Sei sulla pagina 1di 38

# Magnetic Circuits (II)

Example 3

r=2000

## 5% cross-section increase for

fringing in airgap

## Find: (a) total reluctance of the flux path;

(b) current required to produce B = 0.5 T in the air gap;
(c) inductance of the coil.

Example 4

## N = 400, A = 150 cm2

lc = 55 cm

M5 Steel at DC

(1) How much is current required to produce 0.016Wb of flux in the core?
(2) What is cores relative permeability at that current level?
(3) What is its reluctance and inductance at this level?

Example 5
Find self and mutual inductances.

N2 turns

N1 turns

g
0 Ag

1 = L11 I1 + L12 I 2
2 = L21 I1 + L22 I 2

(1) Let I2 = 0
I1

Rg =

N2 turns

N1 turns

Rg

N1 I1 +_

(2) Let I1 = 0

I2
N2 turns

N1 turns
r

Rg

_
+ N2I2

Example 6
Find self and mutual inductances.
g1
g2
R
=
R
=
N2 turns
g1
0 Ag1 g 2 0 Ag 2

I2
I1
g1

N1 turns

1 = L11 I1 + L12 I 2
2 = L21 I1 + L22 I 2

g2
r

(1) Let I2 = 0

(2) Let I1 = 0

R g1

Rg 2

Rg 2

## Why Use Airgap for Inductor? (2)

After opening an airgap

g =1 mm air gap

## Magnetic Fringing (More Accurate)

wd

+ 0.52( w + d ) + 0.308 g
Pg = 0
g

Pg = 1 / R g

permeance

Leakage Flux

Magnetic Materials

## Br remnant flux or residue flux

Hc coercive flux or coercivity

## Hard Material Circuit Analysis (1)

g
cross section area Am

_
Fm

Hc

Actual direction of Hm

From

= Bg Ag = Bm Am
Bm = Bg

Ag
Am

Hm

## Device line: Bm=(Br/Hc)(Hm+Hc)

= 0rHm +Br

Fm = H m d m
From magnetic circuit

Fg = H g g
Fm + Fg = 0

H mdm + H g g = 0
Hg =

d m Ag
Hm
g Am

Br
Bm = Bg

dm

dm
Hm
g

dm
Bg = 0 H g = 0
Hm
g

## Hard Material Circuit Analysis (2)

cross section area Am

maximum BH product

_
Fm

Hc

Actual direction of Hm

From

Br
Bm = Bg

dm

## cross section area Ag

= Bg Ag = Bm Am

Hm

Bg = Bm

Am
Ag

Vol mag

dm
d A
d
From Bg = 0
H m Bg2 = 0 m H m Bg = 0 m m ( H m Bm )
g
g
gAg
Vol mag =

Vol gap

0 ( H m Bm )

2
g

Vol gap

## The required volume of magnet can be minimized by operating the magnet at

the point of maximum BH (or energy) product.

## Maximum Energy Point

Br
Bm
Hc
=
Bm

Hm

Br
H m + Br
Hc

To get (- Bm H m ) max

H
Br
Bm H m =
H m2 + Br H m
Hc

( Bm H m )
Hc
Br

=
0 Bm = , H m =

H m
2
2

## Soft Magnetic Materials

Ferrite materials
Carbon steels
Silicon steels
High saturation alloys
Amorphous ferromagnetic alloys
Soft magnetic powder composites
Nanostructured materials

## Ferrite Materials (1)

3C81 is from Philips, USA.

## Ferrite Materials (2)

3F3 is from Philips, USA.

## Ferrite Materials (3)

4F1 is from Philips, USA.

## www.eng-tips.com Magnetic Engineering Forums

Maxwell SV Software

## www.eng-tips.com Magnetic Engineering Forums

Maxwell SV Software

## www.eng-tips.com Magnetic Engineering Forums

Maxwell SV Software

## Nonoriented Silicon Steel

Fe-Si alloys with random orientation of crystal cubes and practically have the same
properties in any direction in the plane of the sheet.

Armco M-19

M-19 means core losses shall be below 1.9 W/lb at 1.5 T and 60 Hz.
J. F. Gieras, Advancements in Electric Machines, Springer, 2008.

## High Frequency Electric Steel (1)

To reduce core loss, laminations with thin gauges are manufactured.
ArnonTM 5 is from Arnold Magnetic Technologies Corp., Rochester, NY, USA.

## High Frequency Electric Steel (2)

Cogent Power Ltd., Newport, UK. www.cogent-power.com

## High Saturation Alloys

Fe-Co alloys with Co contents from 15 to 50% have the highest known
saturation flux density and highest Curie temperature of any alloy family..
Hiperco50 is from Carpenter, USA.

## Vacoflux50 B-H curve

Vacoflux50 is from Vacuumschmelze, Hanau, Germany.

## Amorphous Ferromagnetic Materials (1)

www.ammtechnologies.com

## Soft Magnetic Powder Composites (1)

Soft magnetic powder composites are composed of iron powder, dielectric
(epoxy resin) and filler (glass or carbon fibers) for mechanical strengthening.
Accucore from TSC Ferrite International, Wadsworth, IL. www.tscinternational.com

## Soft Magnetic Powder Composites (2)

SomaloyTM 500 from Hgans, Sweden.

## Soft Magnetic Powder Composites (3)

SomaloyTM 500 from Hgans, Sweden.