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## Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning

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Chapter6
4.1- Introduction
Before the cooling and heating load determination process starts, the customer
has to be contacted effectively in order to define all technical specification and
conditions under which the plant must run. This information then is used to design
the plant. The determination of the cooling load is an early step in the design.
The cooling load will be used in later calculations to determine the selection of the
mechanical refrigeration or AC plant.
Most customers carry out a cooling load calculation to see weather their own
estimate of the load matches with those in the various tenders. Thus it is
important to both customers and contractors to be able to evaluate cooling loads
accurately. If the estimate made is too conservative an excessively large and
expensive plant will result. If the load is underestimated the plant may not perform
to specification.
In this section the technical calculations for cooling load determination will be
described. Most of these follow the traditional approaches available in a number
of textbooks. There are also some update methods not found in textbooks, but
recommended by Professor Donald Cleland (Vice President of the International
Institute of Refrigeration) as being more accurate.
The rate at which heat must be removed from the refrigerated or AC space or
material in order to produce and maintain the desired temperature conditions is
4.3- Cooling /Heating Load main Sources
Cooling/heating Load is the summation of the heat, which usually evolves from
several different sources. Some of the more common sources of heat that supply
the load on refrigerating/AC equipment are:
1. Heat that leaks into the refrigerated or AC space from the outside by
conduction through the insulated walls (The Wall Gain Load).
2. Heat that is brought/ taken out into/from the space by warm/cold outside air
entering the space through open doors or through cracks around windows and
3. Heat that enters the space by direct radiation through glass or other transparent
4. Heat given off by warm products (The Product Load,).
5. Heat given off by the people occupying the space and by equipment located
inside the space such as lights, electronic equipment (TV, VCR, computers,.),
fork lift, etc. (The Miscellaneous Load)

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## 4.4- Equipment Running Time

In any refrigeration application using air, frost will accumulate if the evaporator
surface is below 0 oC. Periodic defrosting of the evaporator(s) is necessary to
maintain the heat transfer and air flow performance of the evaporator(s) and fans.
Therefore it is not practical to design the refrigerating system in such a way that
the equipment must operate continuously in order to handle the load in most
cases.
Experience has shown that when defrosting is required, the maximum allowable
running time is usually between 16-20 hrs out of each 24 hours period. Then the
total cooling load should be multiplied by (24hrs/maximum allowable running time
(RT)) in order to find the required system capacity (Qs.c.).
Qs.c .

24 hrs
RT

If maximum allowable running time=18 hrs, then the cooling load should be
multiplied by 24/18, which in fact increases the required system capacity of 33.3%
so that the selected equipment handle the 24 hrs cooling load in the required 16
hrs of operation time.
4.5- Cooling and Heating Load Calculations
To simplify cooling load calculations, the total cooling load is divided into a number
of individual loads according to the sources of heat supplying the load. The
summation of these individual loads is the total cooling load on the equipment.
The wall gain load, sometimes called the wall leakage load, is a measure of the
heating flow rate by conduction through the walls of the refrigerated space from
outside to the inside or from inside to outside of AC space in winter. The wall gain
load is common to all refrigeration and AC applications and is ordinarily a
considerable part of the total cooling load. Commercial storage coolers and
residential A/C applications are both example of application wherein the wall gain
load often accounts for the greater portion of the total load. Some exceptions to
this is liquid chilling applications, where the outside area of the chiller is small and
the walls to the chiller are well insulated.

## Factors determining the wall gain

The quantity of heat transmitted through the walls of refrigerated space per unit of
time is the function of three factors whose relationship can be expressed in the
following equation.
Q w = A U T

Where

Q w :

A:

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U:

T:

## the temperature differential across the wall

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The value of U factor depends on the thickness of the wall and on the materials
used in the wall construction.

Determining of U factors

The U factor for any type of wall construction can be calculated and provided for
each of the material used in the wall construction by knowing the thermal
conductivity (k) of the thermal conductance and the heat transfer coefficients of
outside and inside air, ho and hi. The thermal conductivity of most homogenous
materials used in wall construction and heat transfer coefficients can be tabulated
in Tables6.1 and6.2 of Appendix A. For any Cold store insulation material, the
thermal overall heat transfer coefficient is tabulated in Table6.3 of Appendix A.
The overall U factors can be expressed as,
U

1
1

n
Rth 1 x j 1

ho j 1 k j hi

where
ho outside air heat transfer coefficient, W/m2 K, see Table6.2. of Appendix A
hi inside air heat transfer coefficient, W/m2 K , see Table6. 2. of Appendix A
x insulation material thickness, m

## Temperature Differential across Cold Storage Walls

The design temperature differential across cold store walls is usually taken as the
difference between the inside and outside design temperatures.
The inside design temperature is that which is to be maintained inside the
refrigerated space and usually depends upon the type of product to be stored and
the length of time the product is to be kept in the space. The recommended
storage temperature for various products is given in Tables6.5 6.8 of Appendix A.
The outside design temperature depends on the location of the cooler.

## The differential across ceilings and floors

Ceiling
The design temperature of the ceiling depends on the cooler ceiling location.
When the cooler is located inside a building and there is an adequate clearance
between the top of the cooler and the ceiling of the building to allow free
circulation of air over the top of the cooler, the ceiling is treated the same as an
inside wall. Likewise when the top of the cooler is exposed to the outdoors, the
ceiling of the cooler is treated as an outdoor wall.
Floor
The design floor temperature depends on the floor design configuration. When
the floor of a cooler is laid directly on a slab on the ground, the ground

## Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning

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temperature under the slab varies only slightly all year round and is always
considerably less than the outdoor design dry bulb temperature for the region in
summer.
When the floor of a freezer is laid directly on a slab on the ground, some provision
should be made to prevent any damage to the floor slab and creation any frozen
water layer on the freezer floor which will be dangers to manpower and the
machine. Preventive measures usually include warm air ducts, electric heating
cables, and pipe coils for the circulation of brine or antifreeze solutions (Glycol).
Air infiltration/interchange is the term used to describe the replacement of cold air
in refrigerated space by the warm air from the outside. Whilst there usually is
leakage through door seals, some infiltration due to pressure equalized system
and sometimes deliberate infiltration when cool storage ventilation is required,
generally, the bulk of infiltration occurs during door openings.
The door entering the refrigerated space will lose both sensible heat in cooling,
and latent heat which is released on condensation or frosting of some of the water
vapour in the incoming air. Air infiltration is generally a greater problem in cold
and cool stores than in chillers and freezers.
The space heat load gain resulting from air changes in the refrigerated space is
difficult to determine with any real accuracy except in those few cases where a
known quantity of air is introduced into the space for ventilating purposes. When
the mass flow rate of the outside air entering the space is known, the space heat
gain resulting from air infiltration can be determined by applying the following
equation:

Where

Q a ,i

ho:

hi:

m a :

## mass flow rate of air (kg/s)

However, since air quantities are usually given in units of volume rather than in
units of mass, to facilitate calculations the heat gain per liter of outside air entering
the space is listed in Tables6.12A and6.12B of Appendix A for various inside and
outside air conditions. To determine the air infiltration rate in liters per second by
the appropriate enthalpy change factor from Tables6.6A or 6.6b of Appendix A.
Example 6.1
The rate of air infiltration into a refrigerated space is 10 /s. If the inside of the
cooler is maintained at 5 oC and the outside dry bulb temperature and relative
humidity are 30 oC and 60% respectively. Determine the air change load in kW.

## Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning

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Solution
From Table 6.12A of Appendix A, the enthalpy change factor = 0.061 kJ/liter
Then, the Air infiltration Load =10*0.061 =0.61 kW

## Average air Infiltration Rate

The quantity of outside air entering a refrigerated space through door openings in
a 24 hrs periods depends upon the size, and location of the door(s) and upon the
frequency and duration of the door openings. Since the combination effect of all
these factors vanes with the individual installation and is difficult to predict with
accuracy, it is general practice to estimate the air change quantity on the basis of
experience with similar application. Experience has shown that, as a general rule,
the frequency and duration of door openings and , hence the air change quantity,
depends on the inside volume of the cooler and the type of usage. Table 6.11 of
Appendix A lists the approximate infiltration rate s for various cooler sizes. The
values given are for average usage
Example 6.2
A storage cooler has outside dimensions of 6.5m X 6m X 3.45m. The outside
temperature is 30 oC and RH 60%. The inside of the cooler is maintained at 5 oC.
The walls of the cooler are approximately 150mm thick. Calculate the air
Solution
Since the walls thickness are 150 mm, the inside dimensions of the cooler are
0.3m less then the outside dimensions, so the inside volume is (4.2 X 5.7 X 3.15)
75.411 m3 say 75 m3. From Table 6.11 of Appendix A, the infiltration rate is 9
l/sec.
Air infiltration Load = Infiltration rate * Enthalpy Change
= 9 * 0.061 = 0.549 kW

## The instantaneous cooling load due to air interchange

Q ic

n Vs
1
( ho hi ) 10 3 ( W )
24 60 60
vo

Where
n

Vs

vo

conditions)

ho

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## Enthalpy at the indoor conditions, see the psychometric chart

hi

1
s
Q v n p
10 -3 ho hi 10 3

vo
Person

(W)

where
np

s
Number of people and
from Table 6. 14 of Appendix A.
Person

Whenever the walls of a refrigerator are so situated that they receive an excessive
amount of heat by radiation, either from the sun or from any hot body, the outside
surface temperature of the wall will usually be considerably above the temperature
of the ambient air. The amount by which the surface temperature exceeds the
surrounding air temperature depends upon the amount of radiant energy striking
the surface and upon the reflectivity of the surface. The energy waves are either
reflected by or absorbed by any opaque material that they strike. Light colored,
smooth surfaces will tend to reflect more and absorb less radiant energy than
dark, rough textured surfaces. Hence, the surface temperature of smooth, light
colored walls will be somewhat lower than that of dark, rough-textured walls under
the same conditions of solar radiation. Since any increase in the outside
temperature will increase the temperature differential across sunlight walls must
be corrected to compensate for the sun effect. Correction factors for sunlight walls
for cold store the temperature difference due to sunlight, Ts , can be calculated
directly from Table 6. 16 A of Appendix A, while for air conditioning can be
calculated as,

Ts

1.15 I
ho

## Where is the surface absorption factor, see Table 6. 15 of Appendix A.

I is the sunlight intensity (W/m2), see Table 6. 16 B of Appendix A for air
conditioning.
ho is the heat transfer coefficient (W/ m2 K), see Table 6. 2 of Appendix A.
The Ts values should be added to the normal wall temperature differential.

The heat transfer across the windows glass can be expressed as,

Q g Ag U T
Where

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## is the window glass area m2.

Ag

is the window glass overall heat transfer coefficient, see Table 6.17
of Appendix A.

T:

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## the temperature differential across the window which normally is

equals to the temperature differential across the wall.

## The windows glass direct sun load is

, A Q SC
Q
s g
g
sun

Where

Q sun is the heat gain per unit area ( W/m2), see Table 6. 18 A of Appendix A
SC is the Shading Coefficient, see Table 6. 18 B of Appendix A.
The heat that transfers from a product when it enter a storage space can be
computed by the following equation:
Qp = ( m ) (C ) T
Where Qp

## the specific heat before freezing kJ/kg K(Can be obtained from

Tables 6.5-6.8 of Appendix A).

## the change in the product temperature (K).

Example 6.3
Five ton of fresh beef enter a chilling cooler at 40 oC and chilled to 6 oC each day.
Calculate the product land in kJ.
Solution
From Table 6.7 of Appendix A the specific heat (C) of beef above (before) freezing
is 3.14 kJ/kg K.
Then
Qp
= 5000 X 3.14 X (40-6) = 533,800 kJ
As we can see from the above equation has no time element. Since time is
always considered in determining the cooling rate, then the above equation can be
written as follows:

Q p

m C T
desired cooling time in sec onds

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## Chilling Rate Factor

During the early part of the chilling period, the product load on the equipment is
considerably greater than the average hourly product load. Because of the high
temperature difference which exists between the product and the space air at the
start of the chilling period, the chilling rate is higher and the product load tends to
concentrate in the early part of the chilling period. Therefore, where the
equipment selection is based on the assumption that the product load is evenly
distributed over the entire chilling period, the equipment selected will usually have
insufficient capacity to carry the load during the initial stages of chilling when the
product load is at a peak. Consequently, a significant rise in the space
temperature can be expected during the early part of the chilling period.
When such a rise is undesirable, a chilling rate factor is sometimes introduced into
the chilling load calculation to compensate for the uneven distribution of the
The effect of the chilling rate factor is to increase the product load calculation by
an amount sufficient to make the average hourly cooling rate approximately equal
to the hourly load at the peak condition. This results in the selection of larger
equipment. Then the products cooling rate can be expressed as follows:
Chilling rate factors for various products are listed in Tables 6.5 through 6.8 of
Appendix A.
Q p

m C T
(desired cooling time in sec onds) (Chilling rate factor )

Example 6.4
Recalculated the product load described in the previous example employing the
appropriate chilling rate factor.
Solution
From Table 6. 7 of Appendix A, the chilling rate factor for beef is 0.67. The

## Product Freezing and Storage

When a product is to be frozen and stored at some temperature below its freezing
temperature, the heat involved is calculated in three parts:
1. The quantity of heat given off by the product in cooling from the entering
temperature to it freezing temperature.
2. The quantity of heat given off by the product in cooling from its freezing
temperature to its final storage temperature

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## 3. The quantity of heat given off by the product in solidifying or freezing or

freezing.
The method of determining the quantity of heat resulting from temperature
reduction (parts 1 and 2) has already been established. The quantity of heat
resulting from freezing (part 3) can be calculated from the following equation:
Qf = ( m ) ( h )
Where
Qf

## h the product latent heat in kJ/kg.

The latent heat for various products are listed in Tables 6.5 through 6.8 of
Appendix A.
Example 6.5
Five thousand kilograms of poultry enter a chiller at 5 oC and are frozen and
chilled to a final temperature of 15 oC for storage in 12 h. Determine the product
Solution
From Table 6. 7 of Appendix A

## Chilling rate factor =1

1.
To cool poultry from entering temperature to freezing
temperature, applying

Qp,1 = ( m ) (C ) T
= (5000)(3.18)[5-(-2.75)] = 123225 kJ
2.

To freeze, applying

Qf = ( m ) (hl)
= (5000)(246) = 1230000 kJ
3.
To cool from
temperature, applying

freezing

temperature

Qp,2 = ( m ) (C ) T
= (5000)(3.18)[-2.75-(-15)] = 194775 kJ

to

final

storage

## Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning

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The total heat given up by product is equal to the summation of 1,2, and 3)
Qp,t= Qp,1 + Qf + Qp,2 = 123225+1230000+194775 = 1548000 kJ

QP ,t

## (desired cooling time in seconds) (Chilling rate factor)

1548000

35.833 kW
12 * 3600

Respiration Heat

Fruit and vegetables are still alive after harvesting and continue to undergo
changes while in storage. The heat released is called respiration heat must be
considered as part of the product load where considerable quantities of fruit and
/or vegetables are held in storage.
Respiration heat for various fruits and vegetables is listed in Tables 6.9 and 6.10
of Appendix A.
Note
Since respiration rate is given in Watt per kg, the product load accruing from
respiration heat is found by the following equation:
Qp,r= Mass of product (kg) x Respiration rate(W/kg)

Many product are chilled or frozen in packages. The packaging can often be 10%
or more of the direct product weight. As well as removing heat from the product
the refrigeration system must also remove the heat from the packaging. Most
packaging materials (cardboard, plastics, metals, wood) have very low moisture
so change of phase is unlikely to occur and the same calculations can be used to
estimate the packaging heat load for both chilling and freezing:

Q pk

m pk c pk T
desired cooling time in seconds

## Where Q pk : Packing load (W)

mpk: Mass of packaging (kg)
cpk: Specific heat capacity of packaging kJ/kg.k
Typical heat capacities for typical packaging materials see Table 6.19 of Appendix
A.
The miscellaneous load consists primarily of heat given by light, people, and
equipment
a-Light
Q = Nl w x used time/24

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Nl:

Number of light

b- People

## Q pe = t Npe x Percent of present time (i.e 8/24)

Where t is the total human heat (sensible + Latent), see Tables 6.20 and 6.21
of Appendix A

## Q pe : Heat load due to people (W)

Npe: Number of people
c- Mechanical devices
Q md = Z Nm m x used time/24

Z

## The total miscellaneous load is equal to the summation Q pe + Q pe + Q md

There are two load-related effects of defrost-extra heat added to the refrigerated
space that is not removed with the melt water, and the loss of refrigeration effect
while a coil is being defrosted.
The amount of heat required to melt the frost can be directly related to the latent
heat load component if a typical melt temperature of about 5 oC is assumed. The
average heat load to defrost can be calculated using:

1 d
Q d 0.13 Qlat (
)

Where Q d

## for hot gas and 30% for water

Fan energy is a major source of energy input for refrigerated facilities using air as
the cooling medium. For facilities using liquids or refrigerants as the cooling
medium pumps are the equivalent sources.
The best estimate of fan energy use is given by

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V P
Q fan
Nf

where

V

f

## Number of fans of equal ratings

The cooling load can be determined by using the procedures se forth in the
preceding sections. However, when coolers are used for general-purpose
storage, the product load is frequently unknown and/ or varies somewhat from day
to day so that it is not possible to compute the product load with any real accuracy.
In such cases, a short method load calculation can be employed which involves
the use of load factors (Table 6. 22 of Appendix A) which have been determined
by experience. When the short method of calculation is employed, the entire
cooling load is divided into two parts.(1) the wall gain load and (2) the usage or
The wall gain load is calculated as outlined in previous section. The usage load is
computed by the following equation.
Usage Load (W) = Interior Volume (m3) x usage factor x T
4.7- Safety Factor
The total cooling load is the summation of the heat gains as calculated in the
foregoing sections. It is a common practice to add (5%-15%) to this value as a
safety factor. As a general rule 10% is used.
Home Work
1- Each day a chiller cools 16 tonne batch of cheese blocks (C=3.25 kJ/kg K)
from 25 C to 7 C. Calculate the chilling load.

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## Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning

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2-Each day 24 tonne of peas at 12oC are loaded into a cold store 18oC. The
frozen specific capacity is 2.1 kJ/kg. K . What is the product cooling load.

## 3- A cold store operating at 20 C has 8 fans with an overall efficiency of 60%.

Each fan produces 10,000 cfm against a combined room and evaporator coil
pressure drop of 2 inches water gauge. What is the annual cost of operating
the fans with a unit cost of SAR0.08/kW h and a peak charge of SAR 120
/kVA/quarter? Take power factor to be 0.93.

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Assignment # 1.
A cold store , 15m, 10m and 5.5m (L,W and H), maintained at 85% RH and 18oC
and designed to cool 200 units of mass 40 kg of Beeffresh, Average from 23 oC
to 18. The allotted and freezing hours are 8 hrs and 12 hrs respectively. There
are 20 lights with 150 W each and 4 forklifts used by 5 occupants for 8 hours. The
average heat gain of forklifts is 500 W and there are 6 evaporator fans inside the
cold store.. Outside air conditions are 30 oC , and 65% RH. The store walls and
roof are fabricated from 20cm thick expanded polystyrene (smooth).
Calculate the required system capacity if the equipment running time is 22hrs,
12% S.F. and 5 oC solar radiation allowance.
Results
Roof
Floor
Walls
Glass
Solar
Lights
People
Appliances
Product: Above freezing
Product: Below freezing
Air Infiltration
Air Interchange
Ventilation
Safety Factor (W)
Total heat Gain (W)
Required Equipment Capacity (W)
Tons of Refrigeration

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Solved Examples
Example 6.6
A holding cooler 6m x 10m x 5m high is used for the short-term storage of fresh
beef -Average. Thirty thousand kilograms of beef enter the cooler at 10 oC and
are cooled to the storage temperature of 2.5 oC each day. All the walls are
partitions adjacent to unconditioned spaces (35 oC and 60 %) except the east wall
(6m x 5m) which is adjacent to a chilling room maintained at the same inside
design temperature. Wall construction is 100mm cinder block insulated with 100
mm corkboard equivalent. The floor, located over an unconditioned space, is a
125 mm concrete slab insulated with 100mm corkboard equivalent and finished
with 75 mm of concrete. The ceiling, situated under an unconditioned space, is a
100mm concrete slab with wood sleepers and insulated with equivalent of 100mm
of corkboard. Three people work in the space during the loading periods (5 hrs),
usage is average , the lighting load is 500 W and lights are in use 5h/day.
Determine the required equipment capacity based on a 22 hours operating time
and 10 % safety factor.
Solution

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Example 6.7
Four thousand and five hundred lug boxes of apples are stored at 2.5 oC in a
storage cooler 15 m x 12 m x 6 m high. The apples enter the cooler at a
temperature of 30 oC and at the rate of 250 lugs per days each day for the 18 day
harvesting period. The walls including floor and ceiling are constructed of 25 mm
boards on both sides of 50 mm x 100mm studs and are insulated with 100mm of
mineral wool. All of the walls are shaded and the ambient conditions are 35 oC
and RH 50%.The average weight of apples per lug box is 25 kg. The lug boxes
have an average weight of 2 kg and a specific heat value of 2.3 kJ/kg.K. The
lighting load is 500 W for 6 hrs per day. Two people and one battery operated
forklift (4.17 kW) are in the space for 4 hrs per day. Determine the average load in
kilowatts on the equipment based on a 16 hrs per day equipment operating time.
(Assume the insulation k factor (0.045 W/m K and S.F. 10%).
Solution

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Example 6.8
Twenty three thousand liters of partially frozen ice cream at 4oC are entering a
hardening room 9 m x 6 m x 5 m high each day. Hardening is completed and the
temperature of the ice cream is lowered to -28 oC in 10 hrs. The walls, including
floor and ceiling, are insulated with 150mm of polyurethane and the overall
thickness of the walls is 250mm. The ambient temperature is 35 oC and the RH is
50%. The lighting load is 500 W for 6 hrs per day. Two people and one battery
operated forklift (4.5 kW) are in the space for 6 hrs per day Assume the average
density of the ice cream is 0.6 kg/L, the average specific heat below freezing is 2.1
kJ/kg K, and the average latent heat per kg is 233 kJ. Determine the average
hourly load based on 18 hrs.
Solution

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Assignment # 2.
Three thousand kilograms of dressed poultry are blast- frozen on hand trucks
each day (24 h) in a freezing tunnel 4 m x 3m x 3.5 m high. The poultry is
precooled to 7 oC before entering the freezer where it is frozen and its temperature
lowered to -20 oC and 90% RH for storage. The lighting load is 200 watts and the
lights are on 16 hrs per day. The north and east partitions adjacent to the
equipment room and vestibule are constructed of 150 mm clay tile insulated with
150mm polyurethane. The south and west partitions adjacent to storage cooler
are 100 mm clay tile with 50mm polyurethane insulation. The roof is a 150 mm
concrete slab insulated with 150 mm polyurethane and covered with tar, felt, and
gravel. The floor is a 150mm concrete slab insulated with 150mm polyurethane
and insulated with 100 mm of concrete. The floor is over a ventilated crawl space.
Roof is exposed to the sun. The equipment room is well ventilated so that the
temperature inside is approximately the outdoor design temperature for the region
(33oC and 60% RH). The inside design temperature for both the storage room
and the freezer is 20 oC. The vestibule temperature and relative humidity are 10
o
C and 70 %, respectively. Determine the average hourly refrigeration load based
on 20 hrs per day operating time for the equipment and S.F. 10%.
Results
Roof
Floor
Walls
Glass
Solar
Lights
People
Appliances
Product: Above freezing
Product: Below freezing
Air Infiltration
Air Interchange
Ventilation
Safety Factor (W)
Total heat Gain (W)
Required Equipment Capacity (W)
Tons of Refrigeration

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## Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning

Appendix A
Cooling and Heating Load Calculations Tables

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## Table (6.1) Thermal conductivity of materials (W/m K)

Material
Aluminum
Asphalt
Asbestos
Corkboards
Polyurethane
Polystyrene
Soil
Gypsum
Concrete
Soft wood
Hard wood
Sand
Arch. Glass
Heat resisting glass
Steel
Glass wool
Paint
Common brick
Face brick
Cotton
Cement Plaster
Air

k
220.00
1.15
0.16
0.043
0.025
0.043
1.10
0.46
1.28
0.012
0.16
0.30
0.78
1.10
46.50
0.04
0.72
0.72
1.32
0.07
0.72
0.03

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Surface type
A-Still air

Horizantal

Horizantal

Vertical

Heat direction

Up
Down
Horizantal

9.37
6
8

Any direction
Any direction

34.1
22.7

B-Moving Air

## 6.7 m/s (24 km/h)

3.35 m/s (12 km/h)

Table (6.3) Coefficients of heat transfer (U factor) of typical cold storage walls,
roofs and factors (W/m2 K)
Insulation thermal conductivity, k, (W/ m K)
Insulation
thickness

0.025

0.030

0.035

0.040

0.045

0.050

0.055

0.060

25

0.732

0.834

0.931

1.013

1.091

1.163

1.229

1.289

50

0.420

0.489

0.556

0.617

0.675

0.731

0.784

0.834

75

0.295

0.346

0.397

0.443

0.489

0.533

0.576

0.617

100

0.227

0.267

0.308

0.346

0.383

0.420

0.455

0.489

125

0.182

0.218

0.252

0.283

0.315

0.346

0.376

0.405

150

0.153

0.184

0.213

0.240

0.267

0.294

0.320

0.346

175

0.136

0.159

0.185

0.208

0.232

0.256

0.279

0.302

200

0.119

0.140

0.163

0.184

0.206

0.227

0.247

0.267

(mm)

o

City

Jeddah
Dhahran

41
43.5
44.0

29.5
25.5
29.5

22/36

MET 412

Product

Storage temp
oC

RH

Specific Heat
kJ/kg K
Above
Below
freezing
freezing

Latent
heat
kJ/kg

Approx.
Freezing
temp.
oC

Approx.
Storage
life

Water
Content
%

Chilling
rate
factor

Apples
Apricots
Bananas
Blackberries
Blueberries
Cantetoupe(Rock
Melon)
Casaba Melons
Cherries
Coconuts
Cranberries
Currents
Dates- Cured
Dew Berries
Figs- Dried
- Fresh
Frozen Fruits
Gooseberries
Grapefruit
Grapes
Honeydew Melons
Lemons
Limes
Mangoes
Mectarines
Olives - Fresh
Oranges
0range Juice
Papaw
Peaches
Pears
Persian Melons
Persimmons
Pineapples
Plums
Pomegranates
Prunes - Fresh
- Dried
Quinces
Raspberries
Strawberries
Tangerines
Watermelons

-1 to 4
0
7 to 10
0
0

90 to 95
90 to 95
85 to 90
85 to 95
90 to 100
90 to 100

3.65
3.68
3.01
3.35
3.68
3.58

1.89
1.90
1.65
1.78
1.90
1.86

280
284
217
250
284
274

-1.1
-1.1
-0.3
-0.8
-0.8
-1.6

3 to 8 m
1 to 2 w
2 to 4 w
2 to 3 d
2w

84
88
65
78
88
82

0.67
0.67
0.67
0.1

2 to 4

90

3.92

1.99

307

-1.2

5 to 15 d

92

0.9

7 to 10
-1 to 0
0 to 2
2 to 4
-0.5 to 0
-18 or 0
0
0 to 4
-1 to 0
-23 to -18
0
14 to 16
-1 to 0
7 to 10
15 to 18
9 to 10
13
0
7 to 10
5
-1 to 2
13
0
-1.6 to 0
7 to 10
-1
20
-0.5 to 0
0
-1 to 0
0 to 4
-1 to 0
0
0
0
5 to 10

85 to 95
95
80 to 85
90 to 95
90 to 95
75 or less
90 to 95
50 to 60
85 to 90
90 to 95
90 to 95
85 to 90
95 to 100
90
85 to 90
85 to 90
85 to 90
90
85 to 90
85 to 90

3.95
2.41
3.51
3.75
3.68
1.5
3.68
1.61
3.45
3.82
3.82
3.58
3.95
3.82
3.72
3.55
3.58
3.35
3.75
3.82
3.88
3.82
3.61
3.95
3.45
3.68
3.72
3.58
3.72
1.77
3.68
3.55
3.85
3.75
3.95

2
1.84
1.43
1.93
1.90
1.09
1.90
1.12
1.81
1.95
1.95
1.86
2
1.95
1.92
1.85
1.86
1.78
1.93
1.95
1.98
1.95
1.88
2
1.81
1.9
1.92
1.86
1.92
1.19
1.9
1.85
1.97
1.93
2

310
267
157
290
284
67
284
77
260
297
297
274
310
297
287
270
274
250
290
297
304
297
277
310
260
284
287
274
287
284
270
300
290
310

-1.1
-1.8
-0.9
-0.9
-1
-16
-1.3

4 to 6 w
2 to 3 w
1 to 2 m
2 to 4 m
10 to 14 d
6-12 m
3d
9 to 12 m
7 to 10 d
6 to 12 m
1 to 2 w
4 to 6 w
3 to 6 m
3 to 4 w
1-6 m
6 to 8 w
2w
1 to 2 w
4 to 6 w
3 to 12 w
3 to 6 w
1 to 3 w
2 to 3 w
2 to 6 w
2w
3 to 4 m
1 to 4 w
1 to 4 w
2 to 4 m
2 to 4 m
5 to 8 m
2 to 3 m
2 to 3 d
5 to 7 d
2 to 4 w
2 to 3 w

93
80
47
87
85
20
88
23
78
89
89
82
93
89
86
81
82
75
87
89
91
89
83
93
78
85
86
82
86
28
88
81
90
87
93

0.9

90
90 to 95
90 to 95
90 to 95
90
85 to 90
90 to 95
90
90 to 95
55 to 60
90
90 to 100
90 to 100
90 to 95
85 to 90

-2.4
-1.1
-1.1
-2
-0.9
-1.4
-1.6
-0.9
-0.9
-1.4
-0.8
-0.8
-0.9
-1.6
-0.8
-2.2
-1
-0.8
-3
0.8
-2
-1.1
-0.8
-1.1
-0.4

0.67

0.8

1.0
0.9

0.7

0.80
0.80
0.9
0.67
0.67

23/36

MET 412

## Table (6.6) Storage requirements of perishable products

Product

Storage
temp oC

RH

Specific Heat
kJ/kg K
Above
Below
freezing
freezing

Latent
heat
kJ/kg

Approx.
Freezing
temp.
oC

Approx.
Storage
life

Water
Content
%

2w
5m
2 to 3 w
7 to 10 d
1 to 2 w
3 to 5 m
10 to 14 m
3 to 5 w
1 to 4 m
4 to 6 m
4 to 5 m
2-4 w
1-2 m
4-8 d
10 to 14 d
7d
2 to 3 w
6 to 12 m
6 to 7 m
10 to 12 m
3 to 4 w
2 to 4 w
1-3 m
2 to 3 w
3 to 4 d
1 to 8 m
1 to 2 m
2 to 6 m
1 to 2 w
6 to 8 m
2 to 3 w
6m

88
80
93
89

Chilling
rate
factor

Vegetables
Artichokes -Globe
-Jerusalem
Asparagus
Beans - Green
Beetroot-Bunch
-Topped
Broccoli
Brussels Sprouts
Cabbage
Carrots-Topped, Immature
- Topped, Mature
Cauliflower
Celery
Corn - Sweet
Cucumbers
Eggplant
Endive (Escarole)
Frozen Vegetables
Garlic-Dry
Kale
Kohlrabi
Leeks - Green
Mushrooms
Onions-Dry
Parsley
Parsnips
Peas - Green
- Dried
Peppers - Sweet
- Dry, Chili
Potatoes - Culinary
- Sweet
Pumpkins
Rhubarb
Rutabaga
Silver beet (Spinach)
Squash - Button
- Hard Shell
Tomatoes - Firm, Ripe
- Mature, Green
Turnips
Yams

0
0
0 to 2
7 to 10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
7 to 10
0
-23 t0 -18
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
7 to 13
0 to 10
7
13 to 16
13
0
0
0
0
7
13
5 to 7
13
0
16

95 to 100
90 to95
95 to 100
95 to 100
95 to 100
95 to 100
95 to 100
95 to 100
98 to 100
98 to 100
98 to 100
95 to 100
95 to 100
95 to 98
95 to 100
90 to 95
90 to 100

3.65
3.47
3.95
3.82

1.89
84
2
1.95

280
267
310
297

3.78
3.85
3.68
3.92
3.78
3.78
3.92
3.98
3.31
4.05
3.95
3.95

1.94
1.97
1.90
1.99
1.94
1.94
1.99
2.02
1.76
2.04
2.0
2

294
300
284
307
294
294
307
314
247
320
310
310

-1.2
-2.5
-0.6
-0.7
-0.4
-0.9
-0.6
-0.8
-0.9
-1.4
-1.4
-0.8
-0.5
-0.6
-0.5
-0.8
-0.1

65 to 70
95 to 100
95
90 to 100
95
95 to 100
95
65 to 70
95 to 100
98 to 100
95 to 98
70
90 to 95
60 to 70
90 to 95
85 to 90
85 to 90
90 to 95
95
90 to 95
95 to 98
95 to 100
85 to 90
90 to 95
90 to 95
95
85 to 90

2.88
3.35
3.75
3.85
3.68
4.02
3.88
3.78
3.68
3.48
3.31
1.24
3.92
1.24
3.45
3.15
3.88
4.02
4.02
3.82
3.95
3.98
3.68
3.98
3.95
3.92
3.31

1.6
1.78
1.93
1.97
1.90
2.03
1.98
1.94
1.90
1.83
1.76
0.99
1.99
0.99
1.81
1.7
1.98
2.03
2.03
1.95
2
2.02
1.9
2.02
2
1.99
1.76

203
250
290
300
284
317
304
294
284
264
247

-0.8
-1.8
-0.5
-1
-0.7
-0.2
-0.9
-0.8
-1.1
-0.9
-0.6

307

-0.7

260
230
304
317
317
297
310
314
284
313
310
307
247

-0.7
-1.3
-0.8
-0.7
-0.9
-1.1
-0.3
-0.5
-0.8
-0.5
-0.6
-1.1

4 to 6 m
2 to 3 m
3 to 4 w
2 to 4 w
2 to 4 m
1 to 2 w
1 to 3 w
1 to 3 m
4-7 d
1 to 2 w
4 to 5 m
3 to 6 m

88
90
85
92
88
88
92
94
74
96
93
93
61
75
87
90
85
95
91
88
85
79
74
12
92
12
78
69
91
95
95
89
93
94
85
94
93
92
74

0.9

0.80
0.80
0.80
1

0.70
0.7

0.30

0.67
0.67

0.70

0.80

0.67

24/36

MET 412

## Table (6.7) Storage requirements of perishable products

Product

Storage
temp oC

RH

Specific Heat
kJ/kg K
Above
Below
freezing
freezing

Latent
heat
kJ/kg

Approx.
Freezing
temp.
oC

Approx.
Storage
life

Water
Content
%

Chilling
rate
factor

1 to 6 w

62 to 77

0.67

5d
1 to 7 d
6 to 12 m

70
66

0.56
0.56

5 to 12 d

60 to 70

0.75

Meat-Fish -Shellfish
206 to
257
233
220

-2.2 to 2.7
-1.7

1.6 to 1.7

200 to
233

-2.2 to 1.7

3.31

1.76

247

-2.8

3.11
2.91 to
1.85

1.69
1.61 to
1.85

227
207 to
270

0 to 1

88 to 92

2.9 to 3.4

1.6 to 1.8

-Liver
- Veal
- Frozen

0
0 to 1
-23 to -18

90
90
90 to 95

3.18
3.05

1.71
1.66

## Lamb- Fresh , average

0 to 1

85 to 90

2.8 to 3.2

-Frozen
Poultry- Fresh, average
- Frozen
Rabbits -Fresh

-23 to -18
-2 to 0
-23 to -18
0 to 1

90 to 95
85 to 90
90 to 95
90 to 95

## Fish Fresh, average

-1 to 1

95 to 100

- Frozen
Scallops-Meat
Shrimp
Oysters, Clams-Meat and
Liquid
Oysters In shell
Shellfish - Frozen

-29 to -18
0 to 1
-1 to 1

90 to 95
95 to 100
95 to 100

3.51
3.38

1.84
1.79

0 to 2

100

3.75

5 to 10
-29 to -18

95 to 100
90 to 95

3.51

8 to 12 m
1w
8 to 12 m
1 to 5 d

74
68

-2.2

5 to 14 d

62 to 81

267
254

-2.2
-2.2

6 to 12 m
12 d
12 to 14 d

80
76

1.93

290

-2.2

5 to 8 d

87

1.84

267

-2.8

5d
3 to 8 m

80

25/36

MET 412

Product

Storage
temp oC

RH

Specific Heat
kJ/kg K
Above
Below
freezing
freezing

Approx.
Freezing
temp.
oC

Approx.
Storage
life

Water
Content
%

106 to
123

-2.2

3 to 6 m

32 to 37

-20 to
0.6

3 to 13 w

16

-13
-13

12 m
12 m
6m
6 to 12 m

37
37
1

2 to 4 m

10 to 15

5 to 6 m
2 to 3 w
1y+
Several
years
1y+
Several
months

66
66
74

8 to 12 m

3 to 6

1y+
4 to 6 w

16
10

Latent
heat
kJ/kg

Chilling
rate
factor

Miscellaneous

- 18

1.99

Butter

0 to 4

75 to 85

Butter - Frozen
Cheese -Cheddar
-Cheddar
Chocolate Milk

-23
0 to 1
4.4
-18 to 1

70 to 85
65
65
40

Coffee -Green

2 to 3

80 to 85

Eggs - Whole
- Whole
-Frozen, Whole

-2 to 0
10 to 13
-18 or less

80 to 85
70 to 75

## Furs and Fabrics

1 to 4

45 to 55

Honey

Below 10

Hops

-2 to 0

1.27

1.37

1.04

53

2.07
2.07
0.87
1.17 to
1.34
3.05
3.05
3.31

1.3
1.3
0.85
0.96 to
1.03
1.66
1.66
1.76

123
123
3.3
33 to
50
220
220
247

1.4

1.05

57

3.75
0.94 to
1.04
1.37
1.17

1.93
0.88 to
0.91
1.04
0.96

290
10 to
20
53
33

-2.2
-2.2

50 to 60

Milk-Whole, Pasteurized

0 to 1

Nuts

0 to 10

65 to 75

Oleomargarine
Popcorn- Unpopped

2
0 to 4

60 to 70
85

-0.6

0.85

14

87

0.85

26/36

MET 412

## Table (6.9) Heat of Respiration: Watt/Tonne

Product
Apples
Apricots
Blackberries
Blueberries
Cantaloupe
(Rock Melon)
Cherries Sweet
Cranberries
Figs Fresh
Gooseberries
Grapefruit
Grapes
Honeydew
Melons
Lemons
Limes
Mangoes
Olives- Fresh
Oranges
Papaw
Peaches
Pears
Persimmons
Pineapples
Plums
Raspberries
Strawberries
Watermelons

Storage temperature oC
5
10
15
Fruits and Melons

20

31-20
35-27

11-56

18-80
61-102

88-58
88-388

81-80

388-281

360-415

358-915

88-136
98-36

86

905-432
303-183

388-582
154-259

26-30

300-114

132-192

32-16

98-42

88-133

83-195

68-68

20-26

39-14
11-39
16-40

8-6

8-16

98

6-10
36 -17
88-68
8-31

8-17

5-13
12-19
8-15

6-9
52-74
36-52

30-19
33-16
35-27
38-39
38
4-6
39-27
59-114
85-98

91-59
98-34
89-165
386-281
99

386-188
68-56
18
96-31

33-54
169-282
52

18-88

59-71

88
38-13
311
68-116
18-60
80-60
58-396
86-388
18-42
18-50
18-37
103-301
933-274

67
20-55
223-449
114-145
60-90
176-304
101-231
59-71
65-105
53-77
340-727
303-581
51-74

27/36

MET 412

## Table (6.10) Heat of Respiration: Watt/ Tonne

Product
Artichokes-Globe
Asparagus
Beans - Green
Beetroot - Topped
Broccoli
Brussels Sprouts
Cabbage - White
Carrots - Topped
Cauliflower
Celery
Corn - Sweet
Cucumbers
Garlic - Dry
Kohlrabi
Leeks - Green
Mushrooms
Onions-Dry
Parsley
Parsnips
Peas - Green
Peppers - Sweet
Potatoes- Immature
- Mature
Rhubarb-Topped
Rutabaga
Silver beet (Spinach)
Tomatoes - Colored and
Ripe
- Mature, Green
Turnips- Roots

0
68-133
83-238

Storage temperature oC
5
10
15
Vegetables

36-21
88 -68
86-71
38-40
86
81
90
396

58-178
369-404
303-104
98-28
309- 888
56-144
99- 64
88
63
10
910

5 -19
98
10
98-85
98-50
81-130
5
58-137
18-46
50-139

38-29
19
85
88-86
80 -59
930
30
356-252
96-52
361 -227

36-18
24-39
6-8

96

18
38-20
91-24
11-54
38-15
316

369-292
138-904
369-173
18-40
388-251
16-98
51
300
119
68-86
98-29
88
51
385-202
83-119
93
185-487
63-78
81
89-62
90-30
88
198

995-430
889-971
989-276
80-69
838-1008
981-317
88-170
338
318
300
881
83-98
11-81
58
386
988-347
338-121
11
898-662
56-127
810-600
68
89-92
90-35
89-97
59-135
19-47
813

20
404-692
809-1484
351-386
825-1011
267-564
209
238
170
855
92-143
30-54
132

178
782-939
50
582-757
728-1072
130
54-134
20-47
142-146
119-169
682

36

68-75

65-115

31-22
98-30

81-75
68-71

75-110
71-74

MET 412

## Table (6.11) Average Air Infiltration Rates in / s due to door openings

Room Volume
3
(m )

/ s Infiltration *

Rooms
Rooms
o
o
above 0 C
below 0 C
8
3.1
2.3
8.5
3.4
2.6
10
3.7
2.8
15
4.4
3.3
20
5.0
3.8
25
5.5
4.2
30
5.9
4.6
40
6.8
5.4
50
7.5
5.8
75
9.0
6.9
100
10.2
7.9
150
12.2
9.4
200
13.9
10.9
250
15.3
11.9
300
16.7
12.9
400
19.0
14.9
500
21.4
16.8
600
23.6
18.1
700
24.3
18.6
800
25.9
20.4
900
27.1
21.9
1000
28.9
23.1
* For heavy usage, add 50% to table values

28/36

29/36

## Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning

MET 412

Tables (6.12 a) Kilojoules per liter removed in cooling air to storage conditions above C
o

Storage
room temp.
o
C
15
10
5
0

## Inlet Air Temperature C

10
15
Inlet air relative humidity %

25
80
0.0128
0.0266
0.0388
0.0493

60
0.0186
0.0323
0.0445
0.0550

80
0.0246
0.0382
0.0502
0.0606

80
0.0281
0.0319
0.0536
0.0639

60
0.0357
0.0491
0.0610
0.0713

80
0.0441
0.0574
0.0693
0.0794

80
0.0500
0.0591
0.0708
0.0808

40
60
0.0563
0.0694
0.0810
0.0910

80
0.0663
0.0792
0.0906
0.1003

60
0.0795
0.0992
0.1036
0.1141

Tables (6.12 b) Kilojoules per liter removed in cooling air to storage conditions below C
o

Storage
Room
o
temp C
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
-40

5
80
0.0092
0.0193
0.0271
0.0350
0.0427
0.0501
0.0571
0.0640
0.0708

10
80
0.0111
0.0210
0.0288
0.0367
0.0444
0.0523
0.0588
0.0657
0.0725

80
0.0142
0.0235
0.0309
0.0383
0.0456
0.0525
0.0591
0.0656
0.0720

## Inlet Air Temperature C

25
Inlet air relative humidity %
80
0.0154
0.0247
0.0321
0.0395
0.0468
0.0537
0.0604
0.0668
0.0732

80
0.0505
0.0592
0.0662
0.0732
0.0801
0.0866
0.0929
0.0989
0.1050

60
0.0562
0.0649
0.0719
0.0788
0.0857
0.0922
0.0985
0.1045
0.1106

80
0.0650
0.0736
0.0805
0.0873
0.0941
0.0998
0.1067
0.1126
0.1185

30

35
60
0.0724
0.0809
0.0877
0.0945
0.1013
0.1077
0.1138
0.1197
0.1256

80
0.0820
0.0903
0.0970
0.1037
0.1102
0.1165
0.1225
0.1283
0.1341

60
0.0921
0.1004
0.1071
0.1137
0.1203
0.1265
0.1325
0.1382
0.1440

Table (6.13) Typical data for the number of refrigerated room volumes of air
interchange in a 24 hour period as a function of room volume (m 3)
Store volume
m3

24 hours

30
90
80
60
80
300
380
900
100
800
600
800
3000
3800
9000
1000
>8000

11
99
38
12
10
9
7
5.8
4.8
4.2
3.4
2.9
2.5
1.9
1.7
1.4
1.2

## Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning

MET 412

Ls
Table (6.14) Outdoor air requirements for Ventilation rate
Person

Application

Smoking

Flat
Bank
Hair dresser

Sometimes
Sometimes
Sometimes
Heavy
NO
NO
NO
Heavy
Heavy
Sometimes
Sometimes
Sometimes

Commercial Shops
Factories
Hospital
Hotels
Meeting rooms
Offices
Restaurants
Cafeteria

Ventilation rate
Minimum
Recommended
7
9.5
5
7.5
5
7
12
15
2.5
3.5
3.5
5
12
14
12
14
14
24
7
12
7.5
10
3.5
6

## Table (6.15) Surface absorption factor ()

Material
Absorption factor
Asphalt
0.89
Concrete
0.65
Red bricks
0.77
White bricks
0.26
Cements
0.57
Gypsum
0.4
Thermal insulation
0.91

30/36

31/36

MET 412

Surface type
Wall

East
West
North
South
Roof

No of hours

Average sunlight
intensity (W/m2)

Ts

869

39

869

39

83

8
39

338
111

1
5

32/36

MET 412

## Table (6.17) Window glass overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

Single glass
Insulating double glass with
5mm air gap
6mm air gap
13 mm air gap

Summer
4.7

Winter
8

3.2
3.1
2.8

8
2.7
3.4

## Table (6.18 A) Maximum heat gain per unit area,

20o North Latitude
Direction
Month
West
South
East
Jan
618
688
618
Feb
831
885
831
March
888
161
888
April
835
381
835
May
688
311
688
June
661
311
661
July
665
316
665
August
658
380
658
Sep
830
160
830
Oct
688
816
688
Nov.
699
66
699
Dec
850
831
850
Maximum
748
713
748

, ( W/m2)
Q
sun

North
53
58
308
390
388
386
383
396
338
303
53
88
186

Horizontal
819
810
856
508
851
880
888
881
868
838
896
688
905

## Table (6.18 B) Shading Coefficient (SC)

Glass type

Thickn
ess
(mm)

Without

(Venetian Blinds)

Light

Medium

Light

Dark

1
6-39
6

1
0.95
0.70

0.55
0.55
0.53

0.64
0.64
0.57

0.25
0.25
0.30

0.59
0.59
0.40

1
6
6

0.9
0.83
0.2-0.4

0.51
0.51
-

0.57
0.57
0.2-0.3

0.25
0.25
-

0.6
0.6
-

Single

Regular
sheet

Colored

Heat
Absorbing
Double

Regular
sheet

Colored

Reflective
coated

33/36

MET 412

Month

21
June

23 July

24
August

22
Sep

Direction
N
E
S
W
Hor
N
E
S
W
Hor
N
E
S
W
Hor
N
E
S
W
Hor

6
380
958
310
45
365
110
45
245
50
-

7
155
600
345
120
595
320
10
868
388
880
60
380

8
90
635
560
55
640
540
688
80
880
608
388
188

9
15
555
745
565
25
735
880
380
680
880
988
888

10
410
45
900
420
90
980
810
938
818
898
180
818

11
220
90
1000
225
140
990
910
968
580
610
868
818

Hour
12
105
1025
155
1020
988
588
888
880

13
90
220
1000
380
998
550
968
910
580
898
910
818

14
45
410
900
98
868
818
380
880
680
988
880
888

15
15
555
745
98
868
818
380
880
680
988
880
888

16
90
635
560
88
680
880
80
688
880
388
608
188

17
155
600
188
338
168
330
88
988
80
-

18
150
395
130
390
858
190
10
868
988
60
880
380

33/36

MET 412

## Table (6.19) Packaging material specific heat

Packaging Material
Fiberite packaging
Wood
Steel
Plastics
Aluminium

K)
1.4
2.3
0.5
1.6
0.85

Human
Activities
Seated at rest
Seated, very
light work
Medium work
Standing and
light work
Walking
slowly
Seated,
eating
Moderate
work
Moving
regularly
Medium work
Heavy work
Sport
exercises

Typical
application
Theater
Office, flat,
hotel
Office, flat,
hotel
Commercial
shops

Sensible
heat
66

Latent heat

Total

31

97

72

45

117

73

59

132

73

59

132

Bank

73

73

146

Restaurant

81

81

162

Factory

81

139

229

Factory

110

183

293

Factory
factory

88
170

204
255

292
425

Gymnasium

170

255

425

Storage tem. oC
-30
-25
-20
-10
-5
0
5
10

Q t
450
410
390
300
275
250
225
200

34/36

MET 412

Room Volume
(m3)
0.6
0.85
1.5
2.0
3.0
6.0
8.5
11.0
14.0
17.0
23.0
28.0
34.0
43.0
57.0
85.0
140.0
200.0
280.0
560.0
1400.0
2100.0
2800.0

Service
Average
3.63
2.56
1.77
1.44
1.25
1.07
1.01
0.96
0.94
0.91
0.86
0.85
0.77
0.71
0.65
0.58
-

Heavy
3.97
3.57
2.76
2.24
1.96
1.72
1.61
1.52
1.45
1.44
1.37
1.30
1.23
1.16
-

Long-term
storage
0.6
0.45
0.31
0.24
0.19
0.16
0.14
0.14
0.13