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BEng Petroleum Engineering

Professors: Dr. Stefan Schroeder


Dr. Cathy Hollis

Science without Borders Summer Project


Practical Report Geological Core Description

Maximiano Kanda Ferraz (SwB UG) ID 9568640

Manchester, August 2015

Maximiano Kanda Ferraz BEng Petroleum Engineering ID 9568640


Science without Borders Summer Project Practical Report

SUMMARY

1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................ 3
1.1 Learning Outcomes & Objectives ................................................... 3
1.2 Information about the Cores ........................................................... 4
1.3 Relevance ......................................................................................... 6

2 WORK METHODS ...................................................................................... 7


2.1 Equipment ....................................................................................... 7
2.2 Procedures ....................................................................................... 7
2.3 Hazards & Safety.............................................................................. 8
3 RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS ....................................................................... 9
2.1 Carbonate Section ............................................................................ 9
2.2 Transition and Clastic Sections ..................................................... 15
2.3 Petroleum System Analogue .......................................................... 21
4 CONCLUSIONS ....................................................................................... 23
5 REFERENCES ........................................................................................... 24

Maximiano Kanda Ferraz BEng Petroleum Engineering ID 9568640


Science without Borders Summer Project Practical Report

1. INTRODUCTION
In this section, a brief overview of the practical is given, such as learning outcomes, objectives
(next section), information on the cores sorted and described (section 1.2) and the relevance
regarding the petroleum engineering work (section 1.3).
The project was divided in two parts. The first one was to sort out the core material received at
The University of Manchester (detailed in section 2. Work Methods). The second part of the
project was the actual core description, and the focus of the present report (section 3. Results and
Discussions).

1.1 Learning Outcomes & Objectives


The main objectives of this summer placement were:

Observe actual geological cores, comparing rock lithology, identifying beds,


lithofacies and depositional packages.

Take notes of any information found relevant, such as trends of grain size, sedimentary
structures, contacts between units and fossil presence, to input in the logging sheets
(detailed in section 2. Work Methods).

Provide an accurate description of the selected cores, which will be part of the
Universitys teaching library.

Develop an analogy of the cores (which came from a quarry), to a petroleum


play/prospect point of view, based on the topics above, geology knowledge and
literature.

The learning outcomes, as expected in the projects guideline (Source: [6], Schroeder,
2015) are Make appropriate observations and measurements in the laboratory and/or collate
information from published sources pertinent to stated aims and objectives, employing technical
knowledge and comparing the results with the literature. The overall experience helped to develop
skills in geological core evaluation, sedimentology and stratigraphy.

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1.2 Information about the Cores

The cores were collected from the Ketton and Thistleton quarries, with its approximate location
inside the United Kingdom, between Nottingham and Cambridge, shown in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1 Locations from where the cores were extracted (Source: [3], Google Maps)

Figure 2 is an illustrated geological map of the UK, by the British Geological Survey, with
the marked square being the location of Ketton and Thistleton. It is possible to observe that the
main depositional packages are from the Jurassic period (around 170 million years ago. Source:
[9]).

Maximiano Kanda Ferraz BEng Petroleum Engineering ID 9568640


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Figure 2 - Geological map of the UK and Ireland with the marked location of the field (Source: [1], British
Geological Survey)

Table 1 is a summary of all the cores that were sorted out to compose the teaching library
of The University of Manchester, detailing the core name, number of boxes (that contain around 3
meters of core each, 1 meter for each division inside of it), and the top/bottom depths of which the
core was collected. The section described was from core ER 01/07, from depth 8.10 to 18.10 (10
meters), which covers box 3, box 4, box 5 and part of box 6 of the core.

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Table 1 Summary of the Cores Sorted

Borehole
ER 01/07
16W
01-07
28
ER 02/07
14
21
2W-07
18
Borehole
01

Ketton
Number of Boxes Top (meters) Bottom (meters)
14
1,00
44,60
6
0,75
19,50
6
0,60
17,75
8
1,50
24,80
13
0,00
42,50
7
0,00
26,90
8
1,20
21,90
3
1,40
10,25
14
2,20
51,00
Thistleton
Number of Boxes Top (meters) Bottom (meters)
5
0,00
15,00

1.3 Relevance
The relevance of the core description is huge to the petroleum engineering section of
work, since studying the rocks of a basin may yield important information regarding the
subsurface through correlation of data.
Also, the description of this section of the core can be added to the teaching core library
as an interpretation made with focus on a petroleum play. Also of essence were the organic matter
content in shale and the transition of rock types (carbonate to clastic), indicating a change in the
depositional system.

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2. WORK METHODS
This section describes the materials and apparatus used to perform the tasks (section 2.1), as
well as the procedures utilized to successfully complete these tasks (section 2.2). Section 2.3
describes the hazards and safety mechanisms.

2.1 Equipment

Gloves

Magnifying glass

Ruler

Camera

Notebook

Grain-Size/Sorting Reference Geology Sheet (Source: [5], Geological Field Book)

Sedimentary Structures/Lithology Reference Geology Sheet (Source: [4], Hollis, 2015)

Logging Sheets

Solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl)

Water

2.2 Procedures

The first part was to sort out the core material received at The University of
Manchester from wooden boxes into proper geological core trays, improving upon the
cores state (cleaning dust and discarding small rock pieces), correcting eventual errors
on the cores information and further labeling the trays with the correct top/bottom
depths.

The second part was the core interpretation. After a briefing done by the supervisor, the
section of core ER01/07 was selected and the interpretation was carried out using the
majority of the equipment cited in Section 2.1 (magnifying glass, ruler, reference
sheets and etc.). Using the camera, pictures were taken (shown in the next section).

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Sometimes, to better observe the core features, a solution of hydrochloric acid was
used to test the presence of carbonates (which reacts, if it is present). Water was also
used to test porosity and better observe fossils/bioturbation.
OBS.: A post-graduate student, Mr. Frederic was consulted, helping on the first day of
the core description.

2.3 Hazards & Safety


The risks associated with the work, with precautions taken to avoid any problems, were:

The correct handling of the materials to not cause damage in university property or hurt
anyone. With focus on:
o Correct handling of the core boxes, being the wooden box or the definitive plastic
tray.
o Gloves used to clean the dust of the cores.
o Care with the use of the HCl solution to not cause marks to the core or hurt
anyone.

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3. RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS

The description of core ER01/07 took place between the depths of 8.10 meters to 18.10 meters
(Boxes 3, 4, 5 and 6. The main reason of choice of this interval of core was the presence of
different rock types, yielding different depositional packages and numerous lithofacies.
In summary, from bottom to top (older to newer rocks), it was observed a succession of
carbonate-type rocks, limestone of different classification in the Dunham Classification (Source:
[2], Dunham, 1962), followed by a transition zone to an upward fining clastic section with traces
of iron. Finally, going up to the top of the core (more recent in the geological time scale), a shale
section with varying amount of organic matter content. Each section is detailed below.

3.1 Carbonate Section

Using the work methods described at Section 2 of the present report, various lithofacies were
identified. The methods to identify and describe this carbonate package were: visual observation
(lack of lamination, ooid presence), texture, acid testing (reacting with acid), check for fossil
presence and type, grain and porosity type, saturation, cementation, hardness, etc. Tables were
made for each lithofacie to sum up its characteristics.
Figure 3 shows box 6, and the plug that was taken at 18.0 meters. The base of the arrow at the
right indicates where the description began, at 18.10 meters. Figure 4 shows box 5, which
comprises 14.3 to 17.4 meters. Plugs n 26, 27, 28 and 29 were taken at 17.0, 16.0, 15.0 and 14.35
meters respectively. Figure 5 show these plugs (with the exception of plug n 29, present in Figure
6) in a closer view.
The section from 17.4 to 18.1 meters (top of box 6, Figure 3) comprises a single lithofacie (A).
Lithofacie B extends from 15.1 to 17.4 meters, with some core gaps in between (Figure 4). Table
2 details the lithofacies A and B (referenced as Units A and B).

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Figure 3 Box 6 (left) and plug n 25 (right)

Figure 4 Box 5 (17.40 to 14.30 meters)


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Figure 5 Plugs n 26, 27 and 28


Table 2 Summary of Lithofacies A and B
Characteristic
UNIT A
UNIT B
COLOR:
Light Beige
Beige
COMPOSITION:
Calcite
Calcite
TRENDING:
Porosity decreases upward
HARDNESS:
More consolidated
Some Foliation
ICHNOFAUNA:
No
Yes (Oyster Bioclact, Figure 6)
CEMENTATION:
Yes
Yes
FRACTURES:
Yes
No
HYDROCARBON/ORGANIC MATTER:
No
No
LITHOLOGY:
Limestone (Grainstone)
Limestone (Packstone)
HETEROGENEITIES:
Visual Vertical Fracture
DIAGENETIC FEATURES:
Oolitic
Oolitic
DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT:
Marine
Marine

Lithofacie A repeats between 14.4 to 14.7 meters. Lithofacies C and D are also present in
Box 5, with the former present between 14.7-15.1 meters and the latter above 14.4 (where plug 29
is located, Figure 6). Figure 6 shows fossils, with the first photograph being from lithofacie B.
Table 3 compares units C and D.

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Figure 6 Fossil found at and Plug n 29


Table 3 Summary of Lithofacies C and D
Characteristic
COLOR:
COMPOSITION:
TRENDING:
HARDNESS:
ICHNOFAUNA:
CEMENTATION:
FRACTURES:
HYDROCARBON/ORGANIC MATTER:
LITHOLOGY:
HETEROGENEITIES:
DIAGENETIC FEATURES:
DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT:

UNIT C
Beige
Calcite
Porosity increases upward
More consolidated
No
Yes
Yes
No
Limestone (Grainstone)
Vugs (Secondary Porosity)
Oolitic
Marine

UNIT D
Dark Beige
Calcite
Some Foliation
Yes (See Figure 6)
Yes
No
No
Limestone (Packstone)
Friable/Very Brittle
Oolitic
Marine

Interpretation:

The vertical fracture observed on Unit A may have appeared due to core uplift, which
resulted in pressure relief and appearance of fractures. This has to be taken in account, as

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the lack of fractures on carbonates may yield different interpretations concerning


analogues with reservoir rock quality.

The Ichnofauna present can support the evidence of rock-age (Jurassic) and depositional
environments, as oysters were found, an indication of near-shore to mid-shelf oceans
therefore, a marine environment. Laminated sections to further investigate these fossils
may date the rock better.

Like any carbonate, the deposition of chalk took place in medium-deep calm water, in a
non-tropical environment, with sunlight and sufficient mineral input.

The different Units may be due to cycles of sea-level, as units B and D have some mud,
putting them in the Packstone classification. Units A and C could have been deposited in
calmer waters, leading to less organic matter input and less mud sediments (more
ooids/carbonate minerals)

The porosity in carbonates depends a lot upon diagenetic processes and secondary porosit y
(vuggy, moldic, intra/interparticle pores). Unit C and D have some of this features, as vugs
were found.

Figure 7 shows the Logging Sheet 1, made at a 1:20 scale, which covers the carbonate
section (14.1-18.1 meters).

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Figure 7 Logging Sheet 1 (14.1-18.1 meters)

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3.2 Transition and Clastic Sections

Moving up the core and closer to the surface, a clastic section is reached. The methods to
identify and describe the transition (half of box 4) to the clastic package (boxes 3 and 4) were
mainly visual observation (lamination), texture, acid testing (not reacting with acid), grain size,
sorting, porosity type, saturation, hardness, organic matter content, sedimentary structures, etc.
The shale colorization indicating organic matter content, with light grey layers being around 1.52% TOC (total organic carbon) and darker layers, more. The classification in the tables below of
poor, medium and rich organic matter content refers to less than 1.5% TOC, around 2% and above
2-3% respectively.
Figure 8 shows boxes 3 and 4. Figure 9 is a closer photograph of the iron presence, oxidation
and iron concretions observed. Table 4 below compares lithofacies H and I, with the latter present
between 13.2 to 14.1 meters and the former present between 12.9 to 13.2 meters (first half of box
4).
Table 4 Summary of Lithofacies H and I
Characteristic
UNIT H
COLOR:
Brown/Orange
COMPOSITION:
Silt, Iron, Sand
GRAIN-SIZE:
Very Fine Sand (~0.07 mm)
GRAIN-SORTING:
Poor
TRENDING:
Upward fining
HARDNESS:
Sandy, Friable
SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES:
No
CEMENTATION:
No
FRACTURES:
No
HYDROCARBON/ORGANIC MATTER:
No
LITHOLOGY:
Silty Sandstone
HETEROGENEITIES:
Iron Concretions
DIAGENETIC FEATURES:
DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT:
Fluvio-Deltaic

UNIT I
Light Grey
Silt, Iron
Silt (~0.02 mm)
Good
Upward fining
Stable
No
Yes
No
No
Siltstone
Some Iron present
Fluvio-Deltaic

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Figure 8 Box 3 (right) and 4 (left) of core ER01/07 (8.1 to 14.1 meters)

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Figure 9 Section of 13.7 meters, showing iron concretions in silty sandstone

Table 5 describes the shale/mudstones Lithofacies E (8.1 to 8.8 and 9.3 to 10.8 meters), F (10.8 to
11.4 and 11.9 to 12.4 meters), G (11.4 to 11.9 and 12.4 to 12.9 meters) and J (8.8 to 9.3 meters).
Table 5 Summary of Lithofacies E, F and G
Characteristic
COLOR:
COMPOSITION:
GRAIN-SIZE:
HARDNESS:
SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES:

UNIT E

UNIT F

UNIT G

UNIT J

Light Grey

Dark Grey

Grey

Light Grey

Mud

Mud

Mud, Iron

Mud, Iron

Clay (0.01mm)
Sheets

Clay (0.01mm) Clay (0.01mm)


Sheets
Sheets

Clay (0.01mm)
Sheets

No

No

No

No

Calcite

No

No

Calcite

No
Medium

No
Rich

No
Medium

No
Poor

Shale

Shale

Shale

Shale

HETEROGENEITIES:

Carbonate Mud

No Iron

Some Iron

Carbonate Mud

DIAGENETIC FEATURES:

Medium-Deep
Waters

CEMENTATION:
FRACTURES:
ORGANIC MATTER:
LITHOLOGY:

DEPOSITION ENVIRONMENT

Medium-Deep
Deep Waters
Waters

Medium-Deep
Waters

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Interpretation:

The lithofacies differs in matters of organic matter content, presence or not of iron and
presence or not of carbonate cement.

This may occur due to cycles of sea-level. Unit F being deposited in deep sea-level
(anoxic, with no input of iron or carbonates) and Units E, G, J in low sea-level, as the
environment was more agitated, dont allowing the layers of to deposit plainly, resulting in
a more complicated lithofacies division.

Ironstone was present in small concretions in the transition zone and among the layers of
mudstone. Ironstone was cemented instead of calcite maybe because of the depositional
environment sudden change from marine to shallow water/deltaic one. The cementation of
the ironstone occurred in a reducing environment, the orange color in the edges, being a
result of oxidation due to water action (iron sulfide).

The marine depositional environment yields a Type II kerogen, which may generate good
quality liquid hydrocarbons.

Shales with orange areas show erosion and oxidation of iron sediments.

Figures 10 and 11 below contain the Logging Sheets 2 and 3, which comprise this section.

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Figure 10 Logging Sheet 2 (10.1 14.1 meters)


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Figure 11 Logging Sheet 3 (8.1 - 10.1 meters)

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3.3 Petroleum System Analogue


As a petroleum engineering student, an interesting job is to make an analogy of the Ketton
quarry core to a real petroleum system. Figure 12 is a sketch of a onshore vertical well drilled at
the position the core was retrieved. Showing the real depths of the would-be reservoir (limestone
section), the shale bedding acting as a sealing rock above it and the middle layer being the silty
sandstone/siltstone. A source rock could not be defined, but it had to be located below the
limestone.

Figure 12 Petroleum System Analogue

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Due to the brittle nature of carbonate rocks, fractures are more prevalent than in clastics.
These fracture systems act as conduits for fluid flow and can considerably enhance hydrocarbon
production in low-porosity carbonate rocks or tight gas sands (Source: [10], Xu & Payne, 2009).
Although fractures were not observed, the limestone analyzed could be a good carbonate reservoir
as it has good matrix permeability. Also, more stiff porosity (moldic, vugular, interparticle) makes
the rock more resistant to compaction, stable and could increase its porosity for it to store
economical amounts of hydrocarbon.
To determine where to drill the well, it would be necessary to run a wireline borehole log, to
better define lithology, fluid presence and permeability. Seismic would not show much, as it does
not have the resolution to identify smaller elements in the system. A vertical well would fulfill the
task of producing oil.
The development strategy has to take in account that the reservoir may be drained quickly
if there is not much lateral connectivity. To calculate this, before beginning full production, it
would be interesting to run a pressure test (open flow for a period of time, then closing the
production to observe how the pressure recuperates inside the reservoir).
The silty sandstone makes a bad quality reservoir, as grain sorting is bad, reducing its
permeability and porosity.
In the shale section, if testing for an shale gas reservoir, hypothetically reaching kerogen
maturity in the subsurface (since the shale is immature), the section above the shale should act as
trapping mechanisms. A gamma ray log and neutron/density logs after a well is drilled may help
identify gas areas, with the former indicating clay-rich, organic-rich layers and the latter indicating
gas presence when the logs cross and separate. However, the presence of calcite cementation and
iron could make oil/gas harder to extract, even with hydro-fracking techniques, as that could be
flow barriers.

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4. CONCLUSIONS

The reported practical work aimed to describe a section of the core Ketton ER01/07, extracted
from the Ketton quarry. Like any practical, is subject to measurement errors, errors inherent in
equipment and even human error. However, it was obtained suitable and consistent results. The
section described could relate to a petroleum system better than expected, and the section,
although it had some gaps, was in satisfactory state for analysis.
A way to improve the report would be to add more detailed comparisons between what was
seen and the scientific papers regarding the cores extracted from these Quarries, to confirm the
interpretation. Some plugs were taken that helped interpret the cross-sectional area of the core.
Some cores (not the one analyzed) were submitted to cuts in half, for the same reason.
Nonetheless, it would be interesting to obtain some samples for further laboratory analysis,
such as plugs to perform porosity and permeability measurements, or even laminated sections to
observe fossil types on carbonate sections and grain size, sorting, roundness on the clastic section
(micrograph).

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5. REFERENCES

[1] British Geological Survey. IPR/123-16CT. Available at: http://www.thegeologytrusts.org (Accessed:


03/08/2015).
[2] Dunham, R. J. (1962). Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional textures.
AAPG. 108-121.
[3] Google Maps. Available at http://www.maps.google.co.uk/ (Accessed: 03/08/2015).
[4] Hollis, Cathy (2015). Formation Evaluation Class Notes. 46pp.
[5] Rite in the Rain (2012). Geological Field Book N540F. 160pp.
[6] Schroeder, Stefan (2015). SwB Projects Guidelines. 3pp.
[7] The University of Manchester (2015). Petroleum Engineering Laboratory. 20pp.
[8] Thomas, J. E (2001). Fundamentos de Engenharia do Petrleo. Intercincia, Rio de Janeiro.
272pp.
[9] Walker, J.D., Geissman et al. (2012). Geologic Time Scale v. 4.0. The Geological Society of
America.
[10] Xu, S., & Payne, M. A. (2009). Modeling elastic properties in carbonate rocks. The Leading
Edge, 28(1), 66-74.

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