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Transformations of

Stress & Strain

1.

Ferdinand P. Beer, E. Russell Johnston,Jr, John T. Dewolf, David F. Mazurek Mechanics of Materials 5th Edition in SI units

2.

Ch 6- 1

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Introduction

The most general state of stress at a point may be

represented by 6 components,

x , y , z

normal stresses

xy , yz , zx shearing stresses

(Note : xy = yx , yz = zy , zx = xz )

Same state of stress is represented by a different set

of components if axes are rotated.

The first part of the chapter is concerned with how

the components of stress are transformed under a

rotation of the coordinate axes. The second part of

the chapter is devoted to a similar analysis of the

transformation of the components of strain.

Ch 6- 2

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Plane Stress

Plane Stress - state of stress in which two faces of the

cubic element are free of stress. For the illustrated

example, the state of stress is defined by

x , y , xy and z = zx = zy = 0.

forces acting in the midplane of the plate.

structural element or machine component, i.e., at any

point of the surface not subjected to an external force.

Ch 6- 3

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Consider the conditions for equilibrium of a prismatic

element with faces perpendicular to the x, y, and x

axes.

y (A sin )sin xy (A sin ) cos

Fy = 0 = xy A + x (A cos )sin xy (A cos ) cos

y (A sin ) cos + xy (A sin )sin

The equations may be rewritten to yield

x =

y =

x + y

2

x + y

xy =

x y

2

x y

2

x y

2

cos 2 + xy sin 2

cos 2 xy sin 2

sin 2 + xy cos 2

Ch 6- 4

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Principal Stresses

The previous equations are combined to yield

parametric equations for a circle,

( x ave )2 + x2y = R 2

where

ave =

x + y

2

x y

2

+ xy

R =

2

of stress with zero shearing stresses.

max,min =

tan 2 p =

x + y

2

x y

2

+ xy

2

2 xy

x y

Ch 6- 5

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

2

x y

2

+ xy

max = R =

2

x y

tan 2 s =

2 xy

Note : defines two angles separated by 90o and

offset from p by 45o

= ave =

x + y

2

Ch 6- 6

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.1

For the state of plane stress

shown,

determine

(a)

the

stresses,

(c)

the

shearing

stress

maximum

and

the

Solution

Find the element orientation for the principal

stresses from

tan 2 p =

2 xy

x y

max,min =

x + y

2

x y

2

+ xy

2

2

x y

2

+ xy

max =

2

x + y

2

Ch 6- 7

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.1

Find the element orientation for the principal

stresses from:

tan 2 p =

2 xy

x y

2(+ 40 )

= 1.333

(

)

50 10

2 p = 53.1, 233.1

p = 26.6, 116.6

Declare !

x = +50 MPa

y = 10 MPa

xy = +40 MPa

max,min =

x + y

2

= 20

x y

2

+ xy

2

(30)2 + (40)2

max = 70 MPa

min = 30 MPa

Ch 6- 8

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.1

Calculate the maximum shearing stress with

2

x y

2

+ xy

max =

2

=

x = +50MPa

y = 10MPa

xy = +40MPa

(30)2 + (40)2

max = 50 MPa

s = p 45

s = 18.4, 71.6

The corresponding normal stress is

= ave =

x + y

2

50 10

2

= 20 MPa

Ch 6- 9

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.2

A plane stress system is as shown in the

shear stress acting on the plane P-P.

Fx' = 0;

A 10Asin15cos75 + 8Asin15cos75

+ 2A cos15cos15 + 8A cos15cos75 = 0

= -5.916MPa Ans.

8 MPa

10 MPa

Fy ' = 0;

A +10Asin15sin 75 + 8Asin15sin15

15

+ 2A cos15cos75 8A cos15cos15 = 0

P

2 MPa

= 3.93MPa Ans.

Ch 6- 10

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

With the physical significance of Mohrs circle for

plane stress established, it may be applied with

simple geometric considerations. Critical values

are estimated graphically or calculated.

For

a

known

state

of

plane

stress

plot the points X and Y and construct the circle

centered at C.

ave =

x + y

2

x y

2

+ xy

R =

2

max,min = ave R

tan 2 p =

2 xy

x y

as CX to CA.

Ch 6- 11

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

With Mohrs circle uniquely defined, the state of

stress at other axes orientations may be depicted.

the xy axes, construct a new diameter XY at an

angle 2q with respect to XY.

coordinates XY.

Ch 6- 12

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Mohrs circle for centric axial loading:

x =

P

, y = xy = 0

A

x = y = xy =

P

2A

x = y = 0 xy =

Tc

J

x =y =

Tc

xy = 0

J

Ch 6- 13

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.3

Solution

construct Mohrs circle, determine (b) the

principal planes, (c) the principal stresses,

(d) the maximum shearing stress and the

corresponding normal stress.

ave =

x + y

(50 ) + ( 10 ) = 20 MPa

2

2

CF = 50 20 = 30 MPa FX = 40 MPa

R = CX =

(30 )2 + (40 )2

= 50 MPa

Ch 6- 14

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.3

Principal planes and stresses

max = OA = OC + CA = 20 + 50

max = 70 MPa

min = OB = OC BC = 20 50

min = 30 MPa

FX 40

=

CP 30

2 p = 53.1

tan 2 p =

p = 26.6

Ch 6- 15

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.3

s = p + 45

max = R

= ave

s = 71.6

max = 50 MPa

= 20 MPa

Ch 6- 16

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.4

Solution

determine (a) the principal planes

and the principal stresses, (b) the

stress components exerted on the

given

element

counterclockwise

ave =

through 30 degrees.

R=

x + y

2

100 + 60

=

= 80 MPa

2

Ch 6- 17

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.4

tan 2 p

2 p

XF 48

=

=

= 2.4

CF 20

= 67.4

p = 33.7 clockwise

max = OA = OC + CA

max = OA = OC BC

= 80 + 52

= 80 52

Ch 6- 18

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.4

x = OK = OC KC = 80 52cos52.6

Stress components after rotation by

30o

correspond to stress components on the

rotated element are obtained by rotating XY

counterclockwise through 2 = 60

y = OL = OC + CL = 80 + 52cos52.6

xy = KX = 52sin52.6

x = +48.4MPa

y = +111.6MPa

xy = 41.3MPa

Ch 6- 19

1)

are represented as in figure below. Find;

a)

80 MPa

principal stresses and,

30 MPa

[96.1MPa;23.94 MPa;28.15o]

a)

maximum

shearing

stresses

and

associated normal stresses.

40 MPa

10 MPa

2)

the normal and shearing stresses on the planes

whose normal are at +60o and + 150o with the xaxis. Show stresses on a sketch of the element.

[for +60: N = 7.32MPa; N = -10MPa]

10 MPa

x

20 MPa

Ch 6 - 20

3)

stress conditions at a point A as shown in Figure 3(a) and Figure 3(b).

a)

[37.5 MPa; 22.5 MPa; -14.33 MPa]

a)

principal stresses and their orientations with respect to the x-axis and also the

magnitude of the maximum shearing stress.

30 MPa

20 MPa

10 MPa

30

15 MPa

A

5 MPa

Figure 3(a)

Figure 3(b)

Ch 6 - 21

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Consider the general 3D state of stress at a point and the

transformation of stress from element rotation

State of stress at Q defined by: x , y , z , xy , yz , zx

Consider tetrahedron with face perpendicular to the line QN

with direction cosines: x , y , z

The requirement

Fn = 0 leads to,

n = x2x + y 2y + z 2z

+ 2 xy x y + 2 yz y z + 2 zx z x

Form of equation guarantees that an element orientation

can be found such that

n = a 2a + bb2 + c c2

These are the principal axes and principal planes and the

normal stresses are the principal stresses.

Ch 6- 22

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

rotated around a principal axis may be

represented by Mohrs circle.

and shearing stresses for rotation around

each principal axis.

stresses on the principal planes (shearing

stress is zero)

maximum shearing stress.

1

2

Ch 6- 23

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

perpendicular to the plane of stress is a principal

axis (shearing stress equal zero).

If the points A and B (representing the principal

planes) are on opposite sides of the origin, then

the maximum and minimum normal

stresses for the element

b) the maximum shearing stress for the

element is equal to the maximum in-plane

shearing stress

c) planes of maximum shearing stress are at

45o to the principal planes.

Ch 6- 24

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

have the same sign), then

a) the circle defining smax, smin, and

tmax for the element is not the circle

corresponding to transformations within

the plane of stress

equal to half of the maximum stress

45 degrees to the plane of stress

Ch 6- 25

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Plane strain - deformations of the material take

place in parallel planes and are the same in

each of those planes.

its edges to a uniformly distributed load and

restrained from expanding or contracting

laterally by smooth, rigid and fixed supports

components of strain :

x y xy

( z = zx = zy = 0)

uniformly distributed transverse loads. State

of plane stress exists in any transverse

section not located too close to the ends of

the bar.

Ch 6- 26

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

State of strain at the point Q results in

different strain components with respect to

the xy and xy reference frames.

OB = (45) = 12 ( x + y + xy )

xy = 2 OB ( x + y )

for the transformation of stress,

x =

y =

xy

2

x + y

2

x +y

x y

2

x y

x y

2

cos 2 +

cos 2

sin 2 +

xy

2

xy

2

xy

2

sin 2

sin 2

cos 2

Ch 6- 27

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

The equations for the transformation of plane

strain are of the same form as the equations

for the transformation of plane stress - Mohrs

circle techniques apply.

Abscissa for the center C and radius R ,

ave =

x + y

x y xy

+

R =

2 2

xy

tan 2 p =

x y

max = ave + R

min = ave R

max = 2 R =

( x y )2 + xy2

Ch 6- 28

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.5

Solution

The strain at a point in a body are as

follows:

x = 800

y = 200

xy = 600

Determine:

a)

b)

and

The strain a in the direction of 60

with the x-axis and the strain b

perpendicular to a and the shearing

strain ab.

x

y

= 800

= 200

1

xy = 300

2

Setting the coordinates

X ( 800, 300)

Y ( 200,300)

Centre OC

OC =

800 + 200

= 500

2

Radius, R

Ch 6- 29

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.5

Principal strains and direction

1 = OC + R = 924.3

2 = OC R = 75.7

tan 2P =

300

300

= 1, 2P = 45 , P = 22.5

Other calculations

a = OC + R cos75 = 609.8

b = OC R cos75 = 390.18

1

2

Ch 6- 30

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Absolute maximum shear strain is found from the circle having the largest radius.

It occurs on the element oriented 45 about the axis from the element shown in its

original position.

avg =

max + min

2

Ch 6- 31

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

For plane strain we have,

This value represents the absolute maximum shear strain for the material.

Ch 6- 32

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.6

The state of plane strain at a point is represented by the strain components,

Determine the maximum in-plane shear strain and the absolute maximum shear strain.

Solution

From the strain components, the centre of the circle is on the axis at:

avg =

Since

xy

2

400 + 200 6

10 = 100 106

2

( ) ( ))

= 75(106 ) , the reference point has coordinates A 400 106 ,75 106

)

Ch 6- 33

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.6

Computing the in-plane principal strains, we have

From the circle, the maximum in-plane shear strain is

From the above results, we have

Ch 6- 34

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Previously demonstrated that three principal

axes exist such that the perpendicular

element faces are free of shearing stresses.

strains are zero as well and that the principal

planes of stress are also the principal planes

of strain.

represented by Mohrs circles.

Ch 6- 35

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

For the case of plane strain where the x and y

axes are in the plane of strain,

the z axis is also a principal axis

the corresponding principal normal

strain is represented by the point Z = 0

or the origin.

the origin, the maximum shearing strain is the

maximum in-plane shearing strain, D and E.

origin, the maximum shearing strain is out of the

plane of strain and is represented by the points

D and E.

Ch 6- 36

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Consider the case of plane stress,

x = a y = b z = 0

Corresponding normal strains,

a =

a b

b =

c =

+ b

E

E

( a + b ) = ( a + b )

1

not zero.

If B is located between A and C on the Mohrcircle diagram, the maximum shearing strain is

equal to the diameter CA.

Ch 6- 37

1)

For the given state of plane strain, determine (a) the orientation and magnitude of the

principal strains, (b) the maximum in-plane strain, and (c) the absolute maximum

shearing strain.

[(a) 37.53o;-32.4e-6; -187.6e-6; (b) 155.2e-6; (c) 187.6e-6]

x = - 90 ; y = - 130 ; xy = 150

2)

For the given state of plane strain, determine the state of strain associated with axes

x and y rotated via the angle .

[-653e-6; 303e-6; -829e-6]

Ch 6 - 38

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

For a triaxial state of stress, the general form for Hookes law is as follow:

x =

1

1

1

x v( y + z ) , y = y v( x + z ) , z = z v( x + y )

E

E

E

Hookes law for shear stress and shear strain is written as

xy =

1

G

xy

yz =

1

G

yz

xz =

1

G

xz

E

G=

2(1 + v )

Ch 6- 39

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Stresses in terms of strains

x =

y =

z =

(1 + v )(1 2v )

E

(1 + v )(1 2v )

E

(1 + v )(1 2v )

+ v ( y + z x )

or x = 2G x + e

+ v ( x + z y )

or y = 2G y + e

+ ( x + y z )

or z = 2G z + e

ote : =

xy

2 (1 + v )

xy

vE

(1 + v )(1 2v )

xz

2 (1 + v )

; and e = x + y + z

xz

yz

2 (1 + v )

xz

Ch 6- 40

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.7

The copper bar is subjected to a uniform loading along its edges. If it has a = 300 mm, b = 50

mm, and t = 20 mm before load is applied, find its new length, width, and thickness after

application of the load. Take ECU = 120 GPa, v = 0.34.

The associated normal strains are determined from the generalized Hookes law,

v

y + z ) = 0.00808

(

E E

y v

y =

( x + z ) = 0.00643

E E

v

z = z ( x + y ) = 0.000850

E E

x =

Ch 6- 41

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.7

The new bar length, width, and thickness are therefore

a ' = 300 + 0.00808 ( 300 ) = 302.4 mm

b ' = 50 + ( 0.00643)( 50 ) = 49.68 mm

t ' = 20 + ( 0.000850 )( 20 ) = 19.98 mm

Ch 6- 42

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.8

At a point in a stresses body, the strains related to the coordinate set xyz are

given by:

300 100 500 106

Determine the complete stress components for this body. Assume Young

Modulus, E = 100 GPa and Poissons ratio, v = 0.33.

Ch 6- 43

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.8

Normal stresses on each axis:

xx =

(1 + )(1 2 )

xx

100 10

+ ( yy + zz xx )

( 200 10

(1 + 0.33) (1 2 ( 0.33) )

= 2.2114 10 ( 0.000031) = -6.86MPa Ans.

))

11

yy =

yy

zz

+ ( xx + zz yy )

(1 + )(1 2 )

= 2.2114 10 ( 0.000133) = -29.4MPa Ans.

11

zz =

+ ( xx + yy zz )

(1 + )(1 2 )

= 2.2114 10 ( 0.000235) = -51.97 MPa Ans.

11

Ch 6- 44

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.7

ContinueN.

xy =

xz =

yz =

E

1+ v

E

1+ v

E

1+ v

100 10

100 10

xy =

(

1 + 0.33

9

xz =

(

1 + 0.33

100 10

yz =

(

1 + 0.33

6

= 22.6 29.4 37.6 MPa Ans.

15.04 37.6 51.97

Ch 6- 45

1) Determine the complete stress component of this material. Use E = 200 GPa and G

= 80 GPa.

200 100

0

0 400 0

of a thin plate while the plate is unloaded, as shown in

Figure Q2. After the plate is loaded, the lengths of sides

AB and AD are observed to have increased by 4 x106 m and 6 x10-6 m, respectively while angle DAB is

observed to have decreased by 160 x10-6 rad.

Determine;

i.

the

principal

strains

and

its

orientation,

[344.34,155.66,29o]

iii. the average normal strain. [250]

iv. The principal stresses using E = 200 GPa and v =

0.3. [85.94 MPa,56.92 MPa]

Figure Q2

Ch 6 - 46

OCT2009/MEC411/KJM454 Q2(b)

An element is subjected to two mutually perpendicular strains, x= 400 and y= 200,

together with an unknown shear strain xy. If the maximum principal strain in the

material is 500, determine:

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

the other principal strain and the direction of the principal strain, [100,30o]

the strain a in a direction of 30 with the x-axis, and [500]

If E = 200 GPa and v = 0.03, determine the principal stresses.

APR2011/MEC411 Q5(b)

The state of plane strain at a point in a deformable body is defined by x = 100 , y =

140 , and xy = 150 . Calculate :

i. the orientation and magnitude of the principal strains, [37.53o,-42.38,-197.62]

ii. the maximum in-plane strain, and [150 ]

iii. the new state of x , i.e., x, when the element is rotated + 30o with respect to the

x-axis. [-45.05 ]

Ch 6 - 47

JUN2011/MEC411 Q5(d)

The principal stresses (at a point on a certain material) are given as 90 MPa and 30

MPa, both is in tension. Determine the normal and shear stresses on a plane making an

angle of tan-10.25 (ccw) with the principal directions. [86.47 MPa,14.1 MPa]

JAN2012/MEC411 Q5(b)

A state of plane stress consists of a tensile stress 60 MPa exerted on vertical surfaces

and of unknown shearing stresses. If the largest normal stress is 100 MPa, calculate;

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

the magnitude of the shearing stress, [63.25 MPa]

the maximum shearing stress, and [70 MPa]

the minimum principal stresses. [-40 MPa]

Ch 6 - 48

JUN2012/MEC411 Q5(a)

A steel bar is subjected to an axial force of P. The state of stress at a point on the bar

caused by the axial loading is shown in Figure Q5(a). Knowing that the stresses on

plane a-a are y = -100 MPa and xy = 35 MPa, determine using the Mohrs circle;

i)

ii)

iii)

the normal stress, X of the stress component on plane a-a, [-12.25 MPa]

The angle that plane a-a forms with the horizontal, and [19.3o]

The maximum compressive stress in the bar. [-112.25 MPa]

P

a

y

State of stress

Figure Q5 (a)

P

Ch 6 - 49

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