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Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

V{tx I
Transformations of
Stress & Strain

Materials for this chapter are taken from :


1.

Ferdinand P. Beer, E. Russell Johnston,Jr, John T. Dewolf, David F. Mazurek Mechanics of Materials 5th Edition in SI units

2.

R.C.Hibbeler Mechanics of Materials Seventh Edition


Ch 6- 1

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Introduction
The most general state of stress at a point may be
represented by 6 components,

x , y , z

normal stresses

xy , yz , zx shearing stresses
(Note : xy = yx , yz = zy , zx = xz )
Same state of stress is represented by a different set
of components if axes are rotated.
The first part of the chapter is concerned with how
the components of stress are transformed under a
rotation of the coordinate axes. The second part of
the chapter is devoted to a similar analysis of the
transformation of the components of strain.

Ch 6- 2

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Plane Stress
Plane Stress - state of stress in which two faces of the
cubic element are free of stress. For the illustrated
example, the state of stress is defined by

x , y , xy and z = zx = zy = 0.

State of plane stress occurs in a thin plate subjected to


forces acting in the midplane of the plate.

State of plane stress also occurs on the free surface of a


structural element or machine component, i.e., at any
point of the surface not subjected to an external force.

Ch 6- 3

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Transformation of Plane Stress


Consider the conditions for equilibrium of a prismatic
element with faces perpendicular to the x, y, and x
axes.

Fx = 0 = xA x (A cos ) cos xy (A cos )sin


y (A sin )sin xy (A sin ) cos
Fy = 0 = xy A + x (A cos )sin xy (A cos ) cos
y (A sin ) cos + xy (A sin )sin
The equations may be rewritten to yield

x =
y =

x + y
2
x + y

xy =

x y
2

x y
2
x y
2

cos 2 + xy sin 2
cos 2 xy sin 2

sin 2 + xy cos 2
Ch 6- 4

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Principal Stresses
The previous equations are combined to yield
parametric equations for a circle,

( x ave )2 + x2y = R 2
where

ave =

x + y
2

x y
2
+ xy
R =
2

Principal stresses occur on the principal planes


of stress with zero shearing stresses.

max,min =
tan 2 p =

x + y
2

x y
2
+ xy

2

2 xy

x y

Note : defines two angles separated by 90o


Ch 6- 5

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Maximum Shearing Stress

Maximum shearing stress occurs for x = ave


2

x y
2
+ xy
max = R =
2

x y
tan 2 s =
2 xy
Note : defines two angles separated by 90o and
offset from p by 45o

= ave =

x + y
2

Ch 6- 6

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.1
For the state of plane stress
shown,

determine

(a)

the

principal planes, (b) the principal


stresses,

(c)

the

shearing

stress

maximum
and

corresponding normal stress.

the

Solution
Find the element orientation for the principal
stresses from

tan 2 p =

2 xy

x y

Determine the principal stresses from

max,min =

x + y
2

x y
2
+ xy

2

Calculate the maximum shearing stress with


2

x y
2
+ xy
max =
2

x + y
2
Ch 6- 7

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.1
Find the element orientation for the principal
stresses from:

tan 2 p =

2 xy

x y

2(+ 40 )
= 1.333
(
)
50 10

2 p = 53.1, 233.1

p = 26.6, 116.6

Declare !
x = +50 MPa
y = 10 MPa

xy = +40 MPa

Determine the principal stresses from:

max,min =

x + y
2

= 20

x y
2
+ xy

2

(30)2 + (40)2

max = 70 MPa
min = 30 MPa
Ch 6- 8

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.1
Calculate the maximum shearing stress with
2

x y
2
+ xy
max =
2

=
x = +50MPa
y = 10MPa

xy = +40MPa

(30)2 + (40)2

max = 50 MPa
s = p 45
s = 18.4, 71.6
The corresponding normal stress is

= ave =

x + y
2

50 10
2

= 20 MPa
Ch 6- 9

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.2
A plane stress system is as shown in the

SOLUTION: METHOD OF EQUILIBRIUM

diagram below. Determine the direct and


shear stress acting on the plane P-P.

Fx' = 0;

A 10Asin15cos75 + 8Asin15cos75
+ 2A cos15cos15 + 8A cos15cos75 = 0

= -5.916MPa Ans.

8 MPa

10 MPa

Fy ' = 0;

A +10Asin15sin 75 + 8Asin15sin15

15

+ 2A cos15cos75 8A cos15cos15 = 0
P
2 MPa

= 3.93MPa Ans.

Ch 6- 10

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Mohrs Circle for Plane Stress


With the physical significance of Mohrs circle for
plane stress established, it may be applied with
simple geometric considerations. Critical values
are estimated graphically or calculated.
For
a
known
state
of
plane
stress
plot the points X and Y and construct the circle
centered at C.

ave =

x + y
2

x y
2
+ xy
R =
2

The principal stresses are obtained at A and B.

max,min = ave R
tan 2 p =

2 xy

x y

The direction of rotation of Ox to Oa is the same


as CX to CA.
Ch 6- 11

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Mohrs Circle for Plane Stress


With Mohrs circle uniquely defined, the state of
stress at other axes orientations may be depicted.

For the state of stress at an angle q with respect to


the xy axes, construct a new diameter XY at an
angle 2q with respect to XY.

Normal and shear stresses are obtained from the


coordinates XY.

Ch 6- 12

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Mohrs Circle for Plane Stress


Mohrs circle for centric axial loading:

x =

P
, y = xy = 0
A

x = y = xy =

P
2A

Mohrs circle for torsional loading:

x = y = 0 xy =

Tc
J

x =y =

Tc
xy = 0
J
Ch 6- 13

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.3
Solution

For the state of plane stress shown, (a)


construct Mohrs circle, determine (b) the
principal planes, (c) the principal stresses,
(d) the maximum shearing stress and the
corresponding normal stress.

Construction of Mohrs circle

ave =

x + y

(50 ) + ( 10 ) = 20 MPa

2
2
CF = 50 20 = 30 MPa FX = 40 MPa
R = CX =

(30 )2 + (40 )2

= 50 MPa
Ch 6- 14

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.3
Principal planes and stresses

max = OA = OC + CA = 20 + 50
max = 70 MPa
min = OB = OC BC = 20 50
min = 30 MPa
FX 40
=
CP 30
2 p = 53.1

tan 2 p =

p = 26.6

Ch 6- 15

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.3

Maximum shear stress

s = p + 45

max = R

= ave

s = 71.6

max = 50 MPa

= 20 MPa
Ch 6- 16

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.4
Solution

For the state of stress shown,


determine (a) the principal planes
and the principal stresses, (b) the
stress components exerted on the

Construct Mohrs circle

element obtained by rotating the


given

element

counterclockwise

ave =

through 30 degrees.

R=

x + y
2

100 + 60
=
= 80 MPa
2

(CF )2 + (FX )2 = (20)2 + (48)2 = 52 MPa


Ch 6- 17

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.4

Principal planes and stresses

tan 2 p
2 p

XF 48
=
=
= 2.4
CF 20
= 67.4

p = 33.7 clockwise

max = OA = OC + CA

max = OA = OC BC

= 80 + 52

= 80 52

max = +132 MPa

min = +28 MPa


Ch 6- 18

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.4

= 180 60 67.4 = 52.6


x = OK = OC KC = 80 52cos52.6
Stress components after rotation by

30o

Points X and Y on Mohrs circle that


correspond to stress components on the
rotated element are obtained by rotating XY
counterclockwise through 2 = 60

y = OL = OC + CL = 80 + 52cos52.6
xy = KX = 52sin52.6
x = +48.4MPa
y = +111.6MPa
xy = 41.3MPa

Ch 6- 19

Supplementary Problems 6.1

1)

At a point in the structural member, the stresses


are represented as in figure below. Find;
a)

80 MPa

the magnitude and orientation of the


principal stresses and,
30 MPa

[96.1MPa;23.94 MPa;28.15o]

a)

the magnitude and orientation of the


maximum
shearing
stresses
and
associated normal stresses.

40 MPa

[36.08MPa; -16.85o ; 60 MPa]

10 MPa

2)

For the state of plane stress shown, determine


the normal and shearing stresses on the planes
whose normal are at +60o and + 150o with the xaxis. Show stresses on a sketch of the element.
[for +60: N = 7.32MPa; N = -10MPa]

10 MPa
x

20 MPa

[for +150: N = -27.32MPa; N = 10MPa]


Ch 6 - 20

Supplementary Problems 6.1


3)

A structural member is subjected to two set of loadings. Each separately produce


stress conditions at a point A as shown in Figure 3(a) and Figure 3(b).
a)

Determine x, y and xy for the stress conditions.


[37.5 MPa; 22.5 MPa; -14.33 MPa]

a)

By continuing the effect of both stress conditions Q3(a), determine the


principal stresses and their orientations with respect to the x-axis and also the
magnitude of the maximum shearing stress.
30 MPa

20 MPa
10 MPa

30

15 MPa

A
5 MPa

Figure 3(a)

Figure 3(b)
Ch 6 - 21

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

General State of Stress


Consider the general 3D state of stress at a point and the
transformation of stress from element rotation
State of stress at Q defined by: x , y , z , xy , yz , zx
Consider tetrahedron with face perpendicular to the line QN
with direction cosines: x , y , z
The requirement

Fn = 0 leads to,

n = x2x + y 2y + z 2z
+ 2 xy x y + 2 yz y z + 2 zx z x
Form of equation guarantees that an element orientation
can be found such that

n = a 2a + bb2 + c c2
These are the principal axes and principal planes and the
normal stresses are the principal stresses.
Ch 6- 22

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Application of Mohrs Circle to the Three- Dimensional Analysis of Stress

Transformation of stress for an element


rotated around a principal axis may be
represented by Mohrs circle.

The three circles represent the normal


and shearing stresses for rotation around
each principal axis.

Points A, B, and C represent the principal


stresses on the principal planes (shearing
stress is zero)

Radius of the largest circle yields the


maximum shearing stress.

1
2

max = max min


Ch 6- 23

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Application of Mohrs Circle to the Three-Dimensional Analysis of Stress

In the case of plane stress, the axis


perpendicular to the plane of stress is a principal
axis (shearing stress equal zero).
If the points A and B (representing the principal
planes) are on opposite sides of the origin, then

a) the corresponding principal stresses are


the maximum and minimum normal
stresses for the element
b) the maximum shearing stress for the
element is equal to the maximum in-plane
shearing stress
c) planes of maximum shearing stress are at
45o to the principal planes.

Ch 6- 24

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Application of Mohrs Circle to the Three-Dimensional Analysis of Stress

If A and B are on the same side of the origin (i.e.,


have the same sign), then
a) the circle defining smax, smin, and
tmax for the element is not the circle
corresponding to transformations within
the plane of stress

b) maximum shearing stress for the element is


equal to half of the maximum stress

c) planes of maximum shearing stress are at


45 degrees to the plane of stress

Ch 6- 25

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Transformation of Plane Strain


Plane strain - deformations of the material take
place in parallel planes and are the same in
each of those planes.

Plane strain occurs in a plate subjected along


its edges to a uniformly distributed load and
restrained from expanding or contracting
laterally by smooth, rigid and fixed supports

components of strain :

x y xy

( z = zx = zy = 0)

Example: Consider a long bar subjected to


uniformly distributed transverse loads. State
of plane stress exists in any transverse
section not located too close to the ends of
the bar.

Ch 6- 26

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Transformation of Plane Strain


State of strain at the point Q results in
different strain components with respect to
the xy and xy reference frames.

( ) = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + xy sin cos


OB = (45) = 12 ( x + y + xy )

xy = 2 OB ( x + y )

Applying the trigonometric relations used


for the transformation of stress,

x =
y =
xy
2

x + y
2
x +y

x y
2
x y

x y
2

cos 2 +
cos 2

sin 2 +

xy
2

xy
2

xy
2

sin 2
sin 2

cos 2
Ch 6- 27

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Mohrs Circle for Plane Strain


The equations for the transformation of plane
strain are of the same form as the equations
for the transformation of plane stress - Mohrs
circle techniques apply.
Abscissa for the center C and radius R ,

ave =

x + y

x y xy
+

R =
2 2

Principal axes of strain and principal strains,

xy
tan 2 p =
x y
max = ave + R

min = ave R

Maximum in-plane shearing strain,

max = 2 R =

( x y )2 + xy2
Ch 6- 28

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.5
Solution
The strain at a point in a body are as
follows:

x = 800

y = 200

xy = 600

Determine:
a)

b)

The principal strains and directions,


and
The strain a in the direction of 60
with the x-axis and the strain b
perpendicular to a and the shearing
strain ab.

Using Mohrs circle

x
y

= 800
= 200

1
xy = 300
2
Setting the coordinates

X ( 800, 300)
Y ( 200,300)
Centre OC

OC =

800 + 200
= 500
2

Radius, R

R = 3002 + 3002 = 424.3


Ch 6- 29

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.5
Principal strains and direction

1 = OC + R = 924.3
2 = OC R = 75.7
tan 2P =

300
300

= 1, 2P = 45 , P = 22.5


Other calculations

a = OC + R cos75 = 609.8
b = OC R cos75 = 390.18
1
2

ab = R sin 75 ; ab = 819.7

Ch 6- 30

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Absolute Maximum Shear Strain


Absolute maximum shear strain is found from the circle having the largest radius.
It occurs on the element oriented 45 about the axis from the element shown in its
original position.

abs max = max min


avg =

max + min
2

Ch 6- 31

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Absolute Maximum Shear Strain


For plane strain we have,

This value represents the absolute maximum shear strain for the material.

abs max = ( x ' z ' )max = max

abs max = ( x ' y ' )max = max min

Ch 6- 32

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.6
The state of plane strain at a point is represented by the strain components,

x = 400 (106 ) , y = 200 (106 ) , xy = 150 (106 )


Determine the maximum in-plane shear strain and the absolute maximum shear strain.

Solution
From the strain components, the centre of the circle is on the axis at:

avg =
Since

xy
2

400 + 200 6
10 = 100 106
2

( ) ( ))

= 75(106 ) , the reference point has coordinates A 400 106 ,75 106

Thus the radius of the circle is

R = (400 100) + 752 106 = 309 109

)
Ch 6- 33

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.6
Computing the in-plane principal strains, we have

max = ( 100 + 309)(106 ) = 209(106 )

min = ( 100 309)(106 ) = 409(106 )


From the circle, the maximum in-plane shear strain is

max in plane = max min = [209 ( 409)](106 ) = 618(106 ) (Ans)


From the above results, we have

max = 209(106 ) , int = 0 , min = 409(106 )

Thus the Mohrs circle is as follows,

Ch 6- 34

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Three-Dimensional Analysis of Strain


Previously demonstrated that three principal
axes exist such that the perpendicular
element faces are free of shearing stresses.

By Hookes Law, it follows that the shearing


strains are zero as well and that the principal
planes of stress are also the principal planes
of strain.

Rotation about the principal axes may be


represented by Mohrs circles.

Ch 6- 35

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Three-Dimensional Analysis of Strain


For the case of plane strain where the x and y
axes are in the plane of strain,
the z axis is also a principal axis
the corresponding principal normal
strain is represented by the point Z = 0
or the origin.

If the points A and B lie on opposite sides of


the origin, the maximum shearing strain is the
maximum in-plane shearing strain, D and E.

If the points A and B lie on the same side of the


origin, the maximum shearing strain is out of the
plane of strain and is represented by the points
D and E.

Ch 6- 36

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Three-Dimensional Analysis of Strain


Consider the case of plane stress,

x = a y = b z = 0
Corresponding normal strains,

a =

a b

b =
c =

+ b
E
E

( a + b ) = ( a + b )
1

Strain perpendicular to the plane of stress is


not zero.
If B is located between A and C on the Mohrcircle diagram, the maximum shearing strain is
equal to the diameter CA.

Ch 6- 37

Supplementary Problems 6.2


1)

For the given state of plane strain, determine (a) the orientation and magnitude of the
principal strains, (b) the maximum in-plane strain, and (c) the absolute maximum
shearing strain.
[(a) 37.53o;-32.4e-6; -187.6e-6; (b) 155.2e-6; (c) 187.6e-6]

x = - 90 ; y = - 130 ; xy = 150
2)

For the given state of plane strain, determine the state of strain associated with axes
x and y rotated via the angle .
[-653e-6; 303e-6; -829e-6]

x = - 800 ; y = 450 ; xy = 200 ; = -25o

Ch 6 - 38

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Generalized Hookes Law


For a triaxial state of stress, the general form for Hookes law is as follow:

x =

1
1
1
x v( y + z ) , y = y v( x + z ) , z = z v( x + y )
E
E
E

They are valid only for a linearelastic materials.


Hookes law for shear stress and shear strain is written as

xy =

1
G

xy

yz =

1
G

yz

xz =

1
G

xz

And relationship between G, E and v is;

E
G=
2(1 + v )

Ch 6- 39

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Generalized Hookes Law


Stresses in terms of strains

x =
y =
z =

(1 + v )(1 2v )
E

(1 + v )(1 2v )
E

(1 + v )(1 2v )

+ v ( y + z x )

or x = 2G x + e

+ v ( x + z y )

or y = 2G y + e

+ ( x + y z )

or z = 2G z + e

ote : =

xy

2 (1 + v )

xy

vE

(1 + v )(1 2v )

xz

2 (1 + v )

; and e = x + y + z

xz

yz

2 (1 + v )

xz

Ch 6- 40

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.7
The copper bar is subjected to a uniform loading along its edges. If it has a = 300 mm, b = 50
mm, and t = 20 mm before load is applied, find its new length, width, and thickness after
application of the load. Take ECU = 120 GPa, v = 0.34.

From the loading we have

x = 800 MPa , y = 500 MPa , xy = 0 , z = 0

The associated normal strains are determined from the generalized Hookes law,

v
y + z ) = 0.00808
(
E E
y v
y =
( x + z ) = 0.00643
E E

v
z = z ( x + y ) = 0.000850
E E

x =

Ch 6- 41

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.7
The new bar length, width, and thickness are therefore
a ' = 300 + 0.00808 ( 300 ) = 302.4 mm
b ' = 50 + ( 0.00643)( 50 ) = 49.68 mm
t ' = 20 + ( 0.000850 )( 20 ) = 19.98 mm

Ch 6- 42

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.8
At a point in a stresses body, the strains related to the coordinate set xyz are
given by:

200 300 200


300 100 500 106

200 500 400

Determine the complete stress components for this body. Assume Young
Modulus, E = 100 GPa and Poissons ratio, v = 0.33.

Ch 6- 43

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.8
Normal stresses on each axis:

xx =

(1 + )(1 2 )

xx

100 10

+ ( yy + zz xx )

( 200 10

+ 0.33 100 10 400 10 200 10

(1 + 0.33) (1 2 ( 0.33) )
= 2.2114 10 ( 0.000031) = -6.86MPa Ans.

))

11

yy =

yy

zz

+ ( xx + zz yy )

(1 + )(1 2 )
= 2.2114 10 ( 0.000133) = -29.4MPa Ans.
11

zz =

+ ( xx + yy zz )

(1 + )(1 2 )
= 2.2114 10 ( 0.000235) = -51.97 MPa Ans.
11

Ch 6- 44

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.7
ContinueN.

xy =
xz =
yz =

E
1+ v
E
1+ v
E
1+ v

100 10

100 10

xy =

300 10 ) = 22.6MPa Ans.


(
1 + 0.33
9

xz =

200 10 ) = 15.04MPa Ans.


(
1 + 0.33

100 10

yz =

500 10 ) = 37.6MPa Ans.


(
1 + 0.33
6

Thus, complete stress component is:

6.86 22.6 15.04


= 22.6 29.4 37.6 MPa Ans.


15.04 37.6 51.97

Ch 6- 45

Supplementary Problems 6.3


1) Determine the complete stress component of this material. Use E = 200 GPa and G
= 80 GPa.
200 100
0

100 300 400

0 400 0

2) A square ABCD of 20 mm side is scribed on the surface


of a thin plate while the plate is unloaded, as shown in
Figure Q2. After the plate is loaded, the lengths of sides
AB and AD are observed to have increased by 4 x106 m and 6 x10-6 m, respectively while angle DAB is
observed to have decreased by 160 x10-6 rad.
Determine;
i.

the

principal

strains

and

its

orientation,

[344.34,155.66,29o]

ii. the maximum in-plane shear strain, and [188.68]


iii. the average normal strain. [250]
iv. The principal stresses using E = 200 GPa and v =
0.3. [85.94 MPa,56.92 MPa]

Figure Q2

Ch 6 - 46

Previous Exam Questions


OCT2009/MEC411/KJM454 Q2(b)
An element is subjected to two mutually perpendicular strains, x= 400 and y= 200,
together with an unknown shear strain xy. If the maximum principal strain in the
material is 500, determine:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

the magnitude of the shear strain, [346.4]


the other principal strain and the direction of the principal strain, [100,30o]
the strain a in a direction of 30 with the x-axis, and [500]
If E = 200 GPa and v = 0.03, determine the principal stresses.

APR2011/MEC411 Q5(b)
The state of plane strain at a point in a deformable body is defined by x = 100 , y =
140 , and xy = 150 . Calculate :
i. the orientation and magnitude of the principal strains, [37.53o,-42.38,-197.62]
ii. the maximum in-plane strain, and [150 ]
iii. the new state of x , i.e., x, when the element is rotated + 30o with respect to the
x-axis. [-45.05 ]
Ch 6 - 47

Previous Exam Questions


JUN2011/MEC411 Q5(d)
The principal stresses (at a point on a certain material) are given as 90 MPa and 30
MPa, both is in tension. Determine the normal and shear stresses on a plane making an
angle of tan-10.25 (ccw) with the principal directions. [86.47 MPa,14.1 MPa]
JAN2012/MEC411 Q5(b)
A state of plane stress consists of a tensile stress 60 MPa exerted on vertical surfaces
and of unknown shearing stresses. If the largest normal stress is 100 MPa, calculate;
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

the average normal stress, [30 MPa]


the magnitude of the shearing stress, [63.25 MPa]
the maximum shearing stress, and [70 MPa]
the minimum principal stresses. [-40 MPa]

Ch 6 - 48

Previous Exam Questions


JUN2012/MEC411 Q5(a)
A steel bar is subjected to an axial force of P. The state of stress at a point on the bar
caused by the axial loading is shown in Figure Q5(a). Knowing that the stresses on
plane a-a are y = -100 MPa and xy = 35 MPa, determine using the Mohrs circle;
i)
ii)
iii)

the normal stress, X of the stress component on plane a-a, [-12.25 MPa]
The angle that plane a-a forms with the horizontal, and [19.3o]
The maximum compressive stress in the bar. [-112.25 MPa]
P

a
y

State of stress

Figure Q5 (a)
P

Ch 6 - 49