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Welded joints examples

Celsius355 NH

Welded Joints Examples

Contents

CONTENTS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

RHS T-Joint Moment in Plane 03


CHS Gap K-Joint 09
CHS Overlap K-Joint
12
RHS Gap K-Joint
15
RHS Overlap K-Joint
21
RHS Chord CHS Bracings Gap K-Joint 23
RHS Chord CHS Bracings Overlap K-Joint 82.7
29
RHS Chord CHS Bracings Overlap K-Joint 102.7 33
RHS Chord RHS Bracings Overlap KT-Joint 36
CHS Chord CHS Bracings Gap KT-Joint 41
CHS Chord CHS Bracings Overlap KT-Joint 46
UB Chord RHS Bracings Gap K-Joint
52

Welded Joints Examples

RHS T-Joint Moment In Plane

RHS T-Joint Moment In Plane

References are generally to Tata Steel publication Design of Welded Joints (unless otherwise stated).

RHS 150 x 150 x 8

Reference

N1,Ed = 19.2 kN
Mip,1,Ed = 54 kNm

90

Np,Ed = 350 kN
Mip,0,Ed = 16.6 kNm

N0,Ed = 136 kN
SHS 150 x 150 x 10
All material Celsius 355 to EN 10210 Mip,0,Ed = 35.8 kNm

Dimensions
b0 = 150 mm
h0 = 150 mm
t0 = 10.0 mm

b1 = 150 mm
h1 = 150 mm
t1 = 8.0 mm

Validity limits check


Chord:
(b0-3 t0)/t0 ; (h0-3 t0)/t0 38 (Class 1 or 2 compression)
38 = 38 (235/fy0) = 38(235/355) = 30.92
(b0-3 t0)/t0 = (150-3 x 10)/10 = 12
(h0-3 t0)/t0 = (150-3 x 10)/10 = 12

PASS
PASS

b0/t0 35
h0/t0 35

b0/t0 = 150/10 = 15
h0/t0 = 150/10 = 15

PASS
PASS

b1/t1 = 150/8 =18.75


h1/t1 = 150/8 =18.75

PASS
PASS

Compression brace:
bi/ti ; hi/ti 35

5.3.1 Figure 37

(EN 1993-1-1)
Table 5.2

Compression brace:
(b1-3 t1)/t1 ; (h1-3 t1)/t1 38 (Class 1 or 2 compression)
38 = 38 (235/fy0) = 38(235/355) = 30.92
(b1-3 t1)/t1 = (150-3 x 8)/8 = 15.75
(h1-3 t1)/t1 = (150-3 x 8)/8 = 15.75

PASS
PASS

0.25 bi/b0 1.0

b1/b0 = 150/150 = 1.0

PASS

0.5 h0/b0 2.0

h0/b0 = 150/150 = 1.0

PASS

0.5 hi/bi 2.0

h1/b1 = 150/150 = 1.0

PASS

30 i 90

1 = 90

PASS

(EN 1993-1-1)
Table 5.2

Welded Joints Examples

RHS T-Joint Moment In Plane

Reference
5.3.3

Axial: Chord face failure (deformation)


(valid when 0.85)

b1 150
=
= 1 .0
b 0 150

check not required

6.3

Although this check is not required in this particular case, the chord end stress
factor calculation for is shown below for information as it includes moments;
RHS chord end stress factor, kn
RHS chord most compressive
stress, 0,Ed;

0 ,Ed =

N0 ,Ed
A0

Mip,0 ,Ed
Wel ,ip,0

Mop,0 ,Ed

5.3.2.1

Wel ,op,0

Note: Moment is additive to compressive stress which is positive for moments. For
RHS chords use most compressive chord stress.
2

A0 = 54.9 cm = 5490 mm
0,Ed =

136 1000
54.9 10 2

35.8 1000 1000


236 10 3

0,Ed = 176.47 N / mm 2
Chord factored stress ratio, n;

176.47
n = 0,Ed =

fy 0 355

5.3.2.1

n = 0.497
Using formulae:

Using graph:

For n > 0 (compression):


k n = 1. 3

0 .4 n

k n = 1 .3

0.4 0.497
1 .0

5.3.2.1

but kn 1.0
From graph, for = 1.0;

1 .0
kn = 1.0

k n = 1.101 but 1.0 k n = 1.0


(However, not required in this case as chord deformation not critical as >0.85)

5.3.2.1
Fig. 38

Welded Joints Examples

RHS T-Joint Moment In Plane

Reference
5.3.3

Axial: Chord shear


(valid for X-joints with Cos 1 > h1/h0)
required.

Axial: Chord side wall buckling


(valid when = 1.0)

N1,Rd =

k n fb t 0
sin 1

As this is a T-joint with 1 = 90 this check is not

5.3.3
= 1.0 check required

2 h1

sin + 10 t 0 / M5
1

5.3.3

Chord side wall buckling strength, fb


For compression brace, T-joint:

h0
1

t 2 sin
i

0
= 3.46
E

f y0

= 3.46

150

10

5.3.2.3
2

where: E = 210000 N/mm

1
sin 90

6.1 (For E)

= 0.589

210000
355

Using formulae:

Using graph:

From EN 1993-1-1:2005, 6.3.1.2, flexural buckling


reduction factor, ;

(EN 1993-1-1)
Table 6.1

From EN 1993-1-1:2005, table 6.1, = 0.21 (curve a)

(EN 1993-1-1)
6.3.1.2

( ( ) )
= 0.5 (1 + 0.21 (0.589 0.2) + 0.589 ) = 0.714

= 0.5 1 + 0.2 + 2

but

1.0

+ 2 2

but

1.0

0.714 + 0.714 2 0.589 2


= 0.895
fb = f y 0

5.3.2.3
Fig. 40

= 0.895
(for T- and Y-joints with compression in bracing)

fb = 0.895 355 = 318 N/mm

N1,Rd =

From graph, for


= 0.589 ;

1.0 318 10
sin 90

2 150

+ 10 10 / 1.0
sin
90

5.3.2.3

Welded Joints Examples

RHS T-Joint Moment In Plane

Reference
Axial: Chord punching shear
(valid when 0.85 1 1/)

5.3.3

b0
150
=
= 7. 5
2 t0
2 10

0.85 1.0 1

6.3

1
= 0.867
7. 5

Check not required


Axial: Bracing failure (effective width)
(valid when 0.85)

5.3.3

= 1.0

6.3

check required
N1,Rd = fy1 t1 (2 hi 4 t1 + 2 beff ,i ) / M5

5.3.3

where:
beff ,i =

10 t 0 fy 0 t 0

bi
b0
fyi ti

beff ,i =

10 10 355 10

150 = 125 mm
150
355 8

but

5.3.2.2

beff ,i bi

but

beff ,i 150 mm

beff,i = 125 mm
N1,Rd = 355 8 (2 150 4 8 + 2 125 ) / 1.0
N1,Rd = 1471 kN

>

19.2 kN PASS

Moment in plane: Chord face failure (deformation)


(valid when 0.85)

b1 150
=
= 1 .0
b 0 150

check not required

5.3.5.1

6.3

Welded Joints Examples

RHS T-Joint Moment In Plane

Reference
Moment in plane: Chord side wall crushing
(valid when 0.85 < 1.0)

b1 150
=
= 1 .0
b0 150

5.3.5.1

check required

6.3

Mip,1,Rd = 0.5 f yk t 0 (h1 + 5 t 0 )2 / M5

5.3.5.1

where:
fyk = fy0

5.3.2.4

(for T-joints)
2

fyk = 355 N/mm

Mip,1,Rd = 0.5 355 10 (150 + 5 10 )2 / 1.0


Mip,1,Rd = 71 kNm

>

54 kNm PASS

Moment in plane: Bracing failure (effective width)


(valid when 0.85 < 1.0)

b1 150
=
= 1 .0
b 0 150

5.3.5.1

check required

6.3

b
Mip,1,Rd = fy1 Wpl,ip,1 1 eff ,1 b1 (h1 t1) t1 / M5
b1

5.3.5.1

where:
3

Wpl,ip,1 = 237 cm = 237000 mm


beff,1 = 125 mm

125
Mip,1,Rd = 355 237000 1
150 (150 8 ) 8 / 1.0
150

Mip,1,Rd = 74.1 kNm

>

54 kNm PASS

Summary
Axial joint resistance for brace 1 limited by chord side wall buckling and
moment in plane resistance by chord side wall crushing resistance.

Axial joint resistance,

N1,Rd = 1272 kN

Moment in plane joint resistance,

Mip,1,Rd = 71 kNm

>
>

19.2 kN PASS
54 kNm PASS

Welded Joints Examples

RHS T-Joint Moment In Plane

Interaction check
When more than one type of force exists, e.g. axial and moments in plane, an
interaction check is required;

Ni,Ed
Ni,Rd

Mip,i,Ed
Mip,i,Rd

Mop,i,Ed
Mop,i,Rd

1 .0

As there are no moments out of plane;

19.2 54
0
+
+
= 0.776
1272 71 Mop,i,Rd
0.776

1.000

PASS

(for RHS chords)

Reference
2.3

Welded Joints Examples

CHS Gap K-Joint

CHS Gap K-Joint

References are generally to Tata Steel publication Design of Welded Joints (unless otherwise stated).

Reference

N2,Ed = - 400 kN

N1,Ed = 500 kN
CHS 139.7x5.0

CHS 114.3x3.6

40
45

45

N0,Ed = 1636 kN
CHS 219.1x12.5
All material CELSIUS 355 to EN 10210

Np,Ed = 1000 kN

Note: Brace 1 usually designated compression and brace 2 tension.


Dimensions
d0 = 219.1 mm
t0 = 12.5 mm

d1 = 139.7 mm
t1 = 5.0 mm

d2 = 114.3 mm
t2 = 3.6 mm

Validity limits check


10 d0/t0 50

5.1.1 Figure 27
d0/t0 = 219.1/12.5 = 17.53

PASS

d0/t0 70 (Class 1 or 2 for compression chord)


2
2
70 = 70 [(235/fy0)] = 70(235/355) = 46.34
17.53 < 46.34

(EN 1993-1-1)
Table 5.2
PASS

di/ti 70 (Class 1 or 2 for compression brace)


2
2
70 = 70 [(235/fy0)] = 70(235/355) = 46.34
d1/t1 = 139.7/5.0 = 27.94 < 46.34

PASS

di/ti 50

d1/t1 = 139.7/5.0 = 27.94


d2/t2 = 114.3/3.6 = 31.75

PASS
PASS

0.2 di/d0 1.0

d1/d0 = 139.7/219.1 = 0.64


d2/d0 = 114.3/219.1 = 0.52

PASS
PASS

-0.55 d0 e +0.25 d0

-0.55 x 219.1 e +0.25 x 219.1


-120.5 e +54.8
e = 0 mm

PASS

g t1 + t2

t1 + t2 = 5 + 3.6 = 8.6 mm
g = 40 mm

PASS

30 i 90

1 = 45
2 = 45

PASS
PASS

(EN 1993-1-1)
Table 5.2

Welded Joints Examples

CHS Gap K-Joint

Reference
Chord face failure (deformation)

Compression brace (1):

Chord face failure, N1,Rd =

k g k p f y0 t 0 2
d
1.8 + 10.2 1

sin 1
d0

/ M5

5.1.3

Gap/lap function, kg

d0
219.1
=
= 8.764
2 t0
2 12.5

6.3

Using formulae:

Using graph:

0.024 1.2
k g = 0.2 1 +

1 + exp (0.5g / t 0 1.33 )

5.1.2.2

Note: g is positive for a gap and negative for an overlap

0.024 8.764 1.2


k g = 8.764 0.2 1 +

1 + exp (0.5 40 / 12 .5 1.33 )

from graph;

k g = 1.761

kg = 1.761

g/t0 = 40/12.5 = 3.2


5.1.2.2
Fig.29

CHS chord end stress factor, kp


CHS chord least compressive applied factored stress, p,Ed;
p,Ed =

Np,Ed
A0

Mip,0,Ed
Wel,ip,0

Mop,0,Ed
5.1.2.1

Wel,op,0

Note: Moment is additive to compressive stress which is positive for moments. For
CHS chords use least compressive chord stress.

p,Ed =

1000 1000
81.1 10 2

= 123.30 N/mm 2

Chord factored stress ratio, np;

p,Ed
np =
f y0

Using formulae:
For np > 0 (compression):

10

123.30
=
= 0.347
355

Using graph:

kp = 1 - 0.3 np (1 + np)
but 1.0
k p = 1 0.3 0.347 (1 + 0.347 ) but 1.0

from graph;

k p = 0.860

kp = 0.860

5.1.2.1

5.1.2.1
5.1.2.1
Fig.28

Welded Joints Examples

CHS Gap K-Joint

Reference

N1,Rd =

1.761 0.860 355 12.5


sin 45

139.7

1.8 + 10.2
/ 1.0
219.1

N1,Rd = 986 kN

Tension brace (2):


sin 1
N1,Rd
N 2,Rd =
sin 2

5.1.3

sin 45
986
sin 45

N 2,Rd =

N 2,Rd = 986 kN

Chord punching shear


(valid when di d0 2 t0)

5.1.3

di d0 2 t0
di 219.1 2 x 12.5 = 194.1 mm
d1 = 139.7 mm

< 194.1 mm check chord punching shear

d2 = 114.3 mm

< 194.1 mm check chord punching shear

Ni,Rd =

f y0

t 0 di

1 + sin i
2 sin 2 i

/ M5

Brace (1):

N1,Rd =

355

12.5 139.7

1 + sin 45
2 sin 2 45

/ 1. 0

N1,Rd = 1919 kN
Brace (2):
N 2,Rd =

355

12.5 114.3

1 + sin 45
2 sin 2 45

/ 1 .0

N 2,Rd = 1570 kN
Joint strength dictated by chord face failure for both bracings;

11

Brace 1 joint resistance ,

N1,Rd = 986 kN

Brace 2 joint resistance ,

N 2,Rd = 986 kN

>
>

500 kN PASS
400 kN PASS

Welded Joints Examples

CHS Overlap K-Joint

CHS Overlap K-Joint

References are generally to Tata Steel publication Design of Welded Joints (unless otherwise stated).

N2,Ed = - 400 kN

N1,Ed = 500 kN
CHS 139.7x5.0
e = - 42.2

Reference

CHS 114.3x3.6

- 45
45

45

N0,Ed = 1636 kN
Np,Ed = 1000 kN
CHS 219.1x12.5
All material CELSIUS 355 to EN 10210
Note: Brace 1 usually designated compression and brace 2 tension
Dimensions
d0 = 219.1 mm
t0 = 12.5 mm

d1 = 139.7 mm
t1 = 5.0 mm

d2 = 114.3 mm
t2 = 3.6 mm
5.1.1 Figure 27

Validity limits check


10 d0/t0 50

d0/t0 = 219.1/12.5 = 17.53

PASS

d0/t0 70 (Class 1 or 2 for compression chord)


2
2
70 = 70 [(235/fy0)] = 70(235/355) = 46.34
17.53 < 46.34

(EN 1993-1-1)
Table 5.2
PASS
(EN 1993-1-1)
Table 5.2

di/ti 70 (Class 1 or 2 for compression brace)


2
2
70 = 70 [(235/fy0)] = 70(235/355) = 46.34
d1/t1 = 139.7/5.0 = 27.94 < 46.34
di/ti 50

d1/t1 = 139.7/5.0 = 27.94


d2/t2 = 114.3/3.6 = 31.75

PASS
PASS

0.2 di/d0 1.0

d1/d0 = 139.7/219.1 = 0.64


d2/d0 = 114.3/219.1 = 0.52

PASS
PASS

-0.55 d0 e +0.25 d0

-0.55 x 219.1 e +0.25 x 219.1


-120.5 e +54.8
e = -42.2 mm

PASS

25% ov 100%

30 i 90

12

PASS

ov = |g| sin i /di x 100%


ov = 45 sin 45/114.3 x 100%
ov = 27.8%

PASS
PASS

1 = 45
2 = 45

PASS
PASS

Welded Joints Examples

CHS Overlap K-Joint

Reference
Chord face failure (deformation)
Compression brace (1):

N1,Rd =

Chord face failure,

k g k p fy 0 t 0 2
d
1.8 + 10.2 1 / M5

sin 1
d
0

5.1.3

Gap/lap function, kg

d0
219.1
=
= 8.764
2 t0
2 12.5

6.3

Using formulae:

Using graph:

0.024 1.2
k g = 0.2 1 +

1 + exp (0.5g / t 0 1.33 )

5.1.2.2

Note: g is positive for a gap and negative for an overlap

0.024 8.764 1.2


k g = 8.764 0.2 1 +

1 + exp (0.5 ( 45 ) / 12 .5 1.33 )


k g = 2.024

from graph;
g/t0 = -45/12.5 = -3.6
5.1.2.2
Fig. 29

kg = 2.024

CHS chord end stress factor, kp


CHS chord least compressive applied factored stress, p,Ed;
p,Ed =

Np,Ed
A0

Mip,0,Ed
Wel,ip,0

Mop,0,Ed
5.1.2.1

Wel,op,0

Note: Moment is additive to compressive stress which is positive for moments. For
CHS chords use least compressive chord stress.

p,Ed =

1000 1000
81.1 10 2

= 123.30 N/mm 2

Chord factored stress ratio, np;

p,Ed
np =
f y0

Using formulae:
For np > 0 (compression):

123.30
=
= 0.347
355

Using graph:

5.1.2.1

5.1.2.1

13

kp = 1 - 0.3 np (1 + np)
but 1.0
k p = 1 0.3 0.347 (1 + 0.347 ) but 1.0

from graph;

k p = 0.860

kp = 0.860

5.1.2.1
Fig. 28

Welded Joints Examples

CHS Overlap K-Joint

Reference

N1,Rd =

2.024 0.860 355 12.5 2


139.7
1.8 + 10.2
/ 1.0
sin 45
219.1

N1,Rd = 1134 kN

Tension brace (2):


N 2,Rd =

sin 1
N1,Rd
sin 2

N 2,Rd =

sin 45
1134
sin 45

5.1.3

N 2,Rd = 1134 kN
Chord punching shear check not required for overlapping bracings
Localised shear check for overlapping bracings not required as overlap not greater
than 60%.
Therefore, joint strength dictated by chord face failure for both bracings;

14

Brace 1 joint resistance ,

N1,Rd = 1134 kN

Brace 2 joint resistance ,

N 2,Rd = 1134 kN

>
>

500 kN PASS
400 kN PASS

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Gap K-Joint

RHS Gap K-Joint

References are generally to Tata Steel publication Design of Welded Joints (unless otherwise stated).

N1,Ed = 650 kN

SHS 120 x 120 x 5

Reference

N2,Ed = - 650 kN

40
45

45
5

Np,Ed = 1000 kN

N0,Ed = 1920 kN
SHS 200 x 200 x 10
All material Celsius 355 to EN 10210

Dimensions
b0 = 200 mm
h0 = 200 mm
t0 = 10.0 mm

b1 = 120 mm
h1 = 120 mm
t1 = 5.0 mm

b2 = 120 mm
h2 = 120 mm
t2 = 5.0 mm
5.3.1 Figure 37

Validity limits check


Chord:
(b0-3 t0)/t0 ; (h0-3 t0)/t0 38 (Class 1 or 2 compression)
38 = 38 (235/fy0) = 38(235/355) = 30.92
(b0-3 t0)/t0 = (200-3 x 10)/10 = 17
(h0-3 t0)/t0 = (200-3 x 10)/10 = 17

PASS
PASS

b0/t0 35
h0/t0 35

b0/t0 = 200/10 = 20
h0/t0 = 200/10 = 20

PASS
PASS

b1/t1 = 120/5 =24


h1/t1 = 120/5 =24

PASS
PASS

Compression brace:
bi/ti ; hi/ti 35

Compression brace:
(b1-3 t1)/t1 ; (h1-3 t1)/t1 38 (Class 1 or 2 compression)
38 = 38 (235/fy0) = 38(235/355) = 30.92
(b1-3 t1)/t1 = (120-3 x 5)/5 = 21
(h1-3 t1)/t1 = (120-3 x 5)/5 = 21
Tension brace:
bi/ti ; hi/ti 35

(EN 1993-1-1)
Table 5.2
PASS
PASS

b2/t2 = 120/5 =24


h2/t2 = 120/5 =24

PASS
PASS

b1/b0 = 120/200 = 0.6


b2/b0 = 120/200 = 0.6

PASS
PASS

0.1+0.01 b0/t0 bi/b0 1.0 0.1+0.01 b0/t0 = 0.3


b1/b0 = 120/200 = 0.6
b2/b0 = 120/200 = 0.6

PASS
PASS

bi/b0 0.35

15

(EN 1993-1-1)
Table 5.2

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Gap K-Joint

Reference
0.5 h0/b0 2.0

h0/b0 = 200/200 = 1.0

PASS

0.5 hi/bi 2.0

h1/b1 = 120/120 = 1.0


h2/b2 = 120/120 = 1.0

PASS
PASS

-0.55 h0 e +0.25 h0

-0.55 x 200 e +0.25 x 200


-110.0 e +50.0
e = +5.0 mm

PASS

30 i 90

1 = 45
2 = 45

PASS
PASS

g t1 + t 2

40 5 + 5 = 10 mm

PASS

0.5 b0(1-) g 1.5 b0(1-)

g = 40 mm
= (b1+b2+h1+h2)/(4 b0)
= (120+120+120+120)/(4x200) = 0.6
0.5 x 200(1-0.6) g 1.5 x 200(1-0.6)
40 mm g 120 mm

PASS

e = 5 mm
-0.55 x 200 e +0.25 x 200
-110 e +50

PASS

-0.55 h0 e +0.25 h0

Chord face failure (deformation) brace 1


Note: Brace 1 usually designated compression and brace 2 tension.

5.3.3

Compression brace (1):


Ni,Rd =

16

8 .9 k n f y 0 t 0 2
sin i

b 1 + b 2 + h1 + h 2

4 b0

/ M5

5.3.3

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Gap K-Joint

Reference
RHS chord end stress factor, kn
RHS chord most compressive applied factored stress, 0,Ed;

0 ,Ed =

N0 ,Ed
A0

Mip,0 ,Ed
Wel ,ip,0

Mop,0 ,Ed

5.3.2.1

Wel ,op,0

Note: Moment is additive to compressive stress which is positive for moments. For
RHS chords use most compressive chord stress.

0,Ed =

1920 1000
74.9 10 2

= 256.34 N/mm 2

Chord factored stress ratio, n;

256.34
n = 0,Ed =

fy 0 355

5.3.2.1

n = 0.722
Using formulae:

Using graph:

For n > 0 (compression):


0 .4 n

0.4 0.722
k n = 1 .3
0.6
k n = 1. 3

but kn 1.0
but

From graph, for = 0.6;

b0
200
=
= 10
2 t0
2 10

N1,Rd =

8.9 0.819 355 10 2 10 120 + 120 + 120 + 120

/ 1 .0
sin 45
4 200

N1,Rd = 694 kN

17

1.0

5.3.2.1
Fig. 38

kn = 0.819

k n = 0.819

5.3.2.1

6.3

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Gap K-Joint

Chord shear between bracings check brace 1

Ni,Rd =

f y 0 A v,0
3 sin i

Reference

/ M5

5.3.3

where:
for RHS bracings:
1

=
1+

4g

=
1+

3 t02

4 40 2

= 0.212

5.3.2.5

3 10 2

Av,0 = (2 h0 + b0) t0

5.3.2.5

A v,0 = (2 200 + 0.212 200 )10 = 4424 mm2

Ni,Rd =

355 4424
3 sin 45

/ 1. 0

N1,Rd = 1282 kN

Bracing Effective width brace 1

Ni,Rd = f yi t i (2 h i 4 t i + b i + b eff ) / M5

5.3.3

where:
beff ,i =

10 t 0 fy 0 t 0

bi
b0
fyi ti

beff ,i =

10 10 355 10

120 = 120 mm
200
355 5

but

beff ,i bi

beff,i = 120 mm

Ni,Rd = 355 5 (2 120 4 5 + 120 + 120 ) / 1.0


N1,Rd = 817 kN

18

5.3.2.2

but

beff ,i 120 mm

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Gap K-Joint

Reference
5.3.3

Chord punching shear brace 1


(valid when 1 1/)

1 1/
0.6 1 1/10 = 0.9 mm
Ni,Rd =

check chord punching shear

2 hi

+ bi + b e, p,i / M5

3 sin i sin i

fy 0 t 0

5.3.3

where:
b e,p,i =

10 t 0
bi
b0

be,p,i =

10 10
120 = 60 mm
200

but

b e,p,i bi

5.3.2.2

but

b e,p,i 120 mm

be,p,i = 60 mm
Ni,Rd =

355 10 2 120

+ 120 + 60 / 1.0

sin
45
3 sin 45

N1,Rd = 1506 kN

Summary - brace 1
Joint strength for brace 1 dictated by chord face deformation.

Brace 1 joint resistance,

N1,Rd = 694 kN

>

650 kN PASS

Brace 2
Repeat brace resistance formulae for brace 2.

Note: As both braces are of same geometry, brace 2 resistance will be the same:

19

Chord face deformation,

N 2,Rd = 694 kN

Chord shear check,

N 2,Rd = 1282 kN

Bracing effective width,

N 2,Rd = 817 kN

Punching shear,

N 2,Rd = 1506 kN

Brace 2 joint resistance,

N 2,Rd = 694 kN

>

650 kN PASS

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Gap K-Joint

Reference
5.3.3

Chord axial load resistance in gap

Check:

N0,gap,Rd N0,gap,Ed

N 0,gap,Rd = (A 0 A v,0 ) f y 0 + A v,0 f y 0

1 V0,Ed / Vpl,0,Rd

)2 / M5

5.3.3

where:
2

A0 = 74.9 cm = 7490 mm
Av,0 = 4424 mm

5.3.2.5

V0,Ed = max( |N1,Ed| sin 1 , |N2,Ed| sin 2)

5.3.3

V0,Ed = max( |650| sin 45 , |-650| sin 45) = max (459.6, 459.6)
V0,Ed = 459.6 kN
Vpl,0,Rd =

Vpl,0,Rd =

A v,0 ( fy 0 / 3 )

5.3.3
(EN 1993-1-1)
6.2.6 (2)

M0
4424 (355 / 3 )
= 906.7 kN
1 .0

460 Horz

460 Horz
- 650

650

1000
460
N0,gap,Ed = 1460

Np,Ed = 1000

1000
460
460
N0,Ed = 1920

Change of chord axial force in K-joint

N0,gap,Ed = max (Np,Ed + N1,Ed cos 1, N0,Ed + N2,Ed cos 2)


N0,gap,Ed = max (1000 + 650 cos 45, 1920 + (-650) cos 45)
N0,gap,Ed = max (1460, 1460) = 1460 kN

N0,gap,Rd = (7490 4424 ) 355 + 4424 355 1 (459.6 / 906.7 )2 / 1.0

N0,gap,Rd = 2442 kN

20

>

1460 kN PASS

5.3.3

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Overlap K-Joint

RHS Overlap K-Joint

References are generally to Tata Steel publication Design of Welded Joints (unless otherwise stated).

N1,Ed = 600 kN

-50.1

N2,Ed = - 600 kN

SHS 120 x 120 x 5

70
45

Reference

45

N0,Ed = 1849 kN
Np,Ed = 1000 kN
SHS 200 x 200 x 10
All material Celsius 355 to EN 10210
Dimensions
b0 = 200 mm
h0 = 200 mm
t0 = 10.0 mm

b1 = 120 mm
h1 = 120 mm
t1 = 5.0 mm

b2 = 120 mm
h2 = 120 mm
t2 = 5.0 mm
5.3.1 Figure 37

Validity limits check


Chord:
(b0-3 t0)/t0 ; (h0-3 t0)/t0 38 (Class 1 or 2 compression)
38 = 38 (235/fy0) = 38(235/355) = 30.92
(b0-3 t0)/t0 = (200-3 x 10)/10 = 17
(h0-3 t0)/t0 = (200-3 x 10)/10 = 17
Compression brace:
(b1-3 t1)/t1 ; (h1-3 t1)/t1 33 (Class 1 compression)
33 = 33 (235/fy0) = 33(235/355) = 26.85
(b1-3 t1)/t1 = (120-3 x 5)/5 = 21
(h1-3 t1)/t1 = (120-3 x 5)/5 = 21
Tension brace:
bi/ti ; hi/ti 35

PASS
PASS

(EN 1993-1-1)
Table 5.2
PASS
PASS

b2/t2 = 120/5 =24


h2/t2 = 120/5 =24

PASS
PASS

0.25 bi/b0 1.0

b1/b0 = 120/200 = 0.6


b2/b0 = 120/200 = 0.6

PASS
PASS

0.5 h0/b0 2.0

h0/b0 = 200/200 = 1.0

PASS

0.5 hi/bi 2.0

h1/b1 = 120/120 = 1.0


h2/b2 = 120/120 = 1.0

PASS
PASS

-0.55 h0 e +0.25 h0

-0.55 x 200 e +0.25 x 200


-110.0 e +50.0
e = -50.1 mm

PASS

ov = |g| sin i /h i x 100%


ov = 70 sin 45/120 x 100%
ov = 41.2%

PASS

bi/bj = 120/120 = 1.0

PASS

25% ov

bi/bj 0.75

21

(EN 1993-1-1)
Table 5.2

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Overlap K-Joint

Reference
Bracing Effective width Overlapping brace, i (2)

5.3.3

Note: Only the overlapping brace (i) need be checked. The resistance of the
overlapped brace (j) is based on an efficiency ratio to that of the overlapping
brace.
Overlapping brace, i (2):
For 25% ov < 50%

Ni,Rd = fyi ti beff ,i + be,ov + 2 hi ov 4 ti / M5


50

5.3.3

where:
beff ,i =

10 t 0 fy 0 t 0

bi
b0
fyi ti

beff ,i =

10 10 355 10

120 = 120 mm
200
355 5

but

beff ,i bi

5.3.2.2

but

beff ,i 120 mm

beff,i = 120 mm
b e,ov =

b e,ov =

10 t j
bj

f yj t j
f yi t i

bi

but

b e,ov b i

10 5 355 5

120
120
355 5

but

5.3.2.2

b e,ov 120

b e,ov = 50 mm
41.2

Ni,Rd = 355 5 120 + 50 + 2 120


4 5 / 1 .0
50

Ni,Rd = N 2,Rd = 617 kN

>

600 kN PASS

Bracing Effective width Overlapped brace, j (1)

N j,Rd = Ni,Rd

(A j fyj )
(Ai fyi )

5.3.3

where:
2

Aj = A1 = 22.7 cm = 2270 mm
2
2
Ai = A2 = 22.7 cm = 2270 mm
N j,Rd = 617

(2270 355 )
(2270 355 )

Ni,Rd = N1,Rd = 617 kN

22

>

600 kN PASS

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Chord CHS Bracings Gap K-Joint

RHS Chord CHS Bracings Gap K-Joint

References are generally to Tata Steel publication Design of Welded Joints (unless otherwise stated).

Reference

ALL MATERIAL;
CELSIUS 355 to EN 10210
N1,Ed = 500 kN

CHS 114.3 x 6.3


N2,Ed = - 500 kN

g = 85

45

45

e = 23.3
Np,Ed = 1212 kN

SHS 200 x 200 x 10

N0,Ed = 1920 kN

Dimensions
b0 = 200 mm
h0 = 200 mm
t0 = 10.0 mm

d1 = 114.3 mm
t1 = 6.3 mm

d2 = 114.3 mm
t2 = 6.3 mm

Validity limits check


Chord:
(b0-3 t0)/t0 ; (h0-3 t0)/t0 38 (Class 1 or 2 compression)
38 = 38 (235/fy0) = 38(235/355) = 30.92
(b0-3 t0)/t0 = (200-3 x 10)/10 = 17
(h0-3 t0)/t0 = (200-3 x 10)/10 = 17

PASS
PASS

b0/t0 35
h0/t0 35

PASS
PASS

Compression brace:
(d1/t1 50 (Class 1 or 2 compression)
50 = 50 (235/fy0) = 50(235/355) = 40.7
d1/t1 = 114.3/6.3 = 18.1 40.7

PASS

Tension brace:
di/ti 50

d2/t2 = 114.3/6.3 = 18.1

PASS

d1/b0 = 114.3/200 = 0.57


d2/b0 = 114.3/200 = 0.57

PASS
PASS

0.4 di/b0 0.8

23

b0/t0 = 200/10 = 20
h0/t0 = 200/10 = 20

5.3.1 Figure 37
(EN 1993-1-1)
Table 5.2

(EN 1993-1-1)
Table 5.2

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Chord CHS Bracings Gap K-Joint

0.5 h0/b0 2.0

h0/b0 = 200/200 = 1.0

PASS

-0.55 h0 e +0.25 h0

-0.55 x 200 e +0.25 x 200


-110.0 e +50.0
e = +23.0 mm

PASS

30 i 90

1 = 45
2 = 45

PASS
PASS

g t1 + t 2

85 6.3 + 6.3 = 12.6 mm

PASS

Reference

Chord face failure (deformation) brace 1


Note: Brace 1 usually designated compression and brace 2 tension.
Compression brace (1):
Ni,Rd =

8.9 k n fy 0 t 0 2 d1 + d2 + d1 + d2

/ M5

sin i
4 b0

5.3.3

RHS chord end stress factor, kn


RHS chord most compressive applied factored stress, 0,Ed;

0 ,Ed =

N0 ,Ed
A0

Mip,0 ,Ed
Wel ,ip,0

Mop,0 ,Ed
Wel ,op,0

5.3.2.1

Note: Moment is additive to compressive stress which is positive for moments. For
RHS chords use most compressive chord stress.

0,Ed =

1920 1000
74.9 10 2

= 256.34 N/mm 2

Chord factored stress ratio, n;

256.34
n = 0,Ed =

fy 0 355

n = 0.722

24

5.3.2.1

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Chord CHS Bracings Gap K-Joint

Using formulae:

Using graph:

For n > 0 (compression):


0 .4 n

0.4 0.722
k n = 1 .3
0.6

5.3.2.1
but kn 1.0

k n = 1. 3

1.0

but

From graph, for = 0.6;

b0
200
=
= 10
2 t0
2 10

N1,Rd =

5.3.2.1
Fig. 38

kn = 0.819

k n = 0.819

Reference

6.3

8.9 0.819 355 10 2 10 114.3 + 114.3 + 114.3 + 114.3

/ 1.0
sin 45
4 200

N1,Rd = 661 kN......661

= 519 kN
4

Chord shear between bracings check brace 1

Ni,Rd =

f y 0 A v,0
3 sin i

/ M5

5.3.3

where:
for CHS bracings:
=0
Av,0 = (2 h0 + b0) t0
A v,0 = (2 200 + 0 200 )10 = 4000 mm 2

Ni,Rd =

355 4000
3 sin 45

/ 1 .0

N1,Rd = 1159 kN......

25

= 910 kN
4

5.3.2.5
5.3.2.5

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Chord CHS Bracings Gap K-Joint

Reference

Bracing Effective width brace 1

Ni,Rd = fyi t i (2 di 4 t i + di + beff ) / M5

5.3.3

where:
b eff ,i =

10 t 0 f y 0 t 0

di
b0
f yi t i

b eff ,i =

10 10 355 10
120 = 95.2 mm

200
355 6.3

but

5.3.2.2

b eff ,i di

but

b eff ,i 120 mm

beff,i = 95.2 mm

Ni,Rd = 355 6.3 (2 114.3 4 6.3 + 114.3 + 95.2) / 1.0


N1,Rd = 923 kN.....

= 725 kN
4

5.3.3

Chord punching shear brace 1


(valid when 1 1/)

1 1/
0.6 1 1/10 = 0.9 mm
Ni,Rd =

check chord punching shear

2 di

sin + di + b e, p,i / M5
3 sin i
i

fy 0 t 0

5.3.3

where:
b e,p,i =

10 t 0
di
b0

b e,p,i =

10 10
114 .3 = 57 .2 mm
200

but

5.3.2.2

b e,p,i di

but

b e,p,i 120 mm

be,p,i = 57.2 mm
Ni,Rd =

355 10 2 114.3

+ 114.3 + 57.2 / 1.0


3 sin 45 sin 45

N 1,Rd = 1434 kN ........

= 1126 kN
4

Summary - brace 1
Joint strength for brace 1 dictated by chord face deformation.

Brace 1 joint resistance,

26

N1,Rd = 519 kN

>

500 kN PASS

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Chord CHS Bracings Gap K-Joint

Reference

Brace 2
Repeat brace resistance formulae for brace 2.

Note: As both braces are of same geometry, brace 2 resistance will be the same:
Chord face deformation,

N2,Rd = 519 kN

Chord shear check,

N2,Rd = 910 kN

Bracing effective width,

N2,Rd = 725 kN

Punching shear,

N2,Rd = 1126 kN

Brace 2 joint resistance,

N2,Rd = 519 kN

>

500 kN PASS

Chord axial load resistance in gap

Check:

N0,gap,Rd N0,gap,Ed

N 0,gap,Rd = (A 0 A v,0 ) f y 0 + A v,0 f y 0

where:

1 V0,Ed / Vpl,0,Rd

)2 / M5

5.3.3

A0 = 74.9 cm = 7490 mm
2

Av,0 = 4000 mm

V0,Ed = max( |N1,Ed| sin 1 , |N2,Ed| sin 2)

5.3.2.5
5.3.3

V0,Ed = max( |500| sin 45 , |-500| sin 45) = max (354,354 )


5.3.2.2

V0,Ed = 354 kN
Vpl,0,Rd =

Vpl,0,Rd =

27

A v,0 ( fy 0 / 3 )
M0
4000 (355 / 3 )
= 819.8 kN
1 .0

5.3.3
(EN 1993-1-1)
6.2.6 (2)

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Chord CHS Bracings Gap K-Joint

Reference

354 Horz

354 Horz

500

- 500

1212
354
N0,gap,Ed = 1566

Np,Ed = 1212

1212
354
354
N0,Ed = 1920

Change of chord axial force in K-joint

N0,gap,Ed = max (Np,Ed + N1,Ed cos 1, N0,Ed + N2,Ed cos 2)


N0,gap,Ed = max (1212 + 500 cos 45, 1920 + (-500) cos 45)
N0,gap,Ed = max (1566, 1566) = 1566 kN

N0,gap,Rd = (7490 4000 ) 355 + 4000 355 1 (354 / 819.8 )2 / 1.0

N0,gap,Rd = 2520 kN

28

>

1566 kN PASS

5.3.3

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Chord CHS Bracings Overlap K-Joint 82.7

7 RHS Chord CHS Bracings Overlap KJoint 82.7


References are generally to Tata Steel publication Design of Welded Joints (unless otherwise stated).

Reference

-109.1
ALL MATERIAL;
CELSIUS 355 to EN 10210
Nj,Ed = 500kN

Ni,Ed = - 400kN

CHS 114.3 x 6.3

CHS 114.3 x 6.3


e = - 19.5

30

60

RHS 200 x 100 x 10


N0,Ed = 1636kN

Np,Ed = 1000kN

NOTE: BRACE j USUALLY DESIGNATED COMPRESSION AND BRACE i TENSION.


Dimensions
h0 = 100.0 mm
t0 = 10.0 mm
fu,j = 470 N/mm

b0 = 200.0 mm
ti = 6.3 mm

di = 114.3 mm
tj = 6.3 mm

dj = 114.3 mm
fu,i = 470 N/mm

(fu,i & fu,j from EN10210-1:2006 Table A.3)


For Eccentricity;

sin i sin j h
dj
di
+
+ g
e=
0
2 sin i 2 sin j
sin i + j 2

where g =

ov di
100 sin i

82.7 114.3
100 sin (60)
g = 109.1 mm
g=

29

6.5 Figure 57

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Chord CHS Bracings Overlap K-Joint 82.7

114 .3
sin (60 ) sin (30 ) 100
114 .3
e=
+
+ ( 109 .1)

sin
60

sin
30

2
(
)
(
)

sin (60 + 30 )

Reference

e = 19 .5 mm

Validity limits check


2

b0/t0 38 (Class 1 or 2 for compression chord)


2
2
38 = 38 [(235/fy0)] = 38(235/355) = 25.15
b0/t0 = 200.0/10.0 = 20.0 < 25.15

PASS

(EN1993-1-1)
(Table 5.2)

dj/tj 50 (Class 1 for compression brace)


2
2
50 = 50 [(235/fy0)] = 50(235/355) = 33.10
dj/tj = 114.3/6.3 = 18.14 < 33.10

PASS

di/ti 50 (Tension Brace)

di/ti = 114.3/6.3 = 18.14 50

PASS

0.4 di/b0 0.8

di/d0 = 114.3/200.0 = 0.57


dj/d0 = 114.3/200.0 = 0.57

PASS
PASS

0.5 h0/ b0 2.0

h0/ b0 = 100.0/200.0 = 0.50

PASS

-0.55 h0 e +0.25 h0

-0.55 x 100.0 e +0.25 x 100.0


-55 e +25
e = -19.5 mm

PASS

ov 25%

ov = |g| sin I /di x 100%


ov = 109.1 sin 60/114.3 x 100%
ov = 82.7%

PASS

30 I 90

j = 30
I = 60

PASS
PASS

di/dj 0.75

di/dj = 114.3/114.3 = 1.0

PASS

(EN1993-1-1)
(Table 5.2)

PASS

5.3 Figure 37

Brace Effective Width;


Overlapping brace (i):
N i,Rd = f yi t i (d i + d e ,ov + 2 d i 4 t i ) / M 5

5.3.3

where:
de,ov =

30

fyj t j
10

di but de,ov di
d j / t j fyi ti

5.3.2.2

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Chord CHS Bracings Overlap K-Joint 82.7

Reference
de,ov =

10
355 6.3

114 .3 but de,ov 114 .3


114 .3 / 6.3 355 6.3

de,ov = 63 but 114 .3 de,ov = 63mm

Ni,Rd = 355 x 6.3 x (114.3 + 63 + 228.6 25.2) / 1.0

N i,Rd = 851 kN ----- 851 4 = 668 kN

> 400 kN

PASS

Brace Effective Width;


Overlapped Brace (j):
N j,Rd = Ni,Rd

(A j fyj )
(Ai fyi )

5.3.3

where:

A j = 21.4 cm2 = 2140 mm 2


A i = 21.4 cm2 = 2140 mm 2
N j,Rd = 668

(2140 355 )
(2140 355 )

N j,Rd = 668 kN

>

500 kN

PASS

Overlapping Bracings Shear Check For CHS Bracings;


Vertical component of Ni,Ed & N j,Ed;

31

Ni,v,Ed = Ni,Ed sin (i ) & N j,v,Ed = N j,Ed sin ( j )

Ni,v,Ed = 400 sin (60) = 346.4 kN

N j,v,Ed = 500 sin (30) = 250 kN

As
toe

vert.

component

346.4 250
100 = 27.8%
346.4
brace vertical component > 20%

diff . =

difference between
needs welding.

hidden

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Chord CHS Bracings Overlap K-Joint 82.7

Shear Check valid when 80% < ov < 100% and overlapped brace hidden toe welded;
Ni,Ed cos i + N j

,Ed

Reference

cos j .......... .

100 ov

2di + deff ,i ti

f
100
f
2d j + c s deff , j t j
u, j

u,
1

...... i
+

4 3

sin i
sin j
3
M5

where :

deff ,i =

10t 0 fy,0 t 0

di
b0
fy,i ti

but di

deff ,i =

10 10 355 10

114.3
200
355 6.3

but 114.3

5.3.3

5.3.2.2

deff ,i = 91.4 114.3 deff ,i = 91.4 mm

where :

deff , j =

10t 0 fy,0 t 0

dj
b0
fy, j t j

deff , j =

10 10 355 10

114.3
200
355 6.3

5.3.2.2

but d j

but 114.3

deff , j = 91.4 114.3 deff , j = 91.4 mm

where :

c s = 2 (hidden toe welded)

5.1.3

Ni cosi + Nj cos j ...........

100 82.7

(2 114.3) + 91.4 6.3

470 100
470 ((2 114.3) + 2 91.4) 6.3 1

......

4 3
sin (60)
sin (30)
3
1

= 1307 kN

32

400 cos (60) + 500 cos ( 30) = 633 kN

1307 kN

PASS

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Chord CHS Bracings Overlap K-Joint 102.7

8 RHS Chord CHS Bracings Overlap KJoint 102.7


References are generally to Tata Steel publication Design of Welded Joints (unless otherwise stated).

Reference

g = -135.5
ALL MATERIAL;
CELSIUS 355 to EN 10210
Nj,Ed = 500kN

Ni,Ed = - 400kN

CHS 114.3 x 6.3


CHS 114.3 x 6.3

e = - 30.6

60

30

RHS 200 x 100 x 10


N0,Ed = 1636kN

Np,Ed = 1000kN

NOTE: BRACE j USUALLY DESIGNATED COMPRESSION AND BRACE i TENSION.


Dimensions
h0 = 100.0 mm
t0 = 10.0 mm
fu,j = 470 N/mm

b0 = 200.0 mm
ti = 6.3 mm

di = 114.3 mm
tj = 6.3 mm

dj = 114.3 mm
fu,i = 470 N/mm

(fu,i & fu,j from EN10210-1:2006 Table A.3)


For Eccentricity;

sin i sin j h
dj
di
+
+ g
e=
0
2 sin i 2 sin j
sin i + j 2

where g =

ov di
100 sin i

102.7 114.3
100 sin (60)
g = 135.5 mm
g=

33

6.5 Figure 57

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Chord CHS Bracings Overlap K-Joint 102.7

114 .3
sin (60 ) sin (30 ) 100
114 .3
e=
+
+ ( 135 .5 )

sin
60

sin
30

2
(
)
(
)

sin (60 + 30 )

Reference

e = 30 .6 mm
Validity limits check
2

b0/t0 38 (Class 1 or 2 for compression chord)


2
2
38 = 38 [(235/fy0)] = 38(235/355) = 25.15
PASS
b0/t0 = 200.0/10.0 = 20.0 < 25.15

(EN1993-1-1)
Table 5.2

dj/tj 50 (Class 1 for compression brace)


2
2
50 = 50 [(235/fy0)] = 50(235/355) = 33.10
dj/tj = 114.3/6.3 = 18.14 < 33.10

PASS

di/ti 50 (Tension Brace)

di/ti = 114.3/6.3 = 18.14 50

PASS

0.4 di/b0 0.8

di/d0 = 114.3/200.0 = 0.57


dj/d0 = 114.3/200.0 = 0.57

PASS
PASS

0.5 h0/ b0 2.0

h0/ b0 = 100.0/200.0 = 0.50

PASS

-0.55 h0 e +0.25 h0

-0.55 x 100.0 e +0.25 x 100.0


-55 e +25
e = -30.6 mm

PASS

ov 25%

ov = |g| sin i /di x 100%


ov = 135.5 sin 60/114.3 x 100%
ov = 102.7%

PASS

30 i 90

j = 30
i = 60

PASS
PASS

di/dj 0.75

di/dj = 114.3/114.3 = 1.0

PASS

(EN1993-1-1)
Table 5.2

PASS

5.3 Figure 37

Brace Effective Width;


Overlapping brace (i):
N i,Rd = f yi t i (d i + d e ,ov + 2 d i 4 t i ) / M 5

where ov 80%;

5.3.3

where:
de,ov =

fyj t j
10
di but de,ov di

d j / t j fyi ti

de,ov =

10
355 6.3

114 .3 but de,ov 114 .3


114 .3 / 6.3 355 6.3

de,ov = 63 but 114 .3 de,ov = 63 mm

34

5.3.2.2

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Chord CHS Bracings Overlap K-Joint 102.7

Ni,Rd

= 355 x 6.3 x (114.3 + 63 + 228.6 25.2) / 1.0

Reference

N i,Rd = 851 kN -------> 851 4 = 668 kN > 400 kN PASS


Brace Effective Width;
Overlapped Brace (j):
N j,Rd = Ni,Rd

(A j fyj )
(Ai fyi )

5.3.3

where:

A j = 21.4 cm2 = 2140 mm 2


A i = 21.4 cm2 = 2140 mm 2
N j,Rd = 668

(2140 355 )
(2140 355 )

N j,Rd = 668 kN

>

500 kN

PASS

Overlapping Bracings Shear Check for CHS Bracings; where ov > 100%;
Ni,Ed cos i + N j

,Ed

......

where:

cos j .......... .

5.3.3

fu, j 3 d j + deff , j t j
1

4
sin j
M5
3

deff , j =

10 t0 fy,0 t 0

dj
b0
fy, j t j

but d j

deff , j =

10 10 355 10

114.3
200
355 6.3

but 114.3

5.3.2.2

deff , j = 91.4 114.3 deff , j = 91.4 mm

Ni,Ed cos i + N j

,Ed

......

cos j .......... .

470 (3 114 .3 + 91.4 ) 6.3


1

4
sin( 30 )
M5
3

Ni cos i + Nj cos j 673 kN


400 cos (60) + 500 cos ( 30) = 633 kN

35

673 kN

PASS

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Chord RHS Bracings Overlap KT-Joint

9 RHS Chord RHS Bracings Overlap KTJoint


References are generally to Tata Steel publication Design of Welded Joints (unless otherwise stated).

ALL MATERIAL;
CELSIUS 355 to EN 10210

N3,Ed = 150kN
N2,Ed = - 650kN

N1,Ed = 492kN
Brace 3

Brace 2

Brace 1
45

50

e = - 19.5
e1 = -50.0

e2= -40.4

RHSx 200
SHS 200 x 200
10.0x 100 x 10

NOTE: Brace j designated overlapped, Brace i overlapping


Brace 1 SHS is 90 x 90 x 5.0, Brace 2 and 3 is SHS 100 x 100 x 6.3
Dimensions
h0 = 200.0 mm
b0 = 200.0 mm
t0 = 10.0 mm
M5 = 1.0

h1 = 90.0 mm
b1 = 90.0 mm
t1 = 5.0 mm
A1 = 23.2cm2

h2 = 100.0 mm
b2 = 100.0 mm
t2 = 6.3 mm
A2 = 16.7cm2

h3 = 100.0 mm
b3 = 100.0 mm
t3 = 6.3 mm
A3 = 23.2cm2

This example is to show how to calculate a KT-Joint with SHS chord and braces. The method of
checking a KT-Joint depends on the direction of the brace forces, gap or overlap and chord section
profile. This example is for;

One diagonal brace opposite direction to the other two bracings


Both diagonal bracings overlapping
Rectangular chord and bracings

With this configuration, the joint can be checked like two separate K-joints. Please be aware that
different brace angle and overlap values may change how the joint is calculated and you should refer to
the Tata Design of Welded Joints literature before tackling any joint to make sure you are using the
correct method and formulae.The force combination of the braces can be seen at 5.6.2 Figure 51(c) (as
a (from left to right) compression-compression-tension) of our Design Of Welded Joints literature.

36

Reference

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Chord RHS Bracings Overlap KT-Joint

Reference

GEOMETRIC CALCULATIONS
For Eccentricity; Brace 1 in relation to Brace 3;
b1
sin 1 sin 3 h0
b3
e1 =
+
+ g

2
sin
2
sin
1
3

sin (1 + 3 ) 2
Brace 1 to 3 overlap, ov = 50%;
where; g =
g1 =

ov bi
100 sin i

6.5 Figure 57

50.0 90.0
1
100 sin (45)

g1 = 63.6 mm

(gap is negative as its an overlap)

sin (45 ) sin (90 ) 200 .0


90 .0
100 .0
e1 =
+
+ ( 63 .6 )

2
2 sin ( 45 ) 2 sin (90 )
sin (45 + 90 )
= 50 .0 mm
For Eccentricity, Brace 2 in relation to Brace 3;
b2
sin 2 sin 3 h0
b3
e2 =
+
+ g

2
sin
2
sin
2
3

sin (2 + 3 ) 2
Brace 2 to 3 overlap, ov = 50%;

g2 =

6.5 Figure 57

ov b2
100 sin 2

where; g2 =

50.0 100
100 sin (50)

g2 = 65.3 mm

(gap is negative as its an overlap)

100 .0
sin (50 ) sin (90 ) 200 .0
100 .0
e2 =
+
+ ( 65 .3 )

(
)
(
)
2
sin
50
2
sin
90
2

sin (50 + 90 )
= 40 .4 mm

Validity limits check for both K-Joints


(b0-3 t0)/t0 ; (h0-3 t0)/t0 38 (Class 1 or 2 for chord)
38 = 38 [(235/fy0)] = 38 (235/355) = 30.92
(b0-3 t0)/t0 = (200-3 x 10)/10 = 17
(h0-3 t0)/t0 = (200-3 x 10)/10 = 17
(b1-3 t1)/t1 ; (h1-3 t1)/t1 33 (Class 1 for compression braces)
37

5.3 Figure 37
(EN1993-1-1)
Table 5.2
PASS
PASS
(EN1993-1-1)
Table 5.2

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Chord RHS Bracings Overlap KT-Joint

33 = 33 [(235/fy0)] = 33 (235/355) = 26.85


(b1-3 t1)/t1 = (90-3 x 5)/5 = 15
(h1-3 t1)/t1 = (90-3 x 5)/5 = 15
(b3-3 t3)/t3 = (100-3 x 6.3)/6.3 = 12.9
(h3-3 t3)/t3 = (100-3 x 6.3)/6.3 = 12.9
bi/ti

; hi/ti 35 (Tension Brace)

b2/t2 = 100.0/6.3 = 15.9


h2/t2 = 100.0/6.3 = 15.9

PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS

0.25 bi/b0 1.0

b1/b0 = 90.0/200.0 = 0.45


b2/b0 = 100.0/200.0 = 0.5
b3/b0 = 100.0/200.0 = 0.5

PASS
PASS
PASS

0.5 h0/ b0 2.0


0.5 hi/ bi 2.0

h0/ b0 = 200.0/200.0 = 1.0


h1/b1 = 90.0/90.0 = 1.0
h2/b2 = 100.0/100.0 = 1.0
h3/b3 = 100.0/100.0 = 1.0

PASS
PASS
PASS
PASS

-0.55 h0 e +0.25 h0

-0.55 x 200.0 e +0.25 x 200.0


-110 e +50
e1 = -50 mm
e2 = -40.4 mm

PASS
PASS

ov 25%

Reference

ov,1 = |g| sin 1 /h1 x 100%


ov,1 = 63.6 x sin 45/90 x 100%
ov,1 = 50%
ov,2 = 65.3 x sin 50/100 x 100%
ov,2 = 50%

PASS

30 i 90

1 = 45
2 = 50
3 = 90

PASS
PASS
PASS

bi/bj 0.75

b1/b3 = 90.0/100.0 = 0.9


b2/b3 = 100.0/100.0 = 1.0

PASS
PASS

PASS
6.5 Figure 57

Brace 1 & 3 as overlap K-Joint


Brace Effective Width Failure for 50% ov<80%;
N i,Rd = f yi t i (b eff ,i + b e ,ov + 2 h i 4 t i ) / M 5

5.3.3 (K- & NOverlap Sect)

where;
be,ov,1 =

38

10 t 3 fy 3 t 3

b1 but be,ov,1 b1
b3
fy1 t1

5.3.2.2

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Chord RHS Bracings Overlap KT-Joint

Reference
b e,ov ,1 =

10 6.3 355 6.3

90 .0 but b e,ov ,1 90 .0
100 .0
355 5.0

b e,ov ,1 = 71 .4 but 90 .0 b e,ov,1 = 71 .4 mm

where;

b eff ,1 =

b eff ,1 =

f y0 t 0
10 t 0

b 1 but b eff ,1 b 1
b0
f y1 t 1
10 10
200

355

10

355 5 . 0

5.3.2.2

90 but b eff ,1 90

b eff ,1 = 90 mm but b eff ,1 90 b eff ,1 = 90 mm


N1,Rd = 355 x 5.0 x (90.0 + 71.4 + 2 x 90 4 x 5.0)/1.0

N 1,Rd = 570 kN > 492 kN

PASS

For overlapped Brace (3):

where;

N j,Rd = Ni,Rd

(A j fyj )
(Ai fyi )

5.3.3 (K- & NOverlap Sect)

A 3 = 23.2 cm2 = 2320 mm 2


A1 = 16.7 cm2 = 1670 mm 2

(Tata Technical
Guide TST02)

(2320 355)
N3,Rd = 570
(1670 355)
N 3 ,Rd = 792kN > 150kN

PASS

Brace 2 & 3 as overlap K-Joint


Brace Effective Width Failure for 50% ov<80%;
b e,ov,2 =

39

10 t 3 f y 3 t 3

b 2 but b e,ov,2 b 2
b3
fy2 t 2

5.3.2.2

Welded Joints Examples

RHS Chord RHS Bracings Overlap KT-Joint

Reference
b e,ov ,2 =

10 6.3 355 6.3

100 .0 but b e,ov ,2 100 .0


100 .0
355 6.3

b e,ov ,2 = 63 but 100 .0 be,ov,2 = 63 mm

where;

b eff ,2 =

b eff ,2 =

f y0 t 0
10 t 0

b 2 but b eff ,2 b 2
b0
f y2 t 2

10 10
200

355

10

355 6 . 3

5.3.2.2

100 but b eff ,2 100

b eff ,2 = 79 .4 mm but b eff ,2 100 b eff ,2 = 79 . 4 mm


N2,Rd = 355 x 6.3 x (79.4 + 63 + 2 x 100 4 x 6.3) / 1.0

N 2 ,Rd = 709 kN > 650 kN

PASS

For Overlapped Brace (3):

where:

N j,Rd = Ni,Rd

(A j fyj )
(Ai fyi )

5.3.3 (K- & NOverlap Sect)

A 3 = 23.2 cm2 = 2320 mm 2


(Tata Technical
Guide TST02)

A 2 = 23.2 cm2 = 2320 mm 2

N3,Rd = 709

(2320 355)
(2320 355)

N3,Rd = 709kN > 150kN

PASS

SUMMARY
Here, the validity limits are combined to include all three braces and then for the calculations, due to the
nature of the joint, it can be treated as two overlap K-Joints. This means Brace 3 (the vertical overlapped
brace) is checked twice in relation to Brace 1 and Brace 2 and must pass on both of these checks. It is
important to check the joint configuration and refer to our Design of Welded Joints literature to make sure the
correct method and formulae is used.

40

Welded Joints Examples

10

CHS Chord CHS Bracings Gap KT-Joint

CHS Chord CHS Bracings Gap KT-Joint

References are generally to Tata Steel publication Design of Welded Joints (unless otherwise stated).

ALL MATERIAL;
CELSIUS 355 to EN 10210

N3,Ed = 113kN

N1,Ed = 369kN
Brace 3
N2,Ed = - 488kN
Brace 2
g1,3 = 30mm

g2,3 = 52mm

Brace 1
45

30
CHS 193.7 x 10.0

e = - 19.5

512kN

RHS
e1 = 46.8mm

200 x 100 x 10

1087kN

e2 = 21.2mm

NOTE: Brace 1 CHS is 88.9 x 5.0, Brace 2 and 3 is CHS 101.6 x 6.3
Dimensions
d0 = 193.7 mm
t0 = 10.0 mm
M5 = 1.0

d1 = 88.9 mm
t1 = 5.0 mm
2
A1 = 13.2cm

d2 = 101.6 mm
t2 = 6.3 mm
2
A2 = 18.9cm

d3 = 101.6 mm
t3 = 6.3 mm
2
A3 = 18.9cm

This example is to show how to calculate a gap KT-Joint with CHS chord and braces. The
recommendations for an all-CHS gap KT-Joint are in EN1993-1-8 Table 7.6. The method of checking a
KT-Joint depends on the direction of the brace forces, gap or overlap and chord section profile. This
example is for;

One diagonal brace opposite direction to the other two bracings


Both diagonal bracings have a gap to the central brace
Circular chord and bracings

With this configuration, the joint capacity is based on the most highly loaded compression brace for
chord face failure and punching shear failure for each brace. Please be aware that different brace angle
and gap values may change how the joint is calculated and you should refer to the Tata Design of
Welded Joints literature before tackling any joint to make sure you are using the correct method and
formulae.The force combination of the braces can be seen at 5.6.2 Figure 51(c) (as a (from left to right)
compression-compression-tension) of our Design Of Welded Joints literature.

41

Reference

Welded Joints Examples

CHS Chord CHS Bracings Gap KT-Joint

Reference

Geometric Calculations
For Eccentricity; Brace 1 in relation to Brace 3;

sin 1 sin 3 d0
d1
d3
e1 =
+
+ g

2 sin 1 2 sin 3
sin (1 + 3 ) 2
Brace 1 to 3 gap, g1 = 30mm;

sin (45 ) sin (90 ) 193 .7


88 .9
101 .6
e1 =
+
+ 30 .0

(
)
(
)
2
sin
45
2
sin
90
2

sin (45 + 90 )
= 46 .8 mm
For Eccentricity, Brace 2 in relation to Brace 3;

sin 2 sin 3 d0
d2
d3
e2 =
+
+ g

2 sin 2 2 sin 3
sin (2 + 3 ) 2
Brace 2 to 3 gap, g2 = 52mm;

101 .6
sin (30 ) sin (90 ) 193 .7
101 .6
e2 =
+
+ 52 .0

(
)
(
)
2
sin
30
2
sin
90
2

sin (30 + 90 )
= 21 .2 mm

Validity limits check for both K-Joints


10 d0/t0 50

d0/t0 = 193.7/10.0 = 19.37

5.1.1 Figure 27
PASS

d0/t0 702 (Class 1 or 2 for chord)


702 = 70 [(235/fy0)]2 = 70 (235/355)2 = 46.34
PASS
d0/t0 = 19.37 46.34
di/ti 50

d1/t1 = 88.9/5.0 = 17.78


d2/t2 = 101.6/6.3 = 16.13
d3/t3 = 101.6/6.3 = 16.13

PASS
PASS
PASS

2
di/ti 70 (Class 1 or 2 for compression bracings)
702 = 70 [(235/fy0)]2 = 70 (235/355)2 = 46.34
d1/t1= 17.78
PASS
PASS
d3/t3 = 16.13

42

(EN1993-1-1)
Table 5.2

0.2 di/d0 1.0

d1/d0 = 88.9/193.7 = 0.46


d2/d0 = 101.6/193.7 = 0.52
d3/d0 = 101.6/193.7 = 0.52

PASS
PASS
PASS

-0.55 d0 e +0.25 d0

-0.55 x 193.7 e +0.25 x 193.7


-106.5 e +48.4
e1 = 46.8 mm
e2 = 21.2 mm

PASS
PASS

(EN1993-1-1)
Table 5.2

Welded Joints Examples

CHS Chord CHS Bracings Gap KT-Joint

g t1 + t2 but 12t0

for g1,3 t1 + t3 = 5.0 + 6.3 = 11.3 mm


g2,3 t2 + t3 = 6.3 + 6.3 = 12.6 mm
12t0 = 12 x 10.0 = 120 mm
g1,3 = 30 mm
g2,3 = 52 mm

30 i 90

but 12t0
but 12t0

Reference

PASS
PASS

1 = 45
2 = 30
3 = 90

PASS
PASS
PASS

Chord Face Failure (deformation);


Based on compression brace with most compressive load;
Compression brace (1);

N 1,Rd =

k g k p fy0 t 0 2
sin 1

d + d2 + d3
1 . 8 + 10 . 2 1
3 d0

/ M5

5.1.3 (K- & NJoints)

Gap/lap factor, kg;


Using Formulae:

0.024 1.2
k g = 0.2 1 +

1 + exp (0.5g / t 0 1.33 )


where;
=

5.1.2.2 (kg)

d0
193 .7
=
= 9 .69
2 t 0 2 10 .0

6.3 ()

Note: (g) is positive for gap and negative for overlap.


Use the largest gap between two bracings having significant forces acting
in opposite direction.
Using Formulae:

0.024 9.691.2
k g = 9.69 0.2 1 +

1 + exp (0.5 52 / 10 .0 1.33 )

k g = 1.70

43

Using Graph:
From graph;
g/t0 = 52/10.0 = 5.2
kg = 1.70

For graph
5.1.2.2 Fig. 29

Welded Joints Examples

CHS Chord CHS Bracings Gap KT-Joint

Reference

CHS chord end stress factor, kp


CHS chord least compressive applied factored stress, p,Ed;
p,Ed =

Np,Ed
A0

Mip,0,Ed
Wel,ip,0

Mop,0,Ed

5.1.2.1

Wel,op,0

Note: Moment is additive to compressive stress which is positive for moments.


For CHS chords use least compressive chord stress.

p,Ed =

512 1000
57.7 10

= 88.7 N/mm2

Chord factored stress ratio, np;


Using formulae:
For np > 0 (compression):

p,Ed 88.7
=
np =
= 0.25
fy0 355

Using graph:

5.1.2.1

5.1.2.1 (kp)

kp = 1 - 0.3 np (1 + np)
but 1.0
kp = 1 0.3 0.25 (1 + 0.25) but 1.0
from graph;
kp = 0.91

k p = 0.91

N 1,Rd =

For graph
5.1.2.1 Fig. 28

1 . 70 0 . 91 355 10 . 0 2
88 . 9 + 101 . 6 + 101 . 6
1 . 8 + 10 . 2
/ 1 .0
sin 45
3 193 . 7

N1,Rd = 538kN > 369kN PASS

For this type of configuration (see 5.6.2 Figure 51(c));


N 1,Ed sin 1 + N 3 ,Ed sin 3 N 1,Rd sin 1
369 sin 45 + 113 sin 90 538 sin 45
374 kN 380 kN

44

PASS

5.6.2

Welded Joints Examples

CHS Chord CHS Bracings Gap KT-Joint

Reference

N 2,Ed sin 2 N 1,Rd sin 1


448 sin 30 538 sin 45
244 kN 380 kN

PASS

Check for Chord Punching Shear failure;


Valid if:

di d0 2t0

where d0 2t0 = 193.7 (2 x 10.0) = 173.7 mm


d1 = 88.9 mm
d2 = 101.6 mm
d3 = 101.6 mm

5.1.3

Therefore check for Chord Punching Shear;


N i,Rd =

fy0
3

t 0 d1

1 + sin i
2 sin

5.1.3

/ M5

For Brace 1;
N 1,Rd =

355
3

10 . 0 88 . 9

N 1,Rd = 977 kN > 369 kN

1 + sin 45
2 sin 2 45

/ 1 .0

PASS

For Brace 2;
N 2,Rd =

355
3

10 . 0 101 . 6

N 2 ,Rd = 1963 kN > 488 kN

1 + sin 30
2 sin 2 30

/ 1 .0

PASS

For Brace 3;
N 3 ,Rd =

355
3

10 . 0 101 . 6

N 3 ,Rd = 654 kN > 113 kN

1 + sin 90
2 sin 2 90

/ 1 .0

PASS

Summary
Here, the validity limits are combined to include all three braces. The eccentricity values use both brace 1 and
2 (diagonals) in relation to brace 3 (the vertical brace). It is important to check the joint configuration and refer
to our Design of Welded Joints literature to make sure the correct method and formulae is used. To re-iterate
this is a theoretical method which is not supported by research or tests.

45

Welded Joints Examples

CHS Chord CHS Bracings Overlap KT-Joint

11 CHS Chord CHS Bracings Overlap KTJoint


References are generally to Tata Steel publication Design of Welded Joints (unless otherwise stated).

ALL MATERIAL;
CELSIUS 355 to EN 10210

Reference

N3,Ed = 113kN
N2,Ed = - 488kN

N1,Ed = 369kN
Brace 3

Brace 2

Brace 1

45
e = - 19.5
e1 = -73.2mm

512kN

50
e2 = -60.4mm

1087kN

RHS 200 x 100CHS


x 10193.7 x 10.0

NOTE: Brace j designated overlapped, Brace i overlapping


Brace 1 CHS is 88.9 x 5.0, Brace 2 and 3 is CHS 101.6 x 6.3
Dimensions
d0 = 193.7 mm
t0 = 10.0 mm
M5 = 1.0

d1 = 88.9 mm
t1 = 5.0 mm
A1 = 13.2 cm2
fu1 = 470 N/mm2

d2 = 101.6 mm
t2 = 6.3 mm
A2 = 18.9 cm2
fu2 = 470 N/mm2

d3 = 101.6 mm
t3 = 6.3 mm
A3 = 18.9 cm2
fu3 = 470 N/mm2

This example is to show how to calculate an overlap KT-Joint with CHS chord and braces. Please be
aware that there are no recommendations for an overlap KT- Joint in EN1993-1-8 or elsewhere as far
as Tata Steel is aware. This is a Tata Steel method and is included in the Tata Steel Design of Welded
Joints literature. It is a theoretical method which is not supported by research or tests. The method of
checking a KT-Joint depends on the direction of the brace forces, gap or overlap and chord section
profile. This example is for;

One diagonal brace opposite direction to the other two bracings


Both diagonal bracings overlapping
Circular chord and bracings

With this configuration, the joint capacity is based on the most highly loaded compression brace for
chord face failure. Please be aware that different overlap values may change how the joint is calculated
and you should refer to the Tata Design of Welded Joints literature before tackling any joint to make
sure you are using the correct method and formulae.The force combination of the braces can be seen
at 5.6.2 Figure 51(c) (as a (from left to right) compression-compression-tension) of our Design Of
Welded Joints literature. Due to one of the braces falling within the limits (overlapping percentage) for
the localised brace-to-chord shear check, this calculation has also been completed.

46

fu values taken
from Product
Standard
EN10210-1
Table A.3 as
required by UK
National Annex

Welded Joints Examples

CHS Chord CHS Bracings Overlap KT-Joint

Reference

Geometric Calculations
For Eccentricity; Brace 1 in relation to Brace 3;

sin 1 sin 3 d0
d1
d3
e1 =
+
+ g

2 sin 1 2 sin 3
sin (1 + 3 ) 2
Brace 1 to 3 overlap, ov = 71.6%;
where; g =
g1 =

ov d1
100 sin 1

6.5 Figure 57

71.6 88.9
1
100 sin (45)

g1 = 90 mm

(gap is negative as its an overlap)

sin (45 ) sin (90 ) 193 .7


88 .9
101 .6
e1 =
+
+ ( 90 .0 )

2
2 sin ( 45 ) 2 sin (90 )
sin (45 + 90 )
= 73 .2 mm
For Eccentricity, Brace 2 in relation to Brace 3;

sin 2 sin 3 d0
d2
d3
e2 =
+
+ g

2 sin 2 2 sin 3
sin (2 + 3 ) 2
Brace 2 to 3 overlap, ov = 65.2%;
ov d2
100 sin 2

where; g2 =

g2 =

6.5 Figure 57

65.2 101.6
100 sin (50)

g2 = 86.5 mm

(gap is negative as its an overlap)

101 .6
sin (50 ) sin (90 ) 193 .7
101 .6
e2 =
+
+ ( 86 .5 )

(
)
(
)
2
sin
50
2
sin
90
2

sin (50 + 90 )
= 60 .4 mm

Validity limits check for both K-Joints


10 d0/t0 50

d0/t0 = 193.7/10.0 = 19.37

5.1.1 Figure 27
PASS

d0/t0 702 (Class 1 or 2 for chord)


702 = 70 [(235/fy0)]2 = 70 (235/355)2 = 46.34
d0/t0 = 19.37 46.34
PASS

47

(EN1993-1-1)
Table 5.2

Welded Joints Examples

CHS Chord CHS Bracings Overlap KT-Joint

di/ti 50

d1/t1 = 88.9/5.0 = 17.78


d2/t2 = 101.6/6.3 = 16.13
d3/t3 = 101.6/6.3 = 16.13

PASS
PASS
PASS

2
di/ti 70 (Class 1 or 2 for compression bracings)
702 = 70 [(235/fy0)]2 = 70 (235/355)2 = 46.34
d1/t1= 17.78
PASS
d3/t3 = 16.13
PASS

0.2 di/d0 1.0

d1/b0 = 88.9/193.7 = 0.46


d2/b0 = 101.6/193.7 = 0.52
d3/b0 = 101.6/193.7 = 0.52

-0.55 d0 e +0.25 d0

-0.55 x 193.7 e +0.25 x 193.7


-106.5 e +48.4
e1 = -73.2 mm
e2 = -60.4 mm

ov 25%

30 i 90

Reference

(EN1993-1-1)
Table 5.2

PASS
PASS
PASS
5.1.1 Figure 27
PASS
PASS
6.5 Figure 57

ov,i = |g| sin i /di x 100%


ov,1 = 90.0 x sin 45/88.9 x 100%
ov,1 = 71.6%
ov,2 = 86.5 x sin 50/101.6 x 100%
ov,2 = 65.2%

PASS

1 = 45
2 = 50
3 = 90

PASS
PASS
PASS

PASS

Chord Face Failure (deformation);


Compression brace (1);

N 1,Rd =

k g k p fy0 t 0 2
sin 1

d
1 . 8 + 10 . 2 1 / M 5
d0

5.1.3 (K- & NJoints)

Gap/lap factor, kg;


Using Formulae:

0.024 1.2
k g = 0.2 1 +

1 + exp (0.5g / t 0 1.33 )


where;
=

d0
193 .7
=
= 9 .69
2 t 0 2 10 .0

Note: (g) is positive for gap and negative for overlap


Use the smallest overlap for (g)

48

5.1.2.2 (kg)

6.3 ()

Welded Joints Examples

CHS Chord CHS Bracings Overlap KT-Joint

Reference
Using Formulae:

0.024 9.691.2
k g = 9.69 0.2 1 +

1 + exp (0.5 ( 86 .5 ) / 10 .0 1.33 )

k g = 2.15

Using Graph:
From graph;
g/t0 = -86.5/10.0 = -8.7
kg = 2.15

For graph
5.1.2.2 Fig. 29

CHS chord end stress factor, kp


CHS chord least compressive applied factored stress, p,Ed;
p,Ed =

Np,Ed
A0

Mip,0,Ed
Wel,ip,0

5.1.2.1

Mop,0,Ed
Wel,op,0

Note: Moment is additive to compressive stress which is positive for moments.


For CHS chords use least compressive chord stress.

p,Ed =

512 1000
57.7 102

= 88.7 N/mm2

Chord factored stress ratio, np;


Using formulae:
For np > 0 (compression):

p,Ed 88.7
=
np =
= 0.25
fy0 355

Using graph:

5.1.2.1

5.1.2.1 (kp)

but 1.0
kp = 1 - 0.3 np (1 + np)
kp = 1 0.3 0.25 (1 + 0.25) but 1.0
from graph;
kp = 0.91

k p = 0.91

N 1,Rd =

For graph
5.1.2.1 Fig. 28

2 . 15 0 . 91 355 10 . 0 2
88 . 9
1 . 8 + 10 . 2
/ 1 .0
sin 45
193 . 7

N 1,Rd = 637 kN > 369 kN

PASS

Tension Brace (2);


N 2 ,Rd =

sin 1
N 1,Rd
sin 2

N 2,Rd =

sin 45
637
sin 50

N2,Rd = 588kN > 488kN

5.1.3

PASS

Chord Punching shear not required for overlapping bracings


49

Welded Joints Examples

CHS Chord CHS Bracings Overlap KT-Joint

Localised Brace-to-Chord Shear Check for overlapped Joints;

Reference

Although this failure mode check was included as a corrigendum in section 7.1.2 (6) of EN 1993-1-8, no
equations have been included in tables 7.2, 7.10, 7.21 or 7.24. In their absence, the following criteria for
adequacy of the shear connection may be used. They are based on research by CIDECT but expressed using
EN1993-1-8 symbols.
Modified equation only applicable when brace 3 is the overlapped brace (j) and diagonals 1 and 2 overlap (i).
For KT-Joint overlap joint check 60% < ov,1 or ov,2 < 100%;

( N 1,Ed cos 1 N 2,Ed cos 2

f u1

4 3

fu3
3

100 ov ,1

100

(c s1 d eff ,3

+ N 3 ,Ed cos 3 ) .......

2 d 1 + d eff ,1 t 1

+ u2
sin 1
3

100 ov ,2

100

5.1.3
(Modified for
three braces)

2 d 2 + d eff ,2 t 2

........
sin 2

+ c s 2 d eff ,3 ) t 3
1


sin 3
M5

where Brace Effective Width (overlapping braces);


d eff ,i =

fy0 t 0
12 t 0

d i but d eff ,i d i
d0
f yi t i

d eff ,1 =

12 10 . 0 355 10 . 0

88 . 9 but d eff ,1 88 . 9
193 . 7
355 5 . 0

d eff ,1 = 110 . 1 but d eff ,1 88 . 9


d eff ,1 = 88 . 9 mm

d eff ,2 =

12 10 . 0 355 10 . 0

101 . 6 but d eff , 2 101 . 6


193 . 7
355 6 . 3

d eff ,2 = 100 but d eff ,2 101 . 6


d eff ,2 = 100 mm

50

5.1.2.3

Welded Joints Examples

CHS Chord CHS Bracings Overlap KT-Joint

where Brace Effective Width (overlapped brace);

Reference

d eff , j =

fy0 t 0
12 t 0

d j but d eff , j d j
d0
f yj t j

d eff ,3 =

12 10 . 0 355 10 . 0

101 . 6 but d eff ,3 101 . 6


193 . 7
355 6 . 3

5.1.2.3

d eff ,3 = 100 but d eff ,3 101 . 6


d eff ,3 = 100 mm

Assume the hidden toes of braces 1 & 2 are NOT welded therefore;
c s1 = 1

5.1.3

c s 2 = 1 (If hidden toe /s welded c s = 2 )

Therefore;

(369 cos 45 ( 488 ) cos 50 + 113 cos 90 ) .......


100 71 . 6

2 88 . 9 + 88 . 9 5 . 0

100
470
470

4 3
sin 45
3

470
3

(1 100

100 65 . 2

2 101 . 6 + 100 6 . 3

100

........
sin 50

+ 1 100 ) 6 . 3 1 . 0

sin 90
1 .0

575 kN

(267467 + 380971 + 341907


4

575 kN

(989745
4

575 kN

778 kN PASS

) 1 .0

Summary
Here, the validity limits are combined to include all three braces. The eccentricity values use both brace 1 and
2 (diagonal) in relation to brace 3 (the vertical overlapped brace). The localised brace-to-chord shear check
has been completed due to the high overlap. Please note that even if one brace is within limits for the braceto-chord shear check, the check will still have to be calculated. In this example both diagonal braces overlap
within the limits for the shear check. The brace-to-chord shear check equation sees the addition of the
horizontal loads of the 3 bracings, the 2 angled braces having loads that result in the same horizontal
direction. This means the brace 2 load (negative tension load) had to be subtracted so that the doublenegative created a positive result so that the equation calculated correctly. It is important to check the joint
configuration and refer to our Design of Welded Joints literature to make sure the correct method and
formulae is used. To re-iterate this is a theoretical method which is not supported by research or tests.
51

Welded Joints Examples

UB Chord RHS Bracings Gap K-Joint

12 UB Chord RHS Bracings Gap K-Joint


References are generally to Tata Steel publication Design of Welded Joints (unless otherwise stated).

Reference

MATERIAL;
BRACES: CELSIUS S355 to EN 10210
UB CHORD: ADVANCE S355 to EN 10025
N1,Ed = 150 kN

N2,Ed = -150 kN

SHS 100 x 100 x 6.3


g = 165.8mm

45

45

Np,Ed = 250 kN

UB 305 x 127 x 48 (S355)

N0,Ed = 462 kN

Dimensions
b0 = 125.3 mm
h0 = 311.0 mm
tw = 9.0 mm
tf = 14.0 mm
dw = h0 2 x (tf r0) = 265.2 mm
r0 = 8.9 mm

h1 = 100.0 mm
b1 = 100.0 mm
t1 = 6.3 mm

h2 = 100.0 mm
b2 = 100.0 mm
t2 = 6.3 mm

Validity limits check

52

5.7.1 Figure 55
(EN1993-1-1
Table 5.2)

Chord: Web;
dw/tw 38 (Class 1 or 2 compression)
38 = 38 (235/fy0) = 38 (235/355) = 30.92
dw/tw = 265.2/9 = 29.5
dw 400 dw = 265.2
Chord: Flange;
cf/tf 10 (Class 1 or 2 compression)
10 = 10 (235/fy0) = 10 (235/355) = 8.1
cf = (b0 2r0 - tw)/2 = (125.3 2 8.9 9)/2 = 49.25
cf/tf = 49.25/14.0 = 3.52

PASS

Compression and Tension brace:


hi/ti = 100/6.3 = 15.87
hi/ti 35
bi/ti = 100/6.3 = 15.87
bi/ti 35
hi/bi = 1.0
hi/bi = 100/100 = 1.0

PASS
PASS
PASS

Compression brace:
(b1 3t1)/t1 ; (h1 3t1)/t1 38 (Class 1 or 2 compression)
38 = 38 (235/355) = 30.92
(b1 3t1)/ t1 = (100 3 6.3)/6.3 = 81.1/6.3 = 12.87

PASS

PASS
PASS
(EN1993-1-1
Table 5.2)

Welded Joints Examples

UB Chord RHS Bracings Gap K-Joint

g t1 + t2 = 6.3 + 6.3 = 12.6


g = 165.8 (zero eccentricity)
1 = 45
30 1 90
2 = 45
30 2 90

Reference
PASS
PASS
PASS

Chord Web Yielding;


N 1,Rd =

where

f y 0 t w b w ,i
sin i

b w ,i

/ M5

5.7.4

hi
+ 5 (t f + r 0 )
sin i

b w ,1 =

but 2 t i + 10 (t f + r 0 )

100
+ 5 (14 . 0 + 8 . 9 )
sin 45

bw,1 = 255.92

5.7.2

but 2 6 . 3 + 10 (14 . 0 + 8 . 9 )

but 241.6

bw,1 = 241.6 mm and bw,2 = bw,1 as same brace and angle dimensions.
Therefore;
N 1,Rd =

355 9 . 0 241 . 6
/ 1 . 0 = 1092 kN
sin 45

and N2,Rd = N1,Rd as same brace and angle dimensions


PASS

1092 > 150 kN

Chord Shear;
N i,Rd =

where

f y0 A v0
3 sin i

/ M5

5.7.4

Av,0 = A0 (2 - ) x b0 x tf + (tw + 2r) x tf

5.7.3

where
=

1
2

1 + 4 g

3 tf2

1
2

1 + 4 165 . 8

3 14 . 0 2

= 0.073

Av,0 = 6120 (2 - 0.073) x 125.3 x 14.0 + (9.0 + 2 x 8.9) x 14.0


2

Av,0 = 3114.9 mm

53

5.7.3

Welded Joints Examples

UB Chord RHS Bracings Gap K-Joint

Reference

N 1,Rd =

355 3114 . 9
3 sin 45

/ 1 .0

N 1,Rd = 903 kN

and N2,Rd = N1,Rd as same brace and angle dimensions


PASS

903kN > 150 kN

Bracing Effective Width;


N i,Rd = 2 f yi t i p eff ,i / M 5

5.7.4

Check if Bracing Effective Width required

(Page 60 Welded Joints Literature);

g / tf 20 - 28
165.8 / 14.0 20 28 (100+100+100+100/4 x 125.3)
11.8 -2.4
where

Check Effective Width;

peff,i = tw + 2r + 7tf x (fy0 / fyi)

5.7.2

but bi + hi 2ti for K or N gap joints


peff,1 = 9.0 + 2 x 8.9 + 7 x 14.0 x (355/355)
but 100 + 100 2 x 6.3
peff,1 = 124.8 but 187.4
and peff,2 = peff,1 as same brace and angle dimensions
N 1,Rd = 2 355 6 . 3 124 . 8 1 . 0

PASS

558kN > 150kN


and N2,Rd = N1,Rd as same brace and angle dimensions

Chord Axial Force Resistance in gap;

N 0,gap ,Rd = (A 0 A v ,0 ) f y 0 + A v ,0 f y 0 1

where

V 0,Ed = max N 1,Ed sin 1 , N 2,Ed sin 2

V 0,Ed = max 150 sin 45 , 150 sin 45


54

/ M5

V 0,Ed

V pl ,0,Rd

5.7.4
5.7.4

Welded Joints Examples

UB Chord RHS Bracings Gap K-Joint

Vo,Ed = 106.1kN

where

Vpl,0,Rd =

A v ,0 f y 0 /
M0

Reference
3

) = 3141 .8 (355 / 3 )
1 .0

5.7.4

Vpl,0,Rd = 643.9kN

N 0 ,gap ,Rd = (6120 3141 . 8 ) 355 + 3141 . 8 355

106 . 1
1
/ 1 .0
643 . 9

N0,gap,Rd = 2077kN

check;

N0,gap,Rd N0,gap,Ed
150kN

150kN

250kN
250.0
+106.1
356.1

Therefore;

N0,gap,Ed = 356.1kN
2077kN 356.1kN

55

PASS

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Tata Steel Europe Limited

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