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Magnetic Circuits (II)

Example 3

r=2000

5% cross-section increase for


fringing in airgap

Find: (a) total reluctance of the flux path;


(b) current required to produce B = 0.5 T in the air gap;
(c) inductance of the coil.

Example 4

N = 400, A = 150 cm2


lc = 55 cm

M5 Steel at DC

(1) How much is current required to produce 0.016Wb of flux in the core?
(2) What is cores relative permeability at that current level?
(3) What is its reluctance and inductance at this level?

Example 5
Find self and mutual inductances.

N2 turns

N1 turns

g
0 Ag

1 = L11 I1 + L12 I 2
2 = L21 I1 + L22 I 2

(1) Let I2 = 0
I1

Rg =

N2 turns

N1 turns

Rg

N1 I1 +_

(2) Let I1 = 0

I2
N2 turns

N1 turns
r

Rg

_
+ N2I2

Example 6
Find self and mutual inductances.
g1
g2
R
=
R
=
N2 turns
g1
0 Ag1 g 2 0 Ag 2

I2
I1
g1

N1 turns

1 = L11 I1 + L12 I 2
2 = L21 I1 + L22 I 2

g2
r

(1) Let I2 = 0

(2) Let I1 = 0

R g1

Rg 2

Rg 2

Why Use Airgap for Inductor? (1)

Why Use Airgap for Inductor? (2)


After opening an airgap

g =1 mm air gap

Magnetic Fringing (More Accurate)

wd

+ 0.52( w + d ) + 0.308 g
Pg = 0
g

Pg = 1 / R g

permeance

Leakage Flux

Magnetic Materials

Hysteresis Loop for Ferromagnetic Materials

Br remnant flux or residue flux


Hc coercive flux or coercivity

Magnetization Curves for Hard Materials (I)

Magnetization Curves for Hard Materials (II)

1T = 10 kGauss, 1A/m = 0.01257 Oe or 1 Oe = 79.6 A/m

Hard Magnetic Material Properties

From Yeadon Handbook of Small Electric Motors

Hard Material Circuit Analysis (1)


g
cross section area Am

_
Fm

Hc

Actual direction of Hm

From

cross section area Ag

= Bg Ag = Bm Am
Bm = Bg

Ag
Am

Hm

Device line: Bm=(Br/Hc)(Hm+Hc)


= 0rHm +Br

Fm = H m d m
From magnetic circuit

Fg = H g g
Fm + Fg = 0

H mdm + H g g = 0
Hg =

d m Ag
Hm
Load line: Bm = 0
g Am

Br
Bm = Bg

dm

dm
Hm
g

dm
Bg = 0 H g = 0
Hm
g

Hard Material Circuit Analysis (2)


cross section area Am

maximum BH product

_
Fm

Hc

Actual direction of Hm

From

Br
Bm = Bg

dm

Device line: Bm= 0rHm +Br

cross section area Ag

= Bg Ag = Bm Am

Hm

Bg = Bm

Am
Ag

Vol mag

dm
d A
d
From Bg = 0
H m Bg2 = 0 m H m Bg = 0 m m ( H m Bm )
g
g
gAg
Vol mag =

Vol gap

0 ( H m Bm )

2
g

Vol gap

The required volume of magnet can be minimized by operating the magnet at


the point of maximum BH (or energy) product.

Maximum Energy Point

Br
Bm
Hc
=
Bm

Hm

Br
H m + Br
Hc

To get (- Bm H m ) max

H
Br
Bm H m =
H m2 + Br H m
Hc

( Bm H m )
Hc
Br

=
0 Bm = , H m =

H m
2
2

Soft Magnetic Materials


Ferrite materials
Carbon steels
Silicon steels
High saturation alloys
Amorphous ferromagnetic alloys
Soft magnetic powder composites
Nanostructured materials

Soft Magnetic Material Properties

From Yeadon Handbook of Small Electric Motors

Ferrite Materials (1)


3C81 is from Philips, USA.

Philips Components, 3C81Material Grade Specification, 1997

Ferrite Materials (2)


3F3 is from Philips, USA.

Philips Components, 3F3Material Grade Specification, 2000

Ferrite Materials (3)


4F1 is from Philips, USA.

Philips Components, 4F1Material Grade Specification, 2000

Carbon Steel 1008

www.eng-tips.com Magnetic Engineering Forums


Maxwell SV Software

Carbon Steel 1010

www.eng-tips.com Magnetic Engineering Forums


Maxwell SV Software

Carbon Steel 1018

www.eng-tips.com Magnetic Engineering Forums


Maxwell SV Software

Nonoriented Silicon Steel


Fe-Si alloys with random orientation of crystal cubes and practically have the same
properties in any direction in the plane of the sheet.

Armco M-19

M-19 means core losses shall be below 1.9 W/lb at 1.5 T and 60 Hz.
J. F. Gieras, Advancements in Electric Machines, Springer, 2008.

Armco M-27, 36 and 43

High Frequency Electric Steel (1)


To reduce core loss, laminations with thin gauges are manufactured.
ArnonTM 5 is from Arnold Magnetic Technologies Corp., Rochester, NY, USA.

High Frequency Electric Steel (2)


Cogent Power Ltd., Newport, UK. www.cogent-power.com

J. F. Gieras, Advancements in Electric Machines, Springer, 2008.

High Saturation Alloys


Fe-Co alloys with Co contents from 15 to 50% have the highest known
saturation flux density and highest Curie temperature of any alloy family..
Hiperco50 is from Carpenter, USA.

Hiperco50 Core Loss

Vacoflux50 B-H curve


Vacoflux50 is from Vacuumschmelze, Hanau, Germany.

Amorphous Ferromagnetic Materials (1)

www.ammtechnologies.com

J. F. Gieras, Advancements in Electric Machines, Springer, 2008.

Amorphous Ferromagnetic Materials (2)

Soft Magnetic Powder Composites (1)


Soft magnetic powder composites are composed of iron powder, dielectric
(epoxy resin) and filler (glass or carbon fibers) for mechanical strengthening.
Accucore from TSC Ferrite International, Wadsworth, IL. www.tscinternational.com

Soft Magnetic Powder Composites (2)


SomaloyTM 500 from Hgans, Sweden.

Soft Magnetic Powder Composites (3)


SomaloyTM 500 from Hgans, Sweden.

Soft Magnetic Nanocrystalline Composites