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Construction and Building Materials 61 (2014) 5059

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Construction and Building Materials


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/conbuildmat

An investigation on mechanical and physical properties of recycled


aggregate concrete (RAC) with and without silica fume
H. Dilbas, M. S imsek, . akr
Yldz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, 34220 Istanbul, Turkey

h i g h l i g h t s
 RAC with 5% SF increases the ratio of tensile splitting strength to compressive strength.
 The ratio of tensile splitting strength to compressive strength of RAC decreases with 10% SF.
 Suitable proportion of the replacement of NA with RA is 30%.

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 13 November 2013
Received in revised form 13 February 2014
Accepted 17 February 2014
Available online 21 March 2014
Keywords:
Recycled aggregate
Silica fume
Mechanical properties
Physical properties
Regression analysis

a b s t r a c t
Experimental studies for determining the mechanical and the physical properties of the recycled
aggregate concrete (RAC) with and without silica fume (SF) is inspired by the Urban Renewal Law which
regulates circumstance of existing structures in Turkey. According to this law, the structures which have
been built lacking quality engineering, built without considering urban planning, and are risk prone (i.e.
susceptible to earthquakes), will be demolished and rebuilt using recent Turkish Standards. Implementing this law is expected to increase the quantity of waste concrete. Minimizing waste disposal through
structural and non-structural areas without a harmful effect on nature has a vital importance in Turkey.
In this study, demolished-building-rubble is used as recycled aggregate (RA) with and without SF in concrete mixtures. Twelve concrete mixtures in three groups are produced, and the mechanical properties of
the concrete specimens such as compressive strength, tensile splitting strength and elasticity modulus,
and physical properties of the concrete specimens such as density and water absorption ratio are determined. The proportion 30% of RA in concrete mixtures is proposed as the optimum ratio. Low regression
coefcient of RAC with SF is observed in the short-term. It is found that 5% SF content in the RAC is more
convenient to improve the low properties of RAC (i.e. compressive strength).
2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
In the construction industry, concrete is the most common and
useful material. Concrete has contributed to the advancement of
civilizations throughout history. In recent years, the accelerating
urbanization causes excessive works of destruction and construction activities. Constructional waste storage, management, and
transformation into recycled aggregate (RA) for construction usage
requires large amounts of land and is costly. The most common
approaches to minimizing waste are through landlls and
road-bed applications [14].

Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 2123835242; fax: +90 2123835133.


E-mail addresses: hdilbas@yildiz.edu.tr, hasandilbas@gmail.com (H. Dilbas),
msimsek@yildiz.edu.tr, mesutsimsek@gmail.com (M. Simsek), cozgur@yildiz.edu.tr
(. akr).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.02.057
0950-0618/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

In many countries, regulations and procedures on reusing waste


materials in construction applications have been established, and
many countries have also begun transforming constructional
wastes into RA [2,48]. In Turkey, The Law on Transformation of
the Areas under Disaster Risk, (Turkish Law 6306, May 16, 2012),
regulates the durability of existing structures. The structures
which were built lacking quality engineering, without utilizing
urban planning, and are risk prone (i.e. susceptible to earthquakes)
will be demolished and rebuilt using recent Turkish Standards and
Urban Renewal Plans of local administrations [9]. It is estimated
that after a few decades all risk prone structures in Turkey will
be demolished and rebuilt according to the new standards. In
March 2006, the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality and the
Istanbul Environmental Management in Industry and Trade Inc.
_
(ISTA)
prepared a plan, called Construction and Demolition Waste
Management Plan. According to the plan, it was decided that
import centers would be established at each municipality to collect

51

H. Dilbas et al. / Construction and Building Materials 61 (2014) 5059

local wastes. The import centers will send the wastes to two
recycling construction waste facilities which are located on the
Anatolian and European side of Istanbul [10].
The production of RA has only recently been studied in Turkey.
Therefore, the studies on recycling concrete are still very limited
[1015]. The studies that have been conducted indicate concerns
with RA. In other countries, in order to evaluate the demolition
waste in concrete, researchers studied the mechanical behavior
and other properties of RAC [1633]. It was revealed that RAC up
to C32/40 strength class was able to be produced by using 70% natural aggregate (NA) and 30% RA [16], and similarly the proportion
of RA up to 30% in concrete was suitable replacing ne NA with ne
RA [27]. It was reported that the Poissons ratio was independent of
the RA ratio in concrete and Poissons ratio was found ranging from
0.14 to 0.20 for all replacement [17]. Belen et al. [22] determined
stressstrain curves of RAC and compared the curves with the
proposed model equation. The experimental results of their study
included the code curve and tted curves for a specimen. It was
detected that the use of recycled aggregate affected the values of
modulus of elasticity. Pereira et al. [25] used two types of superplasticizers in RAC with ne recycled aggregate. They found that the
performance of RAC with incorporation of recycled aggregate only
was poorer than the performance of NAC. However, the mechanical
performance of RAC was generally increased when superplasticizer
was utilized in the mixture. Sheen et al. [26] produced RAC using
concrete wastes from the earthquake of Chi-Chi in Taiwan. They
observed that the compressive strength of RAC was affected by
RA; because ne ingredients decreased the compressive strength.
Also, it was observed that high water absorption had a negative effect on the strength of RAC. Sagoe-Crenstil et al. [29] examined the
mechanical and workability properties of RAC. They found that RA,
produced in a plant, had smoother and spherical particles, which
made the workability of RAC easy.
Moreover, mineral additions usage at various ratios and types
replacing cement in RAC was found suitable to enhance the
properties [1820,3032]. Kou et al. [32] prepared some mixtures
containing NA, RA, and mineral additions such as y ash, SF,
metakaolin, and ground granulated blast slag. The study concluded
that mineral additions increased the performance of RAC. For
example, SF and metakaolin improved both the mechanical and
the durability properties. Fly ash and ground granulated blast slag
improved essentially durability performance.
On the other hand, in recent researches [28,34], RA in concrete
has been utilized in reinforced concrete elements. The reinforced
RAC elements were produced in a scale of various ratios with
respect to current size [34], the behavior reinforced RAC elements
were observed in laboratory conditions [28,34] and Gonzalez and
Moriconi [34] concluded that the use of 30% RA content in reinforced RAC under cycling loading was convenient for the structures
in seismic areas.
The objective of this study is to investigate the mechanical and
the physical properties of concretes containing SF at various ratios
(0510%) and replacing ne and/or coarse NA with RA. In this
study, the rubble of a demolished building in the Stlce neighborhood in Istanbul is used. The RA (with and without SF) is utilized to
examine the usability of RA and SF with content of 0%, 5%, and 10%
instead of the conventional concrete. The crushed basalt aggregates
(natural ne aggregate (NA1) and natural coarse aggregate (NA2))
and siliceous sand are used in the concrete mixtures. Also recycled
ne aggregate (RA1) and recycled coarse aggregate (RA2) are used
as RA in the concrete mixtures. For this purpose, twelve concrete
mixtures in three groups are produced, and the mechanical properties such as the compressive strength, the tensile splitting strength,
elasticity modulus, physical properties such as density and water
absorption of RAC are investigated. Each group has four concrete
mixtures. The conventional concrete mixture with natural

aggregate (NA), also named as natural aggregate concrete (NAC),


is included in the rst group. The groups, mixture names and notations are listed in the tables. The regression analysis between the
tensile splitting strength, the compressive strength, the ratios of
the tensile splitting strength to the compressive strength, and the
evaluation of the tensile splitting strength only are examined. Some
suggestions about RA and RAC properties are indicated to researchers and designers who will use the RA in future.
2. Experimental studies
2.1. Materials
2.1.1. Cement and SF
Type I general use Portland cement (PC) compatible with Turkish Standard
Cement-Part 1: Composition, specications and conformity criteria for common
cements (TS EN 197-1 (2012)), and SF suitable with American Society for Testing
and Materials Standard Specication for Silica Fume Used in Cementitious
Mixtures (ASTM C 1240-12) are used in the concrete mixtures. The chemical and
physical properties of cement and SF are given in Table 1.
2.1.2. Aggregates
Natural aggregate (NA) and recycled aggregate (RA) are used as the ne and the
coarse aggregate in the concrete mixtures. In this analysis, crushed basalt aggregate
is employed as NA. The particle size distribution of NA and RA is performed to the
requirements of Turkish Standard Aggregates for concrete (TS 706 EN 12620
(April 2003)). The RA sources are supplied from rubble of a demolished building
from the Stlce neighborhood in Istanbul. The demolished material undergoes
on-site crushing and on-laboratory crushing in two steps. In the rst step, the rubble is collected on site area without classication of the rubble components such as
concrete, brick, marble and etc., and then the rubble is crushed into small pieces
approximate diameter <30 mm by using hammer manually in the laboratory. In
the second step, a laboratory jaw crusher is employed in order to obtain RA having
size fractions <30 mm. The crusher has two jaws, and one of the jaws is replaceable
and another jaw is xed. Also it is possible to adjust the distance between the jaws
replacing the jaw with another one.
After production of RA, at rst crushed rubble is classied as RA1 and RA2 with
particle sizes 48 mm and 832 mm, respectively, as similar to NA1, and NA2 using
sieves with sieve apertures 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, and 1 mm. Then, the physical properties
of RA1 and RA2 are determined, and are classied using sieves with sieve apertures
32, 16, 8, 4, 2, and 1 mm. Afterwards, any quantity of retained RA on any sieve is
stocked separately in a container which have same number of the sieve aperture.
RA1 and RA2 contain not only crushed concrete but also various impurities as
shown in Table 2 and Fig. 1. Siliceous sand, which has particles whose diameter
is smaller than 4 mm, is used in all concrete mixtures. The physical and mechanical
properties of aggregates are determined using Turkish Standards. Density and
water absorption tests are performed in accordance with Tests for mechanical
and physical properties of aggregates-Part 6: Determination of particle density
and water absorption (TS EN 1097-6/AC (2006)), Los Angeles abrasion loss is
determined in accordance with Tests for mechanical and physical properties of
aggregates-Part 2: Methods for the determination of resistance to fragmentation
(TS EN 1097-2 (2010)). Chemical properties of RA are also determined according
to Tests for chemical properties of aggregates Part 1: Chemical analysis (TS
EN 1744-1 (2011)) and results are listed in Table 3.
2.1.3. Superplasticizer
Polycarboxylic ether based superplasticizer is utilized in order to enhance low
workability of the mixtures. Therefore, the slump class of all mixtures is set to
slump class S4 so that the workability of all mixtures is constant. Note that the
Table 1
Properties of cement and SF.
Contents

Cement

SF

SiO2 (%)
CaO (%)
SO3 (%)
Al2O3 (%)
Fe2O3 (%)
MgO (%)
Structure of material
Density (g/cm3)
Chlorine ratio (%)
Specic surface area (m2/kg)
Activity index (%)
Particle ratio (<0.045 mm)
Loss on ignition (%)

22.0
64.9
2.7
5.9
3.5
0.9

3.16

3540

1.2

>85
<1
<2

Condensed microsilica
0.550.70
<1
15000
>95
<40%

52

H. Dilbas et al. / Construction and Building Materials 61 (2014) 5059


absorption rate, the RA is pre-soaked in water for 24 h before casting. Hence as
approximately the same amount of superplasticizer is used with increasing RA content in the mixtures as demonstrated in Table 5 and S4 slump class is obtained.
Poon et al. [35] mentioned that a small change in the initial slump of concretes included RA in surface-dried condition at any replacement percentages was observed.
Also there is no observation of any bleeding or segregation for any of the concrete
mixtures tested.
Moreover, in order to determine how SF has an effect on the mechanical and the
physical properties of the specimens, 0%, 5% and 10% SF content is used in the
mixtures. For instance, the specimen RA12CSF10 with 10% SF contains 315 kg/m3
cement and 35 kg/m3 SF, as demonstrated in Table 6.
Sand content is constant in all the concrete mixtures. The amounts of RA in RAC
mixtures are presented in Table 6.

Table 2
The component of RA1, and RA2.
Content

RA1 (%)

RA2 (%)

Concrete
Ceramic, and tile
Brick
Marble
Styropor
Other (insulation materials, wallpaper, gypsum)

84.64
4.96
5.48
4.92

72.32
10.68
10.4
5.01
0.11
1.58

Total

100

100

2.3. Specimens and curing


In the production stage of this study, 100  200 mm cylinder specimens are
produced to evaluate the tensile splitting strength, density and water absorption
value. 150  300 mm cylinder specimens are also produced to determine the
compressive strength and the static modulus of elasticity. The specimens are cast
in plastic moulds, and compacted using a vibrating table. After remolding, all specimens are cured in a water-curing tank at 20 2 C, until 28 days. It should be noted
that these curing conditions are compatible with Turkish Standard Testing hardened concrete-Part 2: Making and curing specimens for strength tests (TS EN
12390-2 (2010)).
2.4. Tests

Fig. 1. A scene after tensile splitting strength test is applied on a specimen


containing recycled aggregate. Colorful aggregates demonstrates the variety in
recycled aggregate. (For interpretation of the references to color in this gure
legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

slump class is chosen according to Turkish Standard Concrete-Part 1: Specication,


performance, production and conformity (TS EN 206-1 (2002)). The density of
superplasticizer ranges 1.0821.142 kg/l with color of amber. Other properties of
the superplasticizer are presented in Table 4.

2.2. Concrete mixtures


Twelve groups of concrete mixtures that contain the previously mentioned
aggregates and have the target initial slump class S4 are produced in the laboratory.
For the sake of the convenience, the notations of the concrete mixtures are specied
in Table 5. The absolute volume method is employed to design the mix proportions
of the concrete mixtures shown in Table 6. In all the mixtures, the water/binder
ratio (w/b) is a constant value of w/b = 0.5, and the quantity of the cement is
350 kg/m3.
The concrete is mixed in a laboratory in a pan mixer. The coarse/ne aggregates
and sand are rst dry blended for one minute. PC and SF are then added and dry
blended for a further minutes. Two thirds of water is added and mixing is continued
for another minute. The remaining water and superplasticizer are then added and
the total mixing time is ve minutes. Concrete is cast in accordance with Standard
Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory (ASTM
C192/C192M13a (2013)) and vibrated till large air bubbles occurs and blows at
the top surface. In addition the slump of mixes with NA and RA with/without SF
is similar (18 cm 2 cm). Due to the rougher surface textures of crushed particles
and greater angularity compared with the smooth, rounded natural aggregates, it
is expected that the RAC mixtures are less workable. Owing to its high water

2.4.1. Compressive and tensile splitting strengths


In order to assess the compressive and the tensile splitting strengths of specimens, experimental studies are performed in accordance with Turkish Standard
Testing hardened concrete Part 3: Compressive strength of test specimens
(TS EN 12390-3 (2010)), and Testing hardened concrete-Part 6: Tensile splitting
strength of test specimens(TS EN 12390-6 (2010)). The tests are conducted at
the age of 28 days. A compression machine with a loading capacity 3000 kN is used
in the experiment. The loading rates are applied rst to the compressive strength
test with value 10.6 kN/s, and secondly to the tensile splitting strength test with
value 1.6 kN/s. The results for the compressive and the tensile splitting strengths
of specimens are displayed in Table 7.
2.4.2. Static modulus of elasticity
The tests of the static modulus of elasticity are conducted according to the
American Society for Testing and Materials Standard Test Method for Static
Modulus of Elasticity and Poissons Ratio of Concrete in Compression (ASTM C
469 (2002)). The compressometer equipment (Fig. 2) have been specially designated considering ASTM C 469 (2002). The tests are applied on the 150  300 mm
cylindrical specimens at the age of 28 days. As a result of the tests, the stressstrain
curves are obtained. The results of the static modulus of elasticity are demonstrated
in Table 7.
2.4.3. Density and water absorption ratio
The density and water absorption ratio tests of specimens are applied on the
specimens 100  200 mm cylindrical dimensions in accordance with Turkish
Standard Testing hardened concrete-Part 7: Density of hardened concrete (TS
12390-7 (2010)) at the age of 28 days, and the results are shown in Table 7.

3. Results and discussions


3.1. Compressive strength
The compressive strength results of the concrete at the age of
28 days are shown in Table 7 and Fig. 3. Each presented value is
the average of test results of the three specimens. The results

Table 3
The physical properties of sand, NA and RA.
Type

Density
(kg/dm3)

Water
absorption (%)

Initial moisture
content (%)

Chlorides
content, (%)

Water-soluble
sulfates (%)

Total
sulfates (%)

Total sulfur
content (%)

Fineness
modulus

Los Angeles
abrasion (%)

Sand
NA1
NA2
RA1
RA2

2.55
2.75
2.72
2.33
2.23

1.2
0.8
0.6
3.8
4.3

1.05
0.67
0.53
2.10
2.32

0.57
0.53

0.65
0.71

0.76
0.80

0.81
0.86

2.12
5.57
6.41
5.50
6.44

24.32

41.40

53

H. Dilbas et al. / Construction and Building Materials 61 (2014) 5059


Table 4
The properties of superplasticizer.
Content

Superplasticizer

Structure of material
Color
Density (kg/l)
Chlorine ratio (%)
Alkaline ratio (%)

Polycarboxylic ether
Amber
1.0821.142
<0.1
<3

Table 5
The notation of mixtures, expansion of notations, and groups.
Notation

Expansion of notation

1st Group
NAC
RA1C
RA2C
RA12C

Conventional concrete containing NA1 and NA2


Concrete containing RA1 and NA2
Concrete containing NA1 and RA2
Concrete containing both RA1 and RA2

2nd Group
NACSF5
RA1CSF5
RA2CSF5
RA12CSF5

Conventional concrete containing NA1, NA2 and SF content 5%


Concrete containing RA1, NA2 and SF content 5%
Concrete containing NA1, RA2 and SF content 5%
Concrete containing both RA1 and RA2, and SF content 5%

3rd Group
NACSF10
RA1CSF10
RA2CSF10
RA12CSF10

Conventional concrete containing NA1, NA2 and SF content 10%


Concrete containing RA1, NA2 and SF content 10%
Concrete containing NA1, RA2 and SF content 10%
Concrete containing both RA1 and RA2 and SF content 10%

demonstrate that the compressive strength decreases with the


replacement of the NA with RA.
The compressive strengths of RA1C, RA2C and RA12C are reduced by 7.8%, 4.7%, and 18.7% in comparison to the strength of
NAC. The strength of concrete depends on the strength of the
aggregates, the cement matrix and the interfacial transition
zone (ITZ) between the matrix and the aggregates is well-known.
The failure in the concrete occurs at the weakest point. It is demonstrated in macroscopic-scale in Fig. 1 that RA in the concrete is
found broken after the tests are applied to the specimen. Hence,
the weakest point, being in these RAC, is the RA itself. In other
words, the discontinuities in the structure of RA, are cracks due
to crushing processes and higher porosity due to the properties
of adhered old mortar, decrease the strength of RAC.

The data from Table 7 shows that using SF in RAC improves


generally the strength of RAC. On the other hand, despite using
SF content, a sharp decrease is observed in the strength of
RA12CSF10 with value 28.9 MPa. It is known that SFs effects (the
pozzolonic effect and ller effect) improve all the mechanical properties of the concrete but, particularly, its compressive strength
[36]. Due to the recycled aggregates being more porous, some part
of the cement and silica fume would be able to penetrate into the
aggregate, which subsequently would increase the bond strength
between the aggregates and hydrated cementitious matrix. With
the presence of silica fume, the cracks in the recycled aggregates
were reduced due to the healing effect after longer curing of silica
fume blended cement pastes. Therefore, the concrete made with
recycled concrete aggregate, and the quality of the interfacial transition zone, was better than that of the old paste and natural aggregate concrete. The bond between the new cement paste and
recycled concrete aggregate was enhanced [37,38].
In this study, RA12CSF10 contains great amount of RA approximately 70%. The RA contains old aggregates with adhered old mortars which have linked and open cracks. However the cracks are
lled and RA is enhanced by SF and the positive effect on the
strengths may take a long time. In short-term (at the age of
28 days), the result of those a sharp decrease in compressive
strength in comparison to NAC is observed. In long-term the
change in compressive strength of RAC included SF and impurities
can be investigated in further researches. On the other hand,
Wagih et al. [39] used recycled construction and demolition waste
concrete as aggregate in the mixtures at various ratios (02550
75100%) in their experimental study. It was found that 10% SF
content in the mixtures included RA with no impurities improved
the compressive strength at the age of 28 days. It is concluded by
authors that the impurities of RA may reduce the effect of SF on
the compressive strength in the present study.
It is found that the compressive strength of RA12CSF5 is higher
than the results of RA12C and RA12CSF10. The compressive
strengths of RA1CSF5, RA2CSF5 and RA12CSF5 are reduced by
12.8%, 11.8% and 16.8% in comparison to the compressive strength
of NACSF5. Also, the compressive strength of RA1CSF10, RA2CSF10
and RA12CSF10 are reduced by 18.2%, 15.4% and 35.5% in comparison to the compressive strength of NACSF10.
Another interesting result is due to the fact that the compressive strengths of RA1CSF10 and RA2CSF10 are higher than NAC
with compressive strength values 37.2 and 38.5 MPa, respectively.
In addition, the compressive strength of RA2CSF5 is closer to NAC

Table 6
Concrete mix proportions.
Mixes

Constitution (kg/m3)
Water

Composite of binder
Cement

Mineral admixture

Chemical admixture

Natural aggregate

Recycled aggregate (over sieve)

Sand

Fine

Coarse

16 mm

8 mm

4 mm

2 mm

1 mm

1st Group
NAC
RA1C
RA2C
RA12C

175
175
175
175

350.0
350.0
350.0
350.0

0
0
0
0

0.096
0.289
0.289
0.289

538
538
538
538

777
0
777
0

576
576
0
0

0
29
202
231

0
384
259
642

0
205
2
208

0
26
0
26

0
4
0
4

2nd Group
NACSF5
RA1CSF5
RA2CSF5
RA12CSF5

175
175
175
175

332.5
332.5
332.5
332.5

17.5
17.5
17.5
17.5

0.289
0.385
0.385
0.385

538
538
538
538

777
0
777
0

576
576
0
0

0
29
202
231

0
384
259
642

0
205
2
208

0
26
0
26

0
4
0
4

3rd Group
NACSF10
RA1CSF10
RA2CSF10
RA12CSF10

175
175
175
175

315.0
315.0
315.0
315.0

35.0
35.0
35.0
35.0

0.501
0.462
0.385
0.385

538
538
538
538

777
0
777
0

576
576
0
0

0
29
202
231

0
384
259
642

0
205
2
208

0
26
0
26

0
4
0
4

54

H. Dilbas et al. / Construction and Building Materials 61 (2014) 5059

Table 7
The results of tests of the concrete mixtures at the age of 28 days.
Notation

SF (%)

RA (%)

Slump (cm)

Slump class

Compressive
strength (MPa)

Static elasticity
modulus (MPa)

Splitting tensile
strength (MPa)

Density (kg/m3)

Water
absorption (%)

1st Group
NAC
RA1C
RA2C
RA12C

0
0
0
0

0
40
30
70

17
19
18
18

S4
S4
S4
S4

35.8
33.0
34.1
29.1

28095
23437
25167
22896

2.25
2.24
2.41
1.58

2478
2202
2234
2038

4.8
7.0
6.4
9.1

2nd Group
NACSF5
RA1CSF5
RA2CSF5
RA12CSF5

5
5
5
5

0
40
30
70

18
19
17
18

S4
S4
S4
S4

39.9
34.8
35.2
33.2

25619
25541
25571
22026

2.62
2.52
2.97
1.92

2347
2175
2211
2031

5.4
7.7
7.2
10.1

3rd Group
NACSF10
RA1CSF10
RA2CSF10
RA12CSF10

10
10
10
10

0
40
30
70

19
16
20
16

S4
S4
S4
S4

45.5
37.2
38.5
28.9

27721
24968
21162
22098

3.40
2.46
2.63
1.62

2375
2200
2252
2061

3.6
5.5
4.7
7.2

30% and 30% for RA1CSF10, RA2CSF10 and RA2CSF5. This indicates
that when RA content is approximately 3040% in RAC, SF content
has a positive effect on the compressive strength, as reported in the
study of Corinaldesi and Moriconi [18].
3.2. Tensile splitting strength

Compressometer

Fig. 2. A scene while compressive strength test is being done. Also picture shows
compressometers which is located on the specimen.

and that is 35.2 MPa. It can be concluded from the above results
that RA1CSF10, RA2CSF10 and RA2CSF5 are more suitable for use
instead of NAC, if compressive strength is considered only. As demonstrated in Table 7, the proportion of RA content in RAC is 40%,

The tensile splitting strength of the specimens is determined at


the age of 28 days. The results of the tensile splitting strength and
the ratios of the tensile splitting strength to the compressive
strength with the change of SF and RA content are presented in
Tables 7 and 8.
In the literature, there are two approaches to evaluate the tensile splitting strength [2931]. In the rst method, the ratio of the
tensile splitting strength to the compressive strength is considered.
The second procedure takes into account the tensile splitting
strength only. The evaluation is able to be done using both methods, also using the regression analysis between the compressive
strength and/or the tensile splitting strength.
It is seen that the tensile splitting strengths of the specimens
RA1C with 0% and 5% SF content are approximately equal to those
of NAC specimens with same SF content. This means that the usage
of the recycled ne aggregate, which is called RA1, has no signicant impact on the tensile splitting strength. Besides, it is interesting to note that for 0% and 5% SF contents, the tensile splitting
strengths of the specimens contains the recycled coarse aggregate
called RA2 are greater than the strengths of the conventional concrete specimen (NAC). Another interesting result from Table 7 is
that the usage of SF content in RAC has a marginal increasing effect
on the tensile splitting strength, i.e., the tensile splitting strength is
obtained as 2.24, 2.52 and 2.46 for the specimens RA1C, RA1CSF5
and RA1CSF10. Further, a drastic decrease is observed in the tensile
splitting strength if the aggregates RA1 and RA2 used in the same
mixture.
Table 8 shows the effect of SF contents on the ratios of the tensile splitting strength to the compressive strength. It is observed
from Table 8 that the ratios of the specimens RA1CSF5, RA2CSF5
and RA12CSF5 (i.e., 0.072, 0.084, 0.058) are greater than those of
RA1C, RA2C and RA12C (i.e., 0.068, 0.071, 0.054). This increment
in the ratios stems from the usage of 5% SF content. On the other
hand, when the percentage of SF content is increased from 5% to
10%, as seen from Table 8, the ratios of RAC are affected, inversely.
At the same time, it is clear that for 5% and 10% percentages, SF
content has an increasing effect on the ratios of all NAC specimens.
Hence the ratio of splitting tensile strength to compressive

55

H. Dilbas et al. / Construction and Building Materials 61 (2014) 5059

40

30

20

RA12CSF10

RA2CSF10

RA1CSF10

NACSF10

RA12CSF5

RA2CSF5

RA1CSF5

NACSF5

RA12C

NAC

RA2C

10

RA1C

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH, FC, MPA

50

CONCRETE SERIES
Fig. 3. Compressive strength of specimens.

Table 8
The ratio of tensile splitting strength to compressive strength, RA content and SF
content.
Notation
1st Group
NAC
RA1C
RA2C
RA12C
2nd Group
NACSF5
RA1CSF5
RA2CSF5
RA12CSF5
3rd Group
NACSF10
RA1CSF10
RA2CSF10
RA12CSF10

SF (%)

RA (%)

Ratio

0
40
30
70

0.063
0.068
0.071
0.054

0
40
30
70

0.066
0.072
0.084
0.058

10

0
40
30
70

0.075
0.066
0.068
0.056

strength of RAC is 5.48.4% and the ratio of splitting tensile


strength to compressive strength of NAC is 6.37.5%. It is clear that
the gap between the upper and lower limits of the ratios of RAC is
greater than that of NAC. The similar results is found by Jau et al.
[40] that the ratio for RAC is 7.4412.72% and that of NAC is
8.2511.13%.
In Table 8, the variation of the ratios with RA content is presented for the three groups tested. The results show that RA proportion in concrete mixture up to 40% increases the ratios of the
specimens in the rst and the second groups, and the further increase in the RA content (i.e., 70%) yields a decrease in the ratios
of both groups. A careful inspection of Table 8 indicates that the
most appropriate proportion of RA content is 30% for RAC with/
without SF. A similar recommendation for RA content was made
by the study of Evangelista and Brito [27]. However, it is explicit
that the ratios of the third group are reduced with all RA proportions when SF content is 10%.
3.3. Correlation between compressive strength and tensile splitting
strength
The correlation between compressive strength and tensile
strength was tested. In Figs. 4 and 5, the relationships between

the compressive strength and the tensile splitting strength of the


concrete are displayed. From Fig. 4, the correlation coefcient for
all specimens is found as 0.46. It can be realized from Fig. 5 that
there is a high correlation between the results of NAC, NACSF5
and NACSF10 (i.e. 0.70), as represented by the red trend line. However, the low correlation coefcients, i.e., 0.28, 0.27 and 0.38 for
specimens included RA1, RA2 and RA12 are obtained from the
regression analyses. Similarly in an experimental study by Kou
and Poon [30], low correlation coefcient (0.355) between the
compressive strength and the tensile splitting strength of RAC
was mentioned. The analyses points out that the correlation between the compressive strength and the tensile splitting strength
of RAC is poor. This might be due to the fact that RA content significantly improves the tensile splitting strength of the concrete
according to the compressive strength, as can be seen from Table 7.
On the other hand, as presented in Table 9 the strength results
of specimens included NA have the greatest standard deviations
(i.e. 6.1115 MPa for compressive strength and 0.6723 MPa for tensile splitting strength). Also it is presented in Fig. 5 that the specimens included NA, have the highest correlation coefcient (i.e.
0.70). Evaluating Table 9 and Fig. 5, the specimens included RA
have the low standard deviations and low correlation coefcients.
Hence it can be commented that low correlation coefcients between compressive and tensile splitting strengths is not originating from the high scatter in the strength results of specimens,
however it is originating, as it is stated above, that RA content signicantly improves the tensile splitting strength of the concrete
according to the compressive strength, as can be seen from Table 7.
In [41], concrete cube specimens used for compressive strength
testing and a precast reinforced concrete column were crushed to
produce RA. The compressive strength class of the cubes specimens
and the precast column were C30/37 and C40/50, respectively [41].
The standard deviations of compressive strengths of the specimens
included 050100% RA contents were calculated such as
1.5769 MPa, 1.2089 MPa and 3.5016 MPa, respectively [41] and
high standard deviation was found due to 100% RA content. It
should be noted that the highest standard deviation is calculated
for specimens included NA in this study.
In addition new prediction approaches of splitting tensile
strength can be developed in further researches. In the past some
researchers occupied with the relation of between the compressive
strength and tensile splitting strength to predict the close results

56

H. Dilbas et al. / Construction and Building Materials 61 (2014) 5059

TENSILE SPLITTING STRENGTH, FCTS, MPA

5.00

4.00

3.00
y = 0.07x - 0.19
R = 0.46
2.00

1.00

0.00
15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH, FC, MPA


Fig. 4. Regression between tensile splitting strength, and compressive strength of all specimens.

TENSILE SPLITTING STRENGTH, FCTS, MPA

5.00
NA

RA1

RA2

y = 0.09x - 1.00
R = 0.70

RA12

4.00
y = 0.06x + 0.64
R = 0.27
3.00
y = 0.07x + 0.10
R = 0.28
2.00
y = 0.04x + 0.47
R = 0.38
1.00

0.00
10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH, FC, MPA


Fig. 5. Regressions between tensile splitting strength, and compressive strength of specimens (Correlation coefcients are 0.70, 0.28, 0.27, and 0.38 for specimens including
NA, RA1, RA2, and RA12).

[i.e. 25,40,4245]. In [25,40,43,44], formulas were developed for


predicting tensile strength of RAC with high regression coefcients.
In [42], the formulas predicted tensile strength given in literature
and by ACI were compared. The formula given by ACI predicted
the tensile strength higher for RAC and NAC. In [45], the relation
between the relative splitting tensile strength and the relative
compressive strength was examined and high regression coefcient between the relative splitting tensile strength and the relative compressive strength was calculated. The relative splitting
tensile strength is the ratio between the 90-day splitting tensile
strength of RAC to that of NAC and the relative compressive
strength is the ratio between the 7-day compressive strength of
RAC to that of NAC.
3.4. Static elasticity modulus
The test results of the modulus of elasticity of the specimens at
the age of 28 days are presented in Table 7. In order to present the

relative elasticity modulus in Fig. 6, the elasticity modulus of each


specimen is normalized by the elasticity modulus of NAC specimen. As seen from Table 7, the elasticity modulus of all RAC specimens is lower than the elasticity modulus of the control
specimens NAC for all groups, and the value of the elasticity modulus of all RAC specimens decrease with an increase of RA content
[30]. Generally concretes elasticity modulus on large scale depends on the stiffness phases (interfacial transition zones, cement
paste and aggregates) [31]. It is well-known that elasticity modulus is inuenced considerably by modulus of aggregates [46]. In
this context, the elasticity modulus of RAC is affected by RA. Therefore the low properties of RA such as cracks and higher porosity of
adhered old mortar with comparatively low modulus of elasticity
decreases the elasticity modulus of RAC. On the other hand, it
was reported that brick and tile content in the RA did not have
remarkable effect on the value of elasticity modulus [47].
It is found that relative elasticity modulus of NACSF5, RA1CSF5,
and RA2CSF5 are close to each other with value 0.91 in the same

57

H. Dilbas et al. / Construction and Building Materials 61 (2014) 5059

aggregate is higher than that of natural aggregate. The higher


absorption rate of the cement mortar attached to the aggregate
particles causes the higher water absorption of the RAC. Under
the light of this information, it can be inferred that the inclusion
of RA content in the specimens makes the specimens more porous,
and this leads to a decrease in the density and an increase in the
water absorption [22,26].
In this context, the greatest density, and the lowest water
absorption is obtained for NAC specimens. It is well-known that
water absorption requires linked and open cracks in the structure
of aggregate and RA contains cracks due to the crushing process. As
seen from Table 7, the increase of RA content in RAC increases the
water absorption of RAC as expected for all mixtures. Also the
impurities in RA increases the water absorption of RAC. In addition,
the water absorption of all NAC and RAC specimens is raised until
5% SF content, after this value, all water absorption values are
decreased.
The relation between the water absorption and the density is
plotted in Fig. 7. It is estimated that there is an inverse relationship
between the density and the water absorption ratio.

Table 9
Standard deviations and mean values of compressive strength and tensile splitting
strength of specimens.
Test

Statistical
value

Specimens included:

Compressive
strength (MPa)

Standard
deviation
Mean value

Tensile splitting
strength (MPa)

Standard
deviation
Mean value

NA

RA1

6.1115
40.83

RA2

3.5862
35.00

RA12

3.4158
35.93

4.7702
30.41

0.6723

0.4440

0.3688

0.3132

2.76

2.41

2.67

1.71

group, although their compressive strengths are different. The


compressive strength of NAC increases steadily while SF content
in NAC increases from 0% to 10%. However, the elasticity modulus
of NAC decreases while SF content is up to 5% in NAC, and then the
elasticity modulus of NAC increases when SF content exceeds 5% in
NAC.
3.5. Density and water absorption ratio

4. Conclusions
The experimental studies, the effects of aggregate type and SF
content on the density and the water absorption are evaluated at
the age of 28 days. The test results are displayed in Table 7 and
Fig. 7. It is well-known that the absorption capacity of recycled

In this study, the effects of RA and SF on the mechanical and the


physical properties of concrete are presented. Based on the above
results, the following conclusions can be drawn:

1.00

0.99
0.90
0.81

0.91

0.91

0.89

0.91
0.78

0.80

0.75

0.79

RA12CSF10

0.83

RA2CSF10

1.00

0.60
0.40

RA1CSF10

NACSF10

RA12CSF5

RA2CSF5

RA1CSF5

NACSF5

RA12C

RA2C

0.00

RA1C

0.20
NAC

RELATIVE ELASTICITY
MODULUS

1.20

CONCRETE SERIES
Fig. 6. Relative elasticity modulus of specimens in comparison to elasticity modulus of NAC.

3000
NA

RA1

RA2

RA12

Density, kg/m3

2750
2500
2250

y = 6068.69x
+ 2614.24
R = 0.72

2000
1750
1500

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

Water Absorption, %
Fig. 7. Correlation between water absorption ratio and density of concrete.

0.14

58

H. Dilbas et al. / Construction and Building Materials 61 (2014) 5059

1. The compressive strength of the RAC decreases with the


replacement of the NA with RA. However, SF addition is
an alternative way to increase the compressive strength
of RAC to use concrete in structural industry. RA1CSF10,
RA2CSF10 and RA2CSF5 can be suitable to use instead of
NAC, if compressive strength is considered only.
2. The tensile splitting strength of the specimens containing
0% and 5% SF contents increases by replacing the NA with
RA.
3. The addition of the 5% SF content in RAC increases the ratio
of the tensile splitting strength to the compressive
strength. However, the percentage of SF content is
increased from 5% to 10%, the ratio of the tensile splitting
strength to the compressive strength of RAC decreases.
4. The proportion of RA in concrete mixture up to 30% affects
the ratios of the tensile splitting strength to the compressive strength increasingly. After 30% proportion of RA in
the mixture, the ratio decreases.
5. The recycled aggregate (RA) affects more on the splitting
tensile strength of RAC rather than on the compressive
strength of RAC. Hence the low correlation coefcient
between the compressive strength and the tensile splitting
strength is obtained.
6. For all groups the value of the elasticity modulus of all RAC
specimens decreases with the increase of RA content.
7. The inclusion of RA content in the specimen decreases the
density and increases the water absorption.
In summary, it can be demonstrated to researchers and designers that suitable proportion of the replacement of NA with RA is
30%. Also, SF is a mineral addition that improves the performance
of RAC. The properties of recycled aggregates (RA) can differ
depending on their source. Therefore, before the utilization of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) in structural elements, the trial specimens should be produced by using available recycled aggregate
and they should be tested to determine the physical and the
mechanical properties of current RAC.
Acknowledgements

[10]

[11]
[12]
[13]

[14]

[15]
[16]
[17]

[18]
[19]
[20]

[21]
[22]

[23]

[24]
[25]

[26]

[27]
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This work forms a part of the MSc thesis which will be submitted by the rst author to Institute of Science and Technology of
_
Yldz Technical University, Istanbul.

[30]

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