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INVESTIGATIONS

Hypothesis

phenomenon they will as questions as to how

or why it happens . A hypothesis will be put

forth and experiments or scientific

investigations will be carried out to prove or

disprove the hypothesis. If the experiments

bear out the hypothesis, the hypothesis may

come to regarded as theory or law of nature. If

the dont the hypothesis will be rejected or

modified.

In any experiment , the report on the

experiment will be based on these guidelines

and follows a sequence as shown in the

following flow chart:

between a manipulated variable and a

responding variable.

The hypothesis should be written as :

The greater the, the greater the.

Or

The bigger the., the smaller the..

Manipulated variable

The quantity whose values we deliberately choose

to change or a primary variable which causes other

secondary variable to change.

Responding variable

The quantity whose value depend on the

manipulated variable or a secondary variable

which changes in response to the change in the

manipulated variable.

Fixed variable

The quantity whose value is kept constant

throughout the experiment.

Aim

A statement to show the investigation of the

variables involve.

The aim of the experiment should be written as:

To investigate the relationship between ..and

Inference

Apparatus

the questions raised.

least a set of data for manipulated and responding

variables can be determined.

depend on.

Or

The ..changes as the

...changes

function by drawing a labeling diagram .

Procedure

State the method of controlling the manipulated

variables

21

variables

Repeat the experiments at least four times.

form number.

For example

Temperature /oC

Density, / kg m-3

x 104

Manipulated variable

Responding variable

10

9.7

20

8.5

30

7.3

40

6.6

50

5.1

The title of the graph must be shown.

The axes of the graph must be labeled with the unit

used.

For example:

Plot a graph of ( Responding variable) against

(Manipulated variable)

How to tabulate the data ?

The table must be neatly drawn and the data

arranged in either and rows.

The names and symbols of the manipulated and

responding variables must be written together with

the units.

For example,

Scales such 1:1 , 1:2 , 1:5 ,1:10 ,1:100 are

proffered in plotting a graph.

Odd scales such as 1:3 , 1:4 , 1: 6 , 1:7 , 1: 30

should be avoided in plotting a graph.

Make sure the area covered by the plotted points

must not be less than 50% of the area of the graph

paper.

Velocity, v / s

Time , t / s

Volume , V / m3

For example:

Pressure , P / Pa

the number of decimal places in accordance with

the respective measuring instruments.

For example,

Length, l / cm

Time , t /s

0

12.8

2

25.6

4

39.4

6

52.2

8

75.0

marked with value.

For example:

22

or y x

or y = kx k = constant

or y = mx m = gradient

or y1 = y2

x1

x2

cross or circle and the centre of the cross must

accurately positioned.

The best straight line or the best curve graph must

be drawn.

The best straight line or the best curve graph is the

line that passes through most of the points plotted

such that it is balanced by the number of points

above and below the line. The line also must

smooth.

or y = mx + c

m = gradient

c = intercept on axis-y

or y = -mx + c

m = gradient

c = intercept on axis-y

point because the graph obtained is not smooth.

y is inversely proportional to x

or y 1

x

or y = k

x

k = constant

or y1 x1 = y2 x2

How to analyze the data ?

(a) Determine the relationship between two

variables.

Example :

y is directly proportional to x.

23

Example

the gradient of the graph.

State value of the gradient with correct unit.

The gradient of the graph is

m = y2 - y1

x2 - x1

= QR

QR

(c)

Certain important values can be obtained from

the graph plotted by drawing a horizontal line

or by extrapolating the graph.

For example:

The circuit connections must be taken

Off the switch when taking the reading of the

meters.

Make sure the amplitude of oscillation is small.

24

TUTORIAL 4

1

0

0

5

1.7

10

2.5

15

3.4

20

4.2

B Time,t /s

Density, /

kgm-3

2

2000

4

5000

6

8000

8

11000

10

14000

C Period, T

/s

Distance, d

/m

10.5

15.3

19.8

27.9

36.0

2.5

3.3

4.6

5.8

6.9

D Object

distance

,u / cm

Image

distance,

v / cm

5.1

8.7

11.6

16.5

18.6

2.3

6.9

11.6

suitable to plot a graph?

A

C

increases linearly with x?

directly proportional to the extension x of

spring if its elastic limit is not exceeded. Which

of the following graphs shows the Hookes

Law?

proportional to the mass, m of the object

under constant force.

Which of the following graphs describes the

relationship between a and m .

tabulate the data ?

A Voltage,V

Current,I

1 cm : 3 unit

1 cm : 6 unit

B

D

1 cm : 5 unit

1 cm : 8.8 unit

25

relationship between mass and acceleration of

a trolley on a wooden runway.

The experiment is repeated by adding the

number of trolleys.

The responding variable in this experiment is

A

B

C

temperature 60oC ?

A

C

E

manipulated variable

responding variable

fixed variable

- 1.5

0.7

1.5

B

D

47

93

- 0.7

1.0

A

C

P = 10Q + 5

P = -2Q + 10

B

D

P = 2Q + 10

P = 5Q 10

V.

above?

A

C

11

B

D

14

10

35

86

180

13

gradient of the graph?

A

C

E

electric conductor is given as R = r + aT with

r as the resistance at 0oC and a as a

constant.

A graph of R against T is shown .

acceleration

mass

of the pendulum and time for 20 oscillations

are recorded.

The length of the pendulum is a

A

B

C

12

m

ms2

B

D

m2 s

ms- 2

Which of the following shows the correct

relationship between U and V?

Q on axis-y against a physical quantity ,R on

axis x

The relationship between Q and R is given by

as Q - aR = b , where a and b are constants.

The gradient of the graph is

A

C

a

b

b

B

D

R

Q

a

U=mV +m

n

U=-mV +m

n

U=mV + n

n

U=-nV +m

m

C

D

26

15

proportional to the absolute temperature, T of

the gas.

When P = 100 ,T = 50. What is the value of P

when T = 400.

A

C

E

16

0.8A

200

2000

B

D

19

125

800

is inversely proportional to the volume of the

gas.

The pressure of a bubble under sea surface is

120 cm Hg Pa and its volume is 15.8 cm3.

When the bubble rises to the surface of the

sea the pressure of the bubble is 76 cm Hg.

What is the volume of the bubble at the

surface of the sea?

A

C

E

10.0 cm3

124.8 cm3

577.2 cm3

B

D

25.0 cm3

309.1 cm3

17

An object is released from

a height , h and

the time taken to reach the ground is t.2

h/m

20

x

t/s

2

4

If h is directly proportional to t 2 , what is the

value of x in the table above.

A

C

E

18

10 m

80 m

240 m

B

D

out the relationship between the change in

length , y , of a spring and mass, m , of the

load on the spring. The arrangement of the

apparatus for the experiment is shown in

Figure 1 . The length of the spring when a

load is placed on the piston is l .

load. The length of the spring is lo . The actual

length of lo is shown in Figure 2.

The experiment is repeated by using load with

mass , m , equal to 0.5 kg , 1.0 kg , 1.5 kg ,

2.0 kg and 2.5 kg. The actual lengths of the

spring when the different masses are used are

shown in Figure 3, Figure 4 , Figure 5 ,

Figure 6 and Figure 7.

40 m

160 m

that the gravitational force of attraction, F

between two point masses is inversely

proportional to the square of the distance ,R

between them.

If the distance between them is 3R, what is

the gravitational force of attraction ?

A 9F

B 3F

C F

D F

3

E F

27

28

the experiment state the:

(i)

manipulated variable

________________________________

(ii)

responding variable

_________________________________

(iii)

constant variable

________________________________

against m.

Figure 2.

lo = ___________________

relationship between y and m .

Figure 3 , Figure 4 , Figure 5 , Figure 6

and Figure 7 when different load are

used.

_________________________________

_________________________________

length, y , of the spring where;

y = ( lo l )

Tabulate your results for m ,l and y in the

space below.

29

30

Graph T2 against l

T2 / s2

l / cm

0

20

40

60

80

100

31

l/cm

20

investigate the relationship between the

length of a simple oscillating pendulum ,l ,

with its period, T.

The experiment is repeated using different

lengths, l, and their corresponding periods,

T, are recorded. A graph of T2 against l , is

then plotted as shown above.

(a) Based on the graph,

(i) State the relationship between T2

with l.

..

..

(ii) Calculate period, T, when the

length

l = 45 cm.

(Show your working)

(b)

from (a)(iii) and the equation,

gravity , g.

(c)

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

22

21

slow about 2 minutes.

Pak Ali raised the position of the bob to

correct the clock.

Based on the observations:

(a) State one suitable inference that can be

made.

(b) State one appropriate hypothesis for an

investigation.

(c) With the use of apparatus such as

pendulum bob , string and other

apparatus, describe an experimental

framework to test your hypothesis.

In your description, state clearly the

following:

(i) Aim of the experiment

(ii) Variables in the experiment

(iii) List of apparatus and materials

(iv) Arrangement of the apparatus

(v) The procedure of the experiment

which include the method of

controlling the manipulated variable

and the method of measuring the

responding variable

(vi) Way you would tabulate the data

(vii) Way you would analysis the data

against V , where W and V are the distances

on a wooden rod.

(a)

(i)

manipulated variable

________________________________

(ii)

responding variable

_________________________________

(b) Calculate the gradient of the graph.

(c)

(i) axis- W

....................................................

(ii)

diagram below.

axis-V

.....................................................

...............................................................

49

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