading of equipment in Tap water. (Figure order are for 1, 2 and 3 reading)

CONCLUSION
As a conclusion, in this Sewerage inspection activity we are able to:

Identify the type of sewerage system that used in residential area in Taman Rona.

Determine and classify the type sewerage used and its function to the road user and traffic
flow management.

Manage to investigate and learn about the flow and collection of waste water at Taman
Rona.

Identify the water quality for Taman Rona and able to identify the system efficiency for
tama Rona.

Able to make conclusion and understand well about sewer, sewerage and water quality..

Enhance technical knowledge and skill as an engineering technologist.