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LESSON 4 - SCIENTIFIC

INVESTIGATIONS
Hypothesis

When physicists observe a particular physical


phenomenon they will as questions as to how
or why it happens . A hypothesis will be put
forth and experiments or scientific
investigations will be carried out to prove or
disprove the hypothesis. If the experiments
bear out the hypothesis, the hypothesis may
come to regarded as theory or law of nature. If
the dont the hypothesis will be rejected or
modified.
In any experiment , the report on the
experiment will be based on these guidelines
and follows a sequence as shown in the
following flow chart:

A general statement about the relationship


between a manipulated variable and a
responding variable.
The hypothesis should be written as :
The greater the, the greater the.
Or
The bigger the., the smaller the..
Manipulated variable
The quantity whose values we deliberately choose
to change or a primary variable which causes other
secondary variable to change.
Responding variable
The quantity whose value depend on the
manipulated variable or a secondary variable
which changes in response to the change in the
manipulated variable.
Fixed variable
The quantity whose value is kept constant
throughout the experiment.
Aim
A statement to show the investigation of the
variables involve.
The aim of the experiment should be written as:
To investigate the relationship between ..and

Inference

Apparatus

Early assessment that is carried out to answer


the questions raised.

List the apparatus and materials used so that at


least a set of data for manipulated and responding
variables can be determined.

The inference should be written as :


depend on.
Or
The ..changes as the
...changes

State the arrangement of the apparatus that can


function by drawing a labeling diagram .
Procedure
State the method of controlling the manipulated
variables

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State the method of measuring the responding


variables
Repeat the experiments at least four times.

If the data too small or too big use the standard


form number.

Tabulating the data


For example
Temperature /oC
Density, / kg m-3
x 104

Record the data in the following table


Manipulated variable

Responding variable

10
9.7

20
8.5

30
7.3

40
6.6

50
5.1

How to plot the graph ?


The title of the graph must be shown.
The axes of the graph must be labeled with the unit
used.
For example:

Analyzing the data


Plot a graph of ( Responding variable) against
(Manipulated variable)
How to tabulate the data ?
The table must be neatly drawn and the data
arranged in either and rows.
The names and symbols of the manipulated and
responding variables must be written together with
the units.
For example,

The scale chosen must be easy to use.


Scales such 1:1 , 1:2 , 1:5 ,1:10 ,1:100 are
proffered in plotting a graph.
Odd scales such as 1:3 , 1:4 , 1: 6 , 1:7 , 1: 30
should be avoided in plotting a graph.
Make sure the area covered by the plotted points
must not be less than 50% of the area of the graph
paper.

Velocity, v / s
Time , t / s
Volume , V / m3

For example:

Pressure , P / Pa

The data shown in the table must be consistent in


the number of decimal places in accordance with
the respective measuring instruments.
For example,
Length, l / cm
Time , t /s
0
12.8
2
25.6
4
39.4
6
52.2
8
75.0

The scale on the axes must be uniform and clearly


marked with value.
For example:

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or y x
or y = kx k = constant
or y = mx m = gradient
or y1 = y2
x1
x2

All the points are marked with a symbol such as a


cross or circle and the centre of the cross must
accurately positioned.
The best straight line or the best curve graph must
be drawn.
The best straight line or the best curve graph is the
line that passes through most of the points plotted
such that it is balanced by the number of points
above and below the line. The line also must
smooth.

y increases linearly with x


or y = mx + c
m = gradient
c = intercept on axis-y

y decreases linearly with x


or y = -mx + c
m = gradient
c = intercept on axis-y

It is not advisable to plot graph by joining point to


point because the graph obtained is not smooth.

y is inversely proportional to x
or y 1
x
or y = k
x
k = constant
or y1 x1 = y2 x2
How to analyze the data ?
(a) Determine the relationship between two
variables.
Example :

y is directly proportional to x.

(b) Determine the gradient of the graph


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Example

Draw a sufficiently large triangle to calculate


the gradient of the graph.
State value of the gradient with correct unit.
The gradient of the graph is
m = y2 - y1
x2 - x1
= QR
QR
(c)

Determine the certain values from the graph.


Certain important values can be obtained from
the graph plotted by drawing a horizontal line
or by extrapolating the graph.

(d) State the precautions should be taken


For example:
The circuit connections must be taken
Off the switch when taking the reading of the
meters.
Make sure the amplitude of oscillation is small.

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TUTORIAL 4
1

0
0

5
1.7

10
2.5

15
3.4

20
4.2

B Time,t /s
Density, /
kgm-3

2
2000

4
5000

6
8000

8
11000

10
14000

C Period, T
/s
Distance, d
/m

10.5

15.3

19.8

27.9

36.0

2.5

3.3

4.6

5.8

6.9

D Object
distance
,u / cm
Image
distance,
v / cm

5.1

8.7

11.6

16.5

18.6

2.3

6.9

11.6

Which of the following scales is the most


suitable to plot a graph?
A
C

Which of the following graphs show that y


increases linearly with x?

Hookes law states that applied force F is


directly proportional to the extension x of
spring if its elastic limit is not exceeded. Which
of the following graphs shows the Hookes
Law?

The acceleration, a of an object is inversely


proportional to the mass, m of the object
under constant force.
Which of the following graphs describes the
relationship between a and m .

Which of the following is the best way to


tabulate the data ?

A Voltage,V
Current,I

1 cm : 3 unit
1 cm : 6 unit

B
D

1 cm : 5 unit
1 cm : 8.8 unit

Which of the following is the best graph ?

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An experiment is carried out to find the


relationship between mass and acceleration of
a trolley on a wooden runway.
The experiment is repeated by adding the
number of trolleys.
The responding variable in this experiment is
A
B
C

What is the resistance ,R of the conductor at a


temperature 60oC ?
A
C
E

manipulated variable
responding variable
fixed variable

- 1.5
0.7
1.5

B
D

47
93

- 0.7
1.0

A
C

P = 10Q + 5
P = -2Q + 10

B
D

P = 2Q + 10
P = 5Q 10

The following figure shows a graph U versus


V.

What is the unit of the gradient of the graph


above?
A
C

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B
D

The equation of the graph above is

14

10

35
86
180

13

Based on the graph above, what is the


gradient of the graph?
A
C
E

The resistance R and temperature T for an


electric conductor is given as R = r + aT with
r as the resistance at 0oC and a as a
constant.
A graph of R against T is shown .

the length of the wooden runway.


acceleration
mass

In a simple pendulum experiment, the length


of the pendulum and time for 20 oscillations
are recorded.
The length of the pendulum is a
A
B
C

12

m
ms2

B
D

m2 s
ms- 2
Which of the following shows the correct
relationship between U and V?

A student plot a graph for a physical quantity ,


Q on axis-y against a physical quantity ,R on
axis x
The relationship between Q and R is given by
as Q - aR = b , where a and b are constants.
The gradient of the graph is
A
C

a
b
b

B
D

R
Q
a

U=mV +m
n

U=-mV +m
n
U=mV + n
n
U=-nV +m
m

C
D

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15

The pressure ,P of the gas is directly


proportional to the absolute temperature, T of
the gas.
When P = 100 ,T = 50. What is the value of P
when T = 400.
A
C
E

16

0.8A
200
2000

B
D

19

125
800

Boyle s law state that the pressure of the gas


is inversely proportional to the volume of the
gas.
The pressure of a bubble under sea surface is
120 cm Hg Pa and its volume is 15.8 cm3.
When the bubble rises to the surface of the
sea the pressure of the bubble is 76 cm Hg.
What is the volume of the bubble at the
surface of the sea?
A
C
E

10.0 cm3
124.8 cm3
577.2 cm3

B
D

25.0 cm3
309.1 cm3

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An object is released from
a height , h and
the time taken to reach the ground is t.2
h/m
20
x
t/s
2
4
If h is directly proportional to t 2 , what is the
value of x in the table above.
A
C
E
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10 m
80 m
240 m

B
D

A student carries out an experiment to find


out the relationship between the change in
length , y , of a spring and mass, m , of the
load on the spring. The arrangement of the
apparatus for the experiment is shown in
Figure 1 . The length of the spring when a
load is placed on the piston is l .

At the beginning of the experiment there is no


load. The length of the spring is lo . The actual
length of lo is shown in Figure 2.
The experiment is repeated by using load with
mass , m , equal to 0.5 kg , 1.0 kg , 1.5 kg ,
2.0 kg and 2.5 kg. The actual lengths of the
spring when the different masses are used are
shown in Figure 3, Figure 4 , Figure 5 ,
Figure 6 and Figure 7.

40 m
160 m

Newtons universal law of gravitation states


that the gravitational force of attraction, F
between two point masses is inversely
proportional to the square of the distance ,R
between them.
If the distance between them is 3R, what is
the gravitational force of attraction ?
A 9F
B 3F
C F
D F
3
E F

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(a) Based on the aim and the procedure of


the experiment state the:
(i)
manipulated variable
________________________________
(ii)

responding variable

_________________________________
(iii)

constant variable

________________________________

(c) On the graph paper , plot a graph of y


against m.

(b) Measure the length of the spring in


Figure 2.
lo = ___________________

(d) Based on your graph, state the


relationship between y and m .

Measure the lengths l of the spring in


Figure 3 , Figure 4 , Figure 5 , Figure 6
and Figure 7 when different load are
used.

_________________________________
_________________________________

In each case, calculate the change in


length, y , of the spring where;
y = ( lo l )
Tabulate your results for m ,l and y in the
space below.

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30

Graph T2 against l

T2 / s2

l / cm
0

20

40

60

80

100

31
l/cm

20

A student carries out an experiment to


investigate the relationship between the
length of a simple oscillating pendulum ,l ,
with its period, T.
The experiment is repeated using different
lengths, l, and their corresponding periods,
T, are recorded. A graph of T2 against l , is
then plotted as shown above.
(a) Based on the graph,
(i) State the relationship between T2
with l.
..

..
(ii) Calculate period, T, when the
length
l = 45 cm.
(Show your working)

(iii) Calculate the gradient of the graph.

(b)

Using the value of the gradient obtained


from (a)(iii) and the equation,

calculate the acceleration due to


gravity , g.

(c)

State one precaution for this experiment.

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33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

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21

Every day it was observed that the clock was


slow about 2 minutes.
Pak Ali raised the position of the bob to
correct the clock.
Based on the observations:
(a) State one suitable inference that can be
made.
(b) State one appropriate hypothesis for an
investigation.
(c) With the use of apparatus such as
pendulum bob , string and other
apparatus, describe an experimental
framework to test your hypothesis.
In your description, state clearly the
following:
(i) Aim of the experiment
(ii) Variables in the experiment
(iii) List of apparatus and materials
(iv) Arrangement of the apparatus
(v) The procedure of the experiment
which include the method of
controlling the manipulated variable
and the method of measuring the
responding variable
(vi) Way you would tabulate the data
(vii) Way you would analysis the data

The graph above represents graph W


against V , where W and V are the distances
on a wooden rod.
(a)

Based on the graph state the:


(i)

manipulated variable

________________________________
(ii)

responding variable

_________________________________
(b) Calculate the gradient of the graph.

(c)

Determine the intercept on


(i) axis- W
....................................................
(ii)

Pak Ali has a pendulum clock as shown in the


diagram below.

axis-V
.....................................................

(d) State the equation of the line


...............................................................

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