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Anatomy and Terminology Module

Anatomy and Terminology Module

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Preface

This document is designed as a tool for all Covidien employees. Our goal is to provide the user with information on medical terminology, human anatomy and surgical procedures as they apply to Covidien products.

Acknowledgements

Molly Borman BioMedical Illustrations and Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. images are used with permission.

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Section 1: Word construction

Most medical terms can be broken down into two or more components or word elements. This guide teaches you how to use this fact to your advantage, providing you with a basic approach for understanding unfamiliar medical terms. To define an unfamiliar term, you will simply:

1. Identify its word elements

2. Analyze the meaning of each word element

3. Put the meanings of all the word elements together to define the word as a whole

In order to use this approach, you will need to be familiar with the three basic types of word elements:

root words, suffixes and prefixes.

rooT WordS

The central meaning of a term is conveyed by a word element called the root word. It is the foundation to which other word elements are added to build a complete, meaningful word. All terms have at least one root word.

When being connected to other word elements, root words are converted into combining forms. A combining form is a root word to which a combining vowel has been added in order to link the root to a second root word or to a suffix. The most common combining vowel is “o.” Combining forms are typically represented by the root word, followed by a slash (/), followed by the combining vowel.

In medical terminology, root words (and their associated combining forms) usually refer to anatomic structures or physiological concepts. Memorizing just a few will enable you to understand a wide variety of medical terms.

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root Word and combining forms

Meaning

anter/o

front

arthr/o

joint

bil/o

bile, gall

carcin/o

cancer

cardi/o

heart

chol/e

bile, gall

col/o

colon, intestine

cysto/o

urinary bladder

duoden/o

duodenum

esophag/o

esophagus

gastr/o

stomach

gyn/o

woman, female

hepat/o

liver

hyster/o

uterus

ile/o

ileum

jejun/o

jejunum

mamm/o

breast

mast/o

breast

muscul/o

muscle

nas/o

nose

nephr/o

kidney

neur/o

nerves

oophor/o

ovaries

ovari/o

ovaries

pancreat/o

pancreas

peritone/o

peritoneum

pharyng/o

pharynx

proct/o

anus

pulmon/o

lungs

rect/o

rectum

respir/o

respiration

salping/o

fallopian tube

sigmoid/o

sigmoid colon

ur/o

urine

ureter/o

ureter

urethr/o

urethra

uter/o

uterus

vagin/o

vagina

ven/o

vein

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SuffixeS A suffix is a word element added after a root word to modify the basic meaning of the word.

Suffix

Meaning

-ectomy

surgical removal

-edema

swelling

-esis

condition

-gram

record

-graphy

recording

-itis

inflammation

-lysis

dissolution

-ology

study of

-oma

tumor, growth

-ostomy

surgical opening

-otomy

surgical incision

-pathy

disease

-plasty

surgical repair

-sclerosis

hardening

-scopy

visual exam

-stenosis

narrowing

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PrefixeS

A prefix is a word element added before one or more root words to modify the basic meaning of the root(s) and create a new word.

Prefix

Meaning

ante-

before, forward

anti-

against

bi-

two

brady-

slow

contra-

against, opposite side

di-

two

electro-

electrical

endo-

inside, within

hemi-

one-half

hyper-

excessive

hypo-

too little

inter-

between, among

intra-

within, inside

ipsi-

same, same side

laparo-

abdomen

macro-

large

micro-

small

para-

beside, beyond

peri-

surrounding

post-

after

pre-

before

pro-

before, in front of

pseudo-

false

quadri-

four

retro-

backward

semi-

one-half

sub-

under, beneath

supra-

over, above

tachy-

fast

trans-

across, through

tri-

three

uni-

one

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Word-BuiLding exerciSeS

Break each of the following terms into its word elements. As in the examples below, draw a slash between the letters to indicate where you think the word should be divided. Then write the definition for the term.

Word

first Word definition

Second Word definition

definition

cardi / ology

cardi = heart

ology = study of

study of the heart

vascu / litis

vascu = blood vessels

itis = inflammation

inflammation of blood vessels

bradycardia

     

cardiovascular

     

nephritis

     

arthroscopy

     

retroperitoneal

     

transurethral

     

peri-anal

     

transabdominal

     

colectomy

     

arthritis

     

mammoplasty

     

laparoscopy

     

peritonitis

     

ileostomy

     

hypothermic

     

postoperative

     

cholecystitis

     

gastrotomy

     

hyperthermic

     

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uSing SuffixeS in Word BuiLding Use the suffixes you have learned to build medical terms describing the following surgical procedures

Medical Term

definition

1.

Surgical removal of the spleen

2.

Surgical removal of the gall bladder

3.

Surgical repair of a joint

4.

Creation of an opening in the stomach

5.

Surgical removal of all of the stomach

6.

Visualization of the abdomen using a scope/camera

7.

Surgical repair of the breast or breasts

8.

Inflammation of the peritoneum

9.

Surgical removal of the urinary bladder

10.

freeing up or separating of tissue from surrounding structures or organs

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Section 2: Position and direction

direcTion

anterior

Positioned toward the front

ascending

Having an upward course

axillary

Commonly referred to as the underarm

descending

Having a downward course

distal

Farthest from the point of reference

inferior

Situated below; in reference to the lower surface or portion of an organ or structure

lateral

Toward the side, farthest from the middle or median

medial

Toward the middle

posterior

Positioned toward the back

proximal

Closest to the point of reference

superior

Situated above, in reference to the upper surface or portion of an organ or structure

transverse

Having a lateral course; a feature or organ that proceeds across

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PoSiTion

lateral position

Patient lying on side (left or right)

lithotomy

Patient on back with legs up in stirrups, with head tilted down slightly

prone

Patient lying on front, face down

reverse trendelenburg

Patient on back with feet tilted down and head slightly elevated

supine

Patient lying on back, face up

trendelenburg

Patient on back with head tilted down and feet slightly elevated

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on back with head tilted down and feet slightly elevated COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN with logo and positive

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SeLf-TeST

1. If a surgeon refers to something as having a lateral course, or a feature or organ that proceeds across, they are referring to which term?

a. transverse

b. ascending

c. descending

2. If a clinician refers to something being situated below a particular structure, it is

a. anterior

b. posterior

c. inferior

3. A patient in the “prone” position would be lying on his/her

a. back

b. side

c. front

4. If the point of origin is the duodenum, the ileum is

a. distal

b. proximal

c. superior

d. medial

in relationship.

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Task: You are describing the location of particular organs or structures to a colleague. Use the “X” as the point of origin in describing the location of the subject organ/structure; e.g., anterior, posterior, superior, etc.

organ/structure; e.g., anterior, posterior, superior, etc. A. B. C. D. E. F. COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN with logo
organ/structure; e.g., anterior, posterior, superior, etc. A. B. C. D. E. F. COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN with logo

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

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Correctly label the following patient positions

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

label the following patient positions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN with logo and
label the following patient positions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN with logo and
label the following patient positions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN with logo and
label the following patient positions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN with logo and
label the following patient positions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN with logo and
label the following patient positions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN with logo and

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noTeS

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Section 3: abdominal anatomy

antrum

Distal section of the stomach

appendix

Supplementary or dependent part attached to a main structure, located in right lower quadrant

ascending colon

Extending from the cecum to the upper abdominal area, on patient’s right

cecum

Pouch or cul-de-sac of the ascending colon connected to the distal small bowel (ileum)

colon

This comprises the main length of the large intestine and is responsible for water absorption. It is divided into four sections, lies distal to the cecum, and proximal to the rectum

descending colon

Extending from the upper to the lower abdominal area, on patient’s left

duodenum

Proximal portion of the small bowel; it connects to the distal stomach

gallbladder

Pear-shaped reservoir for bile; lies just posteriorly to the liver

hemorrhoidal or gonadal vessels

Blood supply to and from the rectum; branch off of the inferior mesenteric artery and vein

hilum

A depression or pit at that part of an organ where the major vessels and nerves enter

hiler vessels

The vessels that enter an organ through the hilum

ileum

Distal portion of the small intestine

ileocecal valve

Located between the ileum and cecum, it controls passage of fluid waste from the small bowel to the colon

ileocecal vessels

Blood supply to and from the ileum (distal small bowel) and cecum (proximal colon), branch off of the inferior mesenteric artery and vein

I mA (general)

inferior mesenteric artery and vein

jejunum

Inferior mesenteric artery

Blood supply to and from the left colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum

Small bowel that extends between the duodenum and ileum

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left colic vessels

Blood supply to and from the left (descending) colon; branch off of the inferior mesenteric artery and vein

liver

Stores and filters blood; located in right upper quadrant

mesentery

Membranous fold attaching various organs to the body wall and carrying the blood supply to these organs

middle colic vessel

Blood supply to and from the transverse colon; branches off of the superior mesenteric artery and vein

omentum

A peritoneal fold extending from the stomach to adjacent organs in the abdominal cavity

pancreas

Situated transversely behind the stomach; it produces and secretes insulin directly into the bloodstream

pylorus

Junction point between the stomach and the duodenum

pyloric sphincter

A ring of muscles that controls the passage of food from the stomach into the duodenum

right colic vessels

Blood supply to and from the right (ascending) colon; branch off of the superior mesenteric artery and vein

sigmoid colon

The S-shaped end of the colon that leads into the rectum

sigmoidal vessels

Blood supply to and from the sigmoid colon; branch off of the inferior artery and vein

small bowel

A coiled 20-foot-long tube that winds from the pyloric sphincter of the stomach to the beginning of the large intestine, filling much of the abdominal cavity, where the nutrients are removed from the bowel contents

spleen

Located in the left upper quadrant; it breaks down the red blood cells and releases the hemoglobin

stomach

Lies between the esophagus and duodenum, stores food, located in the upper left quadrant

superior mesenteric artery and vein

Blood supply to and from the right colon, liver, stomach, spleen and small bowel

transverse colon

Extending from one side of the abdomen to the other

umbilicus

The navel or belly button

viscera

General term for contents of the abdomen

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Figure 3.1

Stomach in situ

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Figure 3.2

Arteries of stomach, liver and spleen

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Figure 3.3

Greater Omentum & Abdominal Viscera

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Figure 3.4

Omentum Raised

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Figure 3.5

Mucosa and musculature of large intestine

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Figure 3.6

Arteries of large intestine

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Figure 3.7

Hepatic portal vein and tributaries: portocaval anastomoses

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Be able to verbally trace the digestive system from beginning to end, including all structures and landmarks:

oral cavity

pharynx

esophagus

stomach

duodenum

jejunum

ileum

cecum

ascending colon

hepatic flexure

transverse colon

splenic flexure

descending colon

sigmoid colon

rectum

anus

Figure 3.8

Alimentary canal

• rectum • anus Figure 3. 8 Alimentary canal COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN with logo and positive results

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SeLf-TeST

1. The proximal portion of the small bowel is called the

a. ileum

b. duodenum

c. jejunum

d. appendix

2. The appendix comes off of what part of the intestines?

a. ascending colon

b. cecum

c. ileum

d. descending colon

3. Which organ is located in the upper left quadrant and is responsible for disintegrating red blood cells?

a. kidney

b. liver

c. pancreas

d. spleen

Write the definition for each of the anatomical terms below

Medical Term

definition

1. ileum

 

2. liver

 

3. sigmoid colon

 

Write the terms for the definitions below

Medical Term

definition

1.

Inflammation of the colon

2.

Blood supply to and from the left colon, sigmoid and rectum

3.

Surgical removal of the appendix

4.

Surgical creation of an opening between the colon and surface of the abdomen, usually to allow elimination of bowel content

5.

Surgical repair of the abdomen

6.

Visual examination of the abdomen using a scope/camera

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Section 4: Pelvic anatomy

TerMinoLogy

anus

The sphincter muscle that regulates the lower digestive tract, just distal to the rectum.

bladder

Sac-like organ in the pelvis that stores urine until excreted

cardinal ligament (

Suspensory ligament for the posterior aspect of the uterus; contains the uterine arterycardinal ligament (

cervix (

Lower part of the uterus leading to the vagina, also referred to as the neck of the uteruscervix (

fallopian tube (

Transport tube through which the egg travels to the uterusfallopian tube (

Infundibular Pelvic (IP) vessel

inguinal

The ligament that supports and supplies the blood to the fallopian tube

Pertaining to the groin

ovarian ligament (

Attaches the ovaries to the fallopian tubes and upper portion of the exterior uterusovarian ligament (

ovary (

Almond-shaped structure responsible for generating the egg in the female; one on each side of the uterusovary (

perineum

The region between the anus and the external genitalia

prostate (

A donut-shaped muscular/glandular structure located beneath the urinary bladder that surrounds the urethrabetween the anus and the external genitalia prostate ( pubis Pubic bone; the bladder rests upon

pubis

Pubic bone; the bladder rests upon it

rectum

Structure that stores feces and lies between the colon and the anus

round ligament ( )

round ligament ( )

Suspensory ligament for the anterolateral aspect of the uterus

ureter

Narrow tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder

urethra

Membranous tube that carries urine from the bladder to the external exit of the body

uterosacral ligament (

Fibrous ligament that anchors the posterior uterus to the pelvic walluterosacral ligament (

uterus (

A hollow, muscular, pear-shaped structure suspended in the pelvic cavity by bands of connective tissue called ligamentsuterus (

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anaToMy

Figure 4.1

Pelvic contents: female

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Figure 4.2

Female pelvic viscera

Figure 4.2 Female pelvic viscera COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN with logo and positive results for life are U.S.

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Figure 4.3

Uterus and adnexa: anterior view

Figure 4.3 Uterus and adnexa: anter ior view Figure 4.4 Frontal section COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN with logo
Figure 4.4 Frontal section
Figure 4.4
Frontal section

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Figure 4.5

Prostate and seminal vesicles (sagittal section)

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Figure 4.6

Urethra (male): anterior view

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SeLf-TeST

Write the term for the definitions below

mEDICAL tErm

DEfINItION

1.

Almond-shaped structure responsible for generating the egg in females

2.

the region between the anus and external genitalia

3.

Pelvic bone; the bladder rests on it

4.

A hollow, pear-shaped structure suspended in the female pelvic cavity

5.

Inflammation of the kidney

6.

Surgical removal of the urinary bladder

7.

Visualization of the ureter using a scope/camera

8.

referring to the kidney

9.

transurethral resection of the prostate

1. The structure that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder is called the

a. urethra

b. ureter

c. uterus

d. prostate

2. The structure that acts as a transport tube for the female eggs to travel to the uterus is the

a. ovary

b. cervix

c. perineum

d. fallopian tube

3. What is the suspensory ligament for the posterior aspect of the uterus that contains the uterine artery?

a. round ligament

b. cardinal ligament

c. uterosacral ligament

d. ovarian ligament

Write the definition for the terms below.

mEDICAL tErm

DEfINItION

1. urethra

 

2. inguinal

 

3. hysteroscopy

 

4. perineum

 

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noTeS

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Section 5: Head and neck anatomy and Terminology

gLoSSary of TerMS

jugular

Large veins that return blood to the heart from the head and neck

mandible

Referring to the jaw

parotid gland

Gland located near the ear, just above the jaw line

parotidectomy

Surgical removal of the parotid gland, usually for malignancy

sternocleidomastoid muscle

One of two muscles in the neck rising from the clavicle toward the ear

strap muscle

The muscles on each side of the Adam’s apple that run from the collarbone up under the jaw

thyroid

An endocrine gland in the neck, anterior to and partially surrounding the thyroid cartilage and upper rings of the trachea

thyroidectomy

Surgical removal of the thyroid gland

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Figure 5.1

Facial nerve branches and parotid gland

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Figure 5.2

Superficial veins and cutaneous nerves of neck

Figure 5.2 Superficial veins and cutaneous nerves of neck Figure 5.3 Thyroid gland: anterior view COVIDIEN,

Figure 5.3

Thyroid gland:

anterior view

nerves of neck Figure 5.3 Thyroid gland: anterior view COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN with logo and positive results

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Figure 5.4

Head and neck ateries and nerves: anterior view

Figure 5. 4 Head and neck ateries and nerves: anterior view COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN with logo and

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Figure 5.5

Head and neck veins: left lateral view

Figure 5. 5 Head and neck veins: left lateral view COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN with logo and positive

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SeLf-TeST

1. The generic term for jaw is the

a. torso

b. crucible

c. tactile

d. mandible

2. The gland located just above the jaw near the ear is the

a. tricuspid

b. carotid

c. parotid

d. thyroid

3. If a surgeon is surgically removing the endocrine gland in the neck that surrounds the upper rings of the trachea, he or she is performing a

a. parotidectomy

b. thyroidectomy

c. septoplexy

4. The muscles that lie on each side of the Adam’s apple and run from the collarbone up under the jaw are known as the

a. lat muscles

b. flap muscles

c. strap muscles

5. The term for any of the large vessels that return blood to the heart from the head and neck is

a. carotid

b. jugular

c. epiploic

d. mesenteric

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Section 6: other anatomy

TerMinoLogy

abdomen

Lies between the thoracic cavity and pelvic cavity, lined by the peritoneum

aorta

The main vessel carrying oxygen-rich blood from the heart and lungs to the body

artery

Blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart and lungs throughout the body

Calot’s triangle

Area bordered by the cystic duct, common hepatic duct and lower edge of the liver, referenced during cholecystectomy

duct

A tube or hollow structure

esophagus

Passageway between pharynx and the stomach

fundus

Refers to the upper portion of a hollow organ or structure; e.g., stomach or uterus

hemorrhoid

Swollen veins in the lining of the anus, often causing rectal bleeding and pain

ImA (cardiac)

Internal mammary artery, located on posterior aspect of chest wall, used to bypass occluded blood vessels in the heart (CABG)

kidney

Filters toxins, waste, and ingested water and minerals from the blood

larynx

Passageway between the oral cavity and the lungs

lumen

The inside of a tube-shaped structure; e.g., blood vessel

lymph node

Bean-shaped organ that filters and cleanses the clear fluid transported by the lymphatic vessels

peritoneum

Serous membrane lining the pelvic and abdominal walls

pharynx

Passageway for food between the oral cavity and esophagus

sphincter

A circular shaped muscle that surrounds a natural opening; its form helps close the opening; e.g., anal sphincter

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thorax

Part of the body between the neck and respiratory diaphragm, encased by the ribs; i.e., the chest

vein

Blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the body back to the heart and lungs

vena cava

Large vein running along the right side of the spine that returns the deoxygenated blood from the body back to the heart and lungs

vessel

Any channel for carrying fluid, such as blood

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Figure 6.1

Kidneys in situ: anterior view

Figure 6.1 Kidneys in situ: anterior view COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN with logo and positive results for life

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Figure 6.2

Gross structure of the kidney

Figure 6.2 Gross structure of the kidney COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN with logo and positive results for life

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SeLf-TeST

Write the definition for each of the terms below

anatomy

definition

larynx

 

esophagus

 

sphincter

 

peritoneum

 

duct

 

kidney

 

artery

 

vein

 

lumen

 

fundus

 

ImA (general)

 

1.

The term for high blood pressure is

a. extension

b. hypotension

c. hypertension

d. normotension

2.

The term intra-abdominal refers to structures

the abdomen.

a. outside

b. inside

c. above

d. below

3.

All of the following prefixes are used to describe a structure’s location except

a. endo -

b. poly -

c. inter -

d. sub -

5.

The suffix -pathy means

a. deficiency

b. disease (any type)

c. tumor (or other type of growth)

d. nourishment or development

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noTeS

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Section 7: Terminology

ablation

Removal of dead or diseased tissue, or the destruction of its function

abscess

Collection of pus, usually as a result of infection

acute

A condition that has a sudden onset or lasts a short period of time

adhesion

A fibrous band or structure by which structures abnormally adhere or stick together

anastomosis

The joining of two (natural or man-made) tube-shaped structures; e.g., blood vessels or bowel

anemic

A condition marked by a decrease in red blood cells

anomaly

Deviation from what is accepted as normal

aneurysm

Swelling of a blood vessel at a weakened point in the vessel wall

aspirate

To withdraw air or fluid, usually by a needle

avascular

Refers to tissue having no blood vessels or inadequate blood supply

benign

Refers to a tumor that is not cancerous and does not spread to other sites

bifurcate

To divide or separate into two parts

bile

The yellow-green secretion of the liver that aids in digestion

chronic

Refers to long duration and frequent occurrence

costal

Pertaining to the rib

distended

Being enlarged

edema

Swelling caused by a collection of large amounts of fluid in tissue

embolus

A mass of undisolved matter present in a vessel. Emboli may be solid, gas, or liquid (e.g., air-embolus—an air bubble in the patient’s vein)

endoscope

A scope that allows the surgeon to view virtually any structure in the body

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extra-peritoneal

Outside the peritoneal cavity; e.g., the kidneys lie extra- peritoneally (outside the peritoneal cavity on the patient’s posterior side)

extubate

Removal of a tube; e.g., removal of the endotracheal tube from the patient’s mouth/throat

fistula

An abnormal passage from one structure/organ to another or from one structure/organ to the surface of the body

hematoma

Collection of blood that has escaped from the vessels and become trapped in the tissue of the skin or in an organ; e.g., a blood blister or blood clot

in vitro

Biological process performed in the laboratory rather than in the body

in vivo

Biological process performed in the body

incision

A cut made into body tissue with a surgical scalpel

indication

A sign or reason for prescribing a treatment or medication for disease

intra-muscular

Within the muscle

intravenous

Refers to the inside of a vein

intubate

Insertion of a tube into any hollow organ, as into the larynx or trachea (endotracheal tube in patient’s mouth/throat)

ischemia

Temporary lack of blood supply to an area

lesion

A pathological change in tissue, an injury, wound or any other tissue damage

ligation or ligate

To tie or bind with a ligature; e.g., suture, clips and staplers (mechanical) or LigaSure™ and ultrasonics (energy-based)

lipoma

A benign tumor containing fat

malignant

The process of disease that is severe, progressive and does not respond to treatment

metastasis

The process by which tumor cells multiply and spread to other organs

mobilization

To free up from surrounding or attached structures or organs

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morsilate

To chew-up or break down into small pieces; e.g., to morsilate a large structure or organ, enabling it to be removed through a small incision

necrosis

The death and breakdown of tissue

occlusion

Blockage, as in an artery

palliative

Term for soothing and/or relieving

palpate

To examine by hand, exerting light pressure with the fingers for the purpose of feeling or examining

pedicle

A stem-like narrow part of a structure, a narrow strip of flap tissue through which a structure receives its blood supply

peristalsis

Involuntary muscular contractions occurring in a tubular structure or organ; how food is moved through the intestines

pronate

The act of turning so as to face down; e.g., turning your hand so the palm is facing downward

renal

Relating to the kidneys

resection

Surgical removal of a structure or organ

stenosis

Narrowing or stricture of a canal or duct

stoma

Any opening between two structures or on the surface of a structure; e.g., the opening between two portions of the intestine in an anastomosis

stricture

Narrowing of a canal, duct or other passage

subcostal

Pertaining to below the rib

supinate

The act of turning so as to face up; e.g., turning your hand so the palm is facing upward

transection

Cutting of tissue

tumor

An abnormal mass of tissue within the body

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SeLf-TeST Write the terms for the definitions below

Medical Term

definition

1.

Being enlarged

2.

refers to the cutting of tissue

3.

Process by which tumor cells multiply and spread to other organs

4.

refers to the biological process performed in the body

5.

the death and breakdown of tissue

6.

Narrowing of a canal, duct or other passage

7.

Collection of pus, usually as a result of infection

8.

Swelling caused by a collection of large amounts of fluid in tissue

9.

refers to long duration and frequent occurrence

10.

A tumor that is not cancerous and does not spread to other sites

11.

the joining of two (natural or man-made) tube-shaped structures; e.g., blood vessels or bowel

Write the definitions for the each of the following medical terms

Medical Term

definition

1. peristalsis

 

2. aspirate

 

3. lipoma

 

4. anemic

 

5. sub-costal

 

6. hematoma

 

7. resection

 

8. palpate

 

9. lesion

 

10. ischemia

 

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Section 8: Surgical Procedures

abdominal perineal resection

Surgical removal of affected colon, rectum and anus. Indication – cancer of the lower rectum

appendectomy

Surgical removal of the appendix

cholecystectomy

Surgical removal of the gallbladder; if the procedure is performed through a tube placed into the abdomen, it is called laparoscopic cholecystectomy

colectomy

Surgical removal of all or part of the colon, often to treat patients with chronic colitis or Crohn’s disease

colostomy

Surgical creation of an opening between the colon and the surface of the abdomen, usually to allow elimination of the feces into a bag attached to the skin

cystectomy

Surgical removal of the urinary bladder

esophagogastrectomy

Surgical removal of diseased portions of the esophagus and stomach

gastrectomy

Surgical removal of the stomach

gastrotomy

Creating a hole in the wall of the stomach

hemorrhoidectomy

Surgical removal of hemorrhoids

hysterectomy ( )

hysterectomy ( )

Surgical removal of the uterus; surgery may be trans-abdominal (TAH) or vaginal (TVH)

laparoscopy

Visual examination of the abdominal cavity using a laparoscope

low anterior resection

Surgical removal of affected distal colon and portion of proximal rectum. Indication – cancer

mammoplasty (

Surgical reconstruction of one or both breasts (bilateral)m a m m o p l a s t y (

mastectomy (

Surgical removal of the breastmastectomy (

nephrectomy

Surgical removal of the kidney

Nissen fundoplication

Surgical wrapping of the stomach around the esophagus and suturing it to itself, usually to prevent gastric reflux

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oophorectomy ( )

oophorectomy ( )

Surgical removal of one or both ovaries; if both ovaries are removed, the procedure is called a bilateral oophorectomy

orchiectomy (

Surgical removal of one or both testesorchiectomy (

prostatectomy (

Surgical removal of all or part of the prostate glandprostatectomy (

radical cystectomy

) Resection of the urinary bladder, distal ureters, pelvic lymph nodes, and prostate Resection of the urinary bladder, distal ureters, pelvic lymph nodes, and prostate

) Resection of the urinary bladder, distal ureters, urethra, uterus, cervix, proximal third of the vagina Resection of the urinary bladder, distal ureters, urethra, uterus, cervix, proximal third of the vagina

radical hysterectomy (

Surgical removal of uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, cervix and all recognizable lymph nodesradical hysterectomy (

radical mastectomy (

Resection of the breast and axillary lymph nodesradical mastectomy (

salpingectomy (

Surgical removal of one or both fallopian tubessalpingectomy (

sigmoidectomy

Surgical removal of the sigmoid colon Indication – cancer

splenectomy

Surgical removal of the spleen

transplantation

Surgical implantation of an organ or structure from a compatible donor into a recipient

Surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland by placing

transurethral resection of the Prostate (turP) (

)
)

a special prostatectomy endoscope (resectoscope) through the urethra and removing pieces of the prostate gland through this tube

Whipple procedure

Resection of the head of the pancreas, the entire duodenum, portion of the jejunum, distal third of the stomach and lower half of the common bile duct with reestablishment of biliary, pancreatic and gastrointestinal tract systems

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SeLf-TeST

Procedure

definition (include all structures being removed)

1.

laparoscopy

 

2.

low anterior resection

 

3.

Visualization of the sigmoid colon using a scope

4.

Surgical wrapping of the stomach around the esophagus and suturing it to itself, usually for gastric reflux

5.

cystectomy

 

6.

hemicolectomy

 

7.

lap-cholecystectomy

 

8.

Abdominal approach to resection of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries

9.

Surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland

10.

splenectomy

 

11.

mastectomy

 

12.

resection of the affected colon, rectum and anus

13.

resection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, cervix and all recognizable lymph nodes

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noTeS

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Section 9: Medical conditions

cirrhosis

Chronic liver disease characterized by the destruction of liver cells, eventually leads to impaired liver function and jaundice

colitis

Inflammation of the colon or large intestine, usually due to infection

Crohn’s disease

Type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease, usually affects the distal ileum, but may affect any part of the GI tract from the lips to the anus

cystitis

Inflammation of the urinary bladder, usually due to infection

diverticulosis

Condition characterized by the presence of diverticula (abnormal outpouchings of the intestinal wall); if the diverticula are inflamed, the condition is called diverticulitis

endometriosis

When fragments of the lining of the uterus migrate out through the fallopian tubes into the pelvis, becoming implanted in the peritoneum and causing severe pain

gastritis

Inflammation of the stomach, usually due to irritation, infection or stress

gastroenteritis

Inflammation of the stomach and small intestine, usually due to irritation or infection

hemorrhoid

Swollen, varicosed veins that protrude from the rectum and/or anorectal canal; may be internal or external

hepatitis

Inflammation of the liver, usually caused by viral infection; the infection is generally transmitted through blood products or sexual contact

hernia

The protrusion of an organ or structure through weakened abdominal tissue or membrane

nephritis

Inflammation of the kidney, usually due to infection

nephroma

Tumor arising from kidney tissue

pancreatitis

Inflammation of the pancreas, often resulting in damage to the tissue by digestive enzymes

peritonitis

Inflammation of the peritoneum, usually due to infection

prolapse

Slipping of the uterus or rectum from its usual position, usually due to stretching of the supportive ligaments

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SeLf-TeST

1. Inflammation of the urinary bladder, usually due to infection, is called

a. prolapse

b. hepatitis

c. cystitis

2. A tumor rising from the kidney is called a

a. nephritis

b. nephroma

c. nephrotomy

3. Inflammation of the colon or large intestine, usually due to infection, is called

a. colitis

b. colectomy

c. colpotomy

d. Crohn’s disease

4. A slipping of the uterus from its usual position due to a stretching of the supportive ligaments is known as

a. hernia

b. prolapse

c. pronate

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appendix a: answer Key to Self-Tests

SecTion 1: Word conSTrucTion

Word

first Word definition

Second Word definition

definition

cardi / ology

cardi = heart

ology = study of

study of the heart

vascu / litis

vascu = blood vessels

itis = inflammation

inflammation of blood vessels

bradycardia

brady = slow

cardia = heart

slow heart rate

cardiovascular

cardio = heart

vascular = blood

blood supply to the heart

nephritis

nephr = kidney

itis = inflamation

inflammation of the kidney

arthroscopy

arthro = joint

oscopy = viewing of

viewing of the joint

retroperitoneal

retro = behind

peritoneal = peritoneum

behind the peritoneum

transurethral

trans = through

urethral = urethra

through the urethra

peri-anal

peri = around

anal = anus

around the anus

transabdominal

trans = through

abdominal = abdomen

through the abdomen

colectomy

col = colon

ectomy = removal of

removal of the colon

arthritis

arthr = joint

itis = inflammation

inflammation of the joint

mammoplasty

mamm = breast

plasty = repair of

surgical repair of the breast

laparoscopy

laparo = abdomen

scopy = viewing of

viewing of the abdomen

peritonitis

periton(e) = peritoneum

itis = inflammation

inflammation of the peritoneum

ileostomy

ile = ileum

ostomy = an opening

an opening in the ileum

hypothermic

hypo = too little

thermic = temperature

below normal temperature

postoperative

post = after

operative = surgery

after surgery

cholecystitis

cholecyst = gall bladder

itis = inflammation

inflammation of the gall bladder

gastrotomy

gastr = stomach

otomy = incision

surgical incision into the stomach

hyperthermic

hyper = too high

thermic = temperature

above normal temperature

Medical Term

definition

1. splenectomy

Surgical removal of the spleen

2. cholecystectomy

Surgical removal of the gall bladder

3. arthroplasty

Surgical repair of a joint

4. gastrotomy

Creation of an opening in the stomach

5. gastrectomy

Surgical removal of all of the stomach

6. laparoscopy

Visualization of the abdomen using a scope/camera

7. mammoplasty

Surgical repair of the breast or breasts

8. peritonitis

Inflammation of the peritoneum

9. cystectomy

Surgical removal of the urinary bladder

10. mobilization

freeing up or separating of tissue from surrounding structures or organs

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SecTion 2: PoSiTion and direcTion

1. If a surgeon refers to something as having a lateral course, or a feature or organ that proceeds across, they are referring to which term?

a. transverse

b. ascending

c. descending

2. If a clinician refers to something being situated below a particular structure, it is

a. anterior

b. posterior

c. inferior

3. A patient in the “prone” position would be lying on his/her

a. back

b. side

c. front

4. If the point of origin is the duodenum, the ileum is

a. distal

b. proximal

c. superior

d. medial

in relationship.

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A. superior B. posterior C. inferior D. anterior E. medial F. lateral COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN with
A. superior B. posterior C. inferior D. anterior E. medial F. lateral COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN with

A. superior

B. posterior

C. inferior

D. anterior

E. medial

F. lateral

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1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. lateral lithotomy reverse Trendelenberg supine Trendelenberg prone COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN
1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. lateral lithotomy reverse Trendelenberg supine Trendelenberg prone COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN
1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. lateral lithotomy reverse Trendelenberg supine Trendelenberg prone COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN
1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. lateral lithotomy reverse Trendelenberg supine Trendelenberg prone COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN
1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. lateral lithotomy reverse Trendelenberg supine Trendelenberg prone COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN
1 . 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. lateral lithotomy reverse Trendelenberg supine Trendelenberg prone COVIDIEN, COVIDIEN

lateral

lithotomy

reverse Trendelenberg

supine

Trendelenberg

prone

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SecTion 3: aBdoMinaL anaToMy

1. The proximal portion of the small bowel is called the

a. ileum

b. duodenum

c. jejunum

d. appendix

2. The appendix comes off of what part of the intestines?

a. ascending colon

b. cecum

c. ileum

d. descending colon

3. Which organ is located in the upper left quadrant and is responsible for disintegrating red blood cells?

a. kidney

b. liver

c. pancreas

d. spleen

Medical Term

definition

1. ileum

the distal portion of the small intestine

2. liver

stores and filters blood, located in the upper right quadrant

3. sigmoid colon

the S-shaped end of the colon that leads to the rectum

Medical Term

definition

1. colitis

Inflammation of the colon

2. inferior mesenteric artery

Blood supply to and from the left colon, sigmoid, and rectum

3. appendectomy

Surgical removal of the appendix

4. colostomy

Surgical creation of an opening between the colon and surface of the abdomen, usually to allow elimination of bowel content

5. abdominoplasty

Surgical repair of the abdomen

6. laparoscopy

Visual examination of the abdomen using a scope/camera

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SecTion 4: PeLvic anaToMy

mEDICAL tErm

DEfINItION

1. ovaries

Almond-shaped structure responsible for generating the egg in females

2. perineum

the region between the anus and external genitalia

3. pubis

Pelvic bone; the bladder rests on it

4. uterus

A hollow, pear-shaped structure suspended in the female pelvic cavity

5. nephritis

Inflammation of the kidney

6. cystectomy

Surgical removal of the urinary bladder

7. ureteroscopy

Visualization of the ureter using a scope/camera

8. renal

referring to the kidney

9. TURP

transurethral resection of the prostate

1. The structure that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder is called the

a. urethra

b. ureter

c. uterus

d. prostate

2. The structure that acts as a transport tube for the female eggs to travel to the uterus is the

a. ovary

b. cervix

c. perineum

d. fallopian tube

3. What is the suspensory ligament for the posterior aspect of the uterus that contains the uterine artery?

a. round ligament

b. cardinal ligament

c. uterosacral ligament

d. ovarian ligament

mEDICAL tErm

DEfINItION

1. urethra

membranous tube that carries urine from the bladder to the external exit of the body

2. inguinal

pertains to the groin

3. hysteroscopy

visualization of the uterus using a scope/camera

4. perineum

the region located between the anus and the external genitalia

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SecTion 5: Head and necK anaToMy and TerMinoLogy

1. The generic term for jaw is the

a. torso

b. crucible

c. tactile

d. mandible

2. The gland located just above the jaw near the ear is the

a. tricuspid

b. carotid

c. parotid

d. thyroid

3. If a surgeon is surgically removing the endocrine gland in the neck that surrounds the upper rings of the trachea, he or she is performing a

a. parotidectomy

b. thyroidectomy

c. septoplexy

4. The muscles that lie on each side of the Adam’s apple and run from the collar bone up under the jaw are known as the

a. lat muscles

b. flap muscles

c. strap muscles

5. The term for any of the large vessels that return blood to the heart from the head and neck is

a. carotid

b. jugular

c. epiploic

d. mesenteric

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SecTion 6: oTHer anaToMy

anatomy

definition

 

larynx

passageway between the oral cavity and the lungs

 

esophagus

passageway between the pharynx and the stomach

 

sphincter

a

circular shaped muscle that surrounds a natural opening

 
 

peritoneum

serous membrane lining the pelvic and abdominal walls

 

duct

a

tube or hollow structure

kidney

filters toxins, waste, and ingested water and minerals

 

artery

vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart and lungs to the body

vein

vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the body to the heart and lungs

lumen

the inside of a tube-shaped structure; e.g., blood vessel

 

fundus

the upper portion of a hollow structure or organ; e.g., uterus or stomach

ImA (general)

inferior mesenteric artery

 

1.

The term for high blood pressure is

a. extension

b. hypotension

c. hypertension

d. normotension

2.

The term intra-abdominal refers to structures

the abdomen.

a. outside

b. inside

c. above

d. below

3.

All of the following prefixes are used to describe a structure’s location except

a. endo -

b. poly -

c. inter -

d. sub -

5.

The suffix -pathy means

a. deficiency

b. disease (any type)

c. tumor (or other type of growth)

d. nourishment or development

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SecTion 7: TerMinoLogy

Medical Term

definition

1. distended

Being enlarged

2. transection

refers to the cutting of tissue

3. metastasis

Process by which tumor cells multiply and spread to other organs

4. in vivo

refers to the biological process performed in the body

5. necrosis

the death and breakdown of tissue

6. stricture

Narrowing of a canal, duct or other passage

7. abscess

Collection of pus, usually as a result of infection

8. edema

Swelling caused by a collection of large amounts of fluid in tissue

9. chronic

refers to long duration and frequent occurrence

10. benign

A tumor that is not cancerous and does not spread to other sites

11. anastomosis

the joining of two (natural or man-made) tube-shaped structures; e.g., blood vessels or bowel

Medical Term

definition

1. peristalsis

involuntary muscle contractions occuring in a tubular structure

2. aspirate

to withdraw air or fluid

3. lipoma

a benign tumor containing fat

4. anemic

a condition marked by a decrease in red blood cells

 

5. sub-costal

below the rib

6. hematoma

collection of blood that has escaped from vessels and become trapped in the tissue of the skin or in an organ

7. resection

the surgical removal of an organ or structure

 

8. palpate

to examine by hand; light pressure with the fingers

 

9. lesion

pathological change in tissue, an injury or wound to tissue

10.

ischemia

temporary lack of blood supply to an area

 

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SecTion 8: SurgicaL ProcedureS

Procedure

definition (include all structures being removed)

1. laparoscopy

visual examination of the abdomen using a scope/camera

2. low anterior resection

surgical removal of the affected distal colon and portion of the proximal rectum

3. sigmoidoscopy

Visualization of the sigmoid colon using a scope

4. Nissen fundoplication

Surgical wrapping of the stomach around the esophagus and suturing it to itself, usually for gastric reflux

5. cystectomy

surgical removal of the urinary bladder

6. hemicolectomy

surgical removal of half the colon

7. lap-cholecystectomy

resecting the gall bladder using laparoscopic approach

8. TAH-BSO

Abdominal approach to resection of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries

9. prostatectomy

Surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland

10. splenectomy

surgical removal of the spleen

11. mastectomy

surgical removal of the breast

12. abdominal perineal resection

resection of the affected colon, rectum and anus

13. radical hysterectomy

resection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, cervix and all recognizable lymph nodes

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SecTion 9: MedicaL condiTionS

1. Inflammation of the urinary bladder, usually due to infection, is called

a. prolapse

b. hepatitis

c. cystitis

2. A tumor rising from the kidney is called a

a. nephritis

b. nephroma

c. nephrotomy

3. Inflammation of the colon or large intestine, usually due to infection, is called

a. colitis

b. colectomy

c. colpotomy

d. Crohn’s disease

4. A slipping of the uterus from its usual position due to a stretching of the supportive ligaments is known as

a. hernia

b. prolapse

c. pronate

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