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# Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

## Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

V{tx I
Transformations of
Stress & Strain

## Materials for this chapter are taken from :

1.

Ferdinand P. Beer, E. Russell Johnston,Jr, John T. Dewolf, David F. Mazurek Mechanics of Materials 5th Edition in SI units

2.

Ch 6- 1

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Introduction
The most general state of stress at a point may be
represented by 6 components,

x , y , z

normal stresses

xy , yz , zx shearing stresses
(Note : xy = yx , yz = zy , zx = xz )
Same state of stress is represented by a different set
of components if axes are rotated.
The first part of the chapter is concerned with how
the components of stress are transformed under a
rotation of the coordinate axes. The second part of
the chapter is devoted to a similar analysis of the
transformation of the components of strain.

Ch 6- 2

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Plane Stress
Plane Stress - state of stress in which two faces of the
cubic element are free of stress. For the illustrated
example, the state of stress is defined by

x , y , xy and z = zx = zy = 0.

## State of plane stress occurs in a thin plate subjected to

forces acting in the midplane of the plate.

## State of plane stress also occurs on the free surface of a

structural element or machine component, i.e., at any
point of the surface not subjected to an external force.

Ch 6- 3

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

## Transformation of Plane Stress

Consider the conditions for equilibrium of a prismatic
element with faces perpendicular to the x, y, and x
axes.

## Fx = 0 = xA x (A cos ) cos xy (A cos )sin

y (A sin )sin xy (A sin ) cos
Fy = 0 = xy A + x (A cos )sin xy (A cos ) cos
y (A sin ) cos + xy (A sin )sin
The equations may be rewritten to yield

x =
y =

x + y
2
x + y

xy =

x y
2

x y
2
x y
2

cos 2 + xy sin 2
cos 2 xy sin 2

sin 2 + xy cos 2
Ch 6- 4

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Principal Stresses
The previous equations are combined to yield
parametric equations for a circle,

( x ave )2 + x2y = R 2
where

ave =

x + y
2

x y
2
+ xy
R =
2

## Principal stresses occur on the principal planes

of stress with zero shearing stresses.

max,min =
tan 2 p =

x + y
2

x y
2
+ xy

2

2 xy

x y

Ch 6- 5

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

## Maximum shearing stress occurs for x = ave

2

x y
2
+ xy
max = R =
2

x y
tan 2 s =
2 xy
Note : defines two angles separated by 90o and
offset from p by 45o

= ave =

x + y
2

Ch 6- 6

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.1
For the state of plane stress
shown,

determine

(a)

the

stresses,

(c)

the

shearing

stress

maximum
and

## corresponding normal stress.

the

Solution
Find the element orientation for the principal
stresses from

tan 2 p =

2 xy

x y

max,min =

x + y
2

x y
2
+ xy

2

2

x y
2
+ xy
max =
2

x + y
2
Ch 6- 7

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.1
Find the element orientation for the principal
stresses from:

tan 2 p =

2 xy

x y

2(+ 40 )
= 1.333
(
)
50 10

2 p = 53.1, 233.1

p = 26.6, 116.6

Declare !
x = +50 MPa
y = 10 MPa

xy = +40 MPa

max,min =

x + y
2

= 20

x y
2
+ xy

2

(30)2 + (40)2

max = 70 MPa
min = 30 MPa
Ch 6- 8

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.1
Calculate the maximum shearing stress with
2

x y
2
+ xy
max =
2

=
x = +50MPa
y = 10MPa

xy = +40MPa

(30)2 + (40)2

max = 50 MPa
s = p 45
s = 18.4, 71.6
The corresponding normal stress is

= ave =

x + y
2

50 10
2

= 20 MPa
Ch 6- 9

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.2
A plane stress system is as shown in the

## diagram below. Determine the direct and

shear stress acting on the plane P-P.

Fx' = 0;

A 10Asin15cos75 + 8Asin15cos75
+ 2A cos15cos15 + 8A cos15cos75 = 0

= -5.916MPa Ans.

8 MPa

10 MPa

Fy ' = 0;

A +10Asin15sin 75 + 8Asin15sin15

15

+ 2A cos15cos75 8A cos15cos15 = 0
P
2 MPa

= 3.93MPa Ans.

Ch 6- 10

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

## Mohrs Circle for Plane Stress

With the physical significance of Mohrs circle for
plane stress established, it may be applied with
simple geometric considerations. Critical values
are estimated graphically or calculated.
For
a
known
state
of
plane
stress
plot the points X and Y and construct the circle
centered at C.

ave =

x + y
2

x y
2
+ xy
R =
2

max,min = ave R
tan 2 p =

2 xy

x y

as CX to CA.
Ch 6- 11

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

## Mohrs Circle for Plane Stress

With Mohrs circle uniquely defined, the state of
stress at other axes orientations may be depicted.

## For the state of stress at an angle q with respect to

the xy axes, construct a new diameter XY at an
angle 2q with respect to XY.

coordinates XY.

Ch 6- 12

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

x =

P
, y = xy = 0
A

x = y = xy =

P
2A

x = y = 0 xy =

Tc
J

x =y =

Tc
xy = 0
J
Ch 6- 13

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.3
Solution

## For the state of plane stress shown, (a)

construct Mohrs circle, determine (b) the
principal planes, (c) the principal stresses,
(d) the maximum shearing stress and the
corresponding normal stress.

## Construction of Mohrs circle

ave =

x + y

(50 ) + ( 10 ) = 20 MPa

2
2
CF = 50 20 = 30 MPa FX = 40 MPa
R = CX =

(30 )2 + (40 )2

= 50 MPa
Ch 6- 14

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.3
Principal planes and stresses

max = OA = OC + CA = 20 + 50
max = 70 MPa
min = OB = OC BC = 20 50
min = 30 MPa
FX 40
=
CP 30
2 p = 53.1

tan 2 p =

p = 26.6

Ch 6- 15

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.3

s = p + 45

max = R

= ave

s = 71.6

max = 50 MPa

= 20 MPa
Ch 6- 16

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.4
Solution

## For the state of stress shown,

determine (a) the principal planes
and the principal stresses, (b) the
stress components exerted on the

## element obtained by rotating the

given

element

counterclockwise

ave =

through 30 degrees.

R=

x + y
2

100 + 60
=
= 80 MPa
2

Ch 6- 17

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.4

## Principal planes and stresses

tan 2 p
2 p

XF 48
=
=
= 2.4
CF 20
= 67.4

p = 33.7 clockwise

max = OA = OC + CA

max = OA = OC BC

= 80 + 52

= 80 52

Ch 6- 18

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.4

## = 180 60 67.4 = 52.6

x = OK = OC KC = 80 52cos52.6
Stress components after rotation by

30o

## Points X and Y on Mohrs circle that

correspond to stress components on the
rotated element are obtained by rotating XY
counterclockwise through 2 = 60

y = OL = OC + CL = 80 + 52cos52.6
xy = KX = 52sin52.6
x = +48.4MPa
y = +111.6MPa
xy = 41.3MPa

Ch 6- 19

1)

## At a point in the structural member, the stresses

are represented as in figure below. Find;
a)

80 MPa

## the magnitude and orientation of the

principal stresses and,
30 MPa

[96.1MPa;23.94 MPa;28.15o]

a)

## the magnitude and orientation of the

maximum
shearing
stresses
and
associated normal stresses.

40 MPa

10 MPa

2)

## For the state of plane stress shown, determine

the normal and shearing stresses on the planes
whose normal are at +60o and + 150o with the xaxis. Show stresses on a sketch of the element.
[for +60: N = 7.32MPa; N = -10MPa]

10 MPa
x

20 MPa

Ch 6 - 20

3)

## A structural member is subjected to two set of loadings. Each separately produce

stress conditions at a point A as shown in Figure 3(a) and Figure 3(b).
a)

## Determine x, y and xy for the stress conditions.

[37.5 MPa; 22.5 MPa; -14.33 MPa]

a)

## By continuing the effect of both stress conditions Q3(a), determine the

principal stresses and their orientations with respect to the x-axis and also the
magnitude of the maximum shearing stress.
30 MPa

20 MPa
10 MPa

30

15 MPa

A
5 MPa

Figure 3(a)

Figure 3(b)
Ch 6 - 21

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

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## General State of Stress

Consider the general 3D state of stress at a point and the
transformation of stress from element rotation
State of stress at Q defined by: x , y , z , xy , yz , zx
Consider tetrahedron with face perpendicular to the line QN
with direction cosines: x , y , z
The requirement

n = x2x + y 2y + z 2z
+ 2 xy x y + 2 yz y z + 2 zx z x
Form of equation guarantees that an element orientation
can be found such that

n = a 2a + bb2 + c c2
These are the principal axes and principal planes and the
normal stresses are the principal stresses.
Ch 6- 22

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

## Transformation of stress for an element

rotated around a principal axis may be
represented by Mohrs circle.

## The three circles represent the normal

and shearing stresses for rotation around
each principal axis.

## Points A, B, and C represent the principal

stresses on the principal planes (shearing
stress is zero)

## Radius of the largest circle yields the

maximum shearing stress.

1
2

Ch 6- 23

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

## In the case of plane stress, the axis

perpendicular to the plane of stress is a principal
axis (shearing stress equal zero).
If the points A and B (representing the principal
planes) are on opposite sides of the origin, then

## a) the corresponding principal stresses are

the maximum and minimum normal
stresses for the element
b) the maximum shearing stress for the
element is equal to the maximum in-plane
shearing stress
c) planes of maximum shearing stress are at
45o to the principal planes.

Ch 6- 24

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

## If A and B are on the same side of the origin (i.e.,

have the same sign), then
a) the circle defining smax, smin, and
tmax for the element is not the circle
corresponding to transformations within
the plane of stress

## b) maximum shearing stress for the element is

equal to half of the maximum stress

## c) planes of maximum shearing stress are at

45 degrees to the plane of stress

Ch 6- 25

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

## Transformation of Plane Strain

Plane strain - deformations of the material take
place in parallel planes and are the same in
each of those planes.

## Plane strain occurs in a plate subjected along

its edges to a uniformly distributed load and
restrained from expanding or contracting
laterally by smooth, rigid and fixed supports

components of strain :

x y xy

( z = zx = zy = 0)

## Example: Consider a long bar subjected to

of plane stress exists in any transverse
section not located too close to the ends of
the bar.

Ch 6- 26

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

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## Transformation of Plane Strain

State of strain at the point Q results in
different strain components with respect to
the xy and xy reference frames.

## ( ) = x cos 2 + y sin 2 + xy sin cos

OB = (45) = 12 ( x + y + xy )

xy = 2 OB ( x + y )

## Applying the trigonometric relations used

for the transformation of stress,

x =
y =
xy
2

x + y
2
x +y

x y
2
x y

x y
2

cos 2 +
cos 2

sin 2 +

xy
2

xy
2

xy
2

sin 2
sin 2

cos 2
Ch 6- 27

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

## Mohrs Circle for Plane Strain

The equations for the transformation of plane
strain are of the same form as the equations
for the transformation of plane stress - Mohrs
circle techniques apply.
Abscissa for the center C and radius R ,

ave =

x + y

x y xy
+

R =
2 2

xy
tan 2 p =
x y
max = ave + R

min = ave R

max = 2 R =

( x y )2 + xy2
Ch 6- 28

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.5
Solution
The strain at a point in a body are as
follows:

x = 800

y = 200

xy = 600

Determine:
a)

b)

## The principal strains and directions,

and
The strain a in the direction of 60
with the x-axis and the strain b
perpendicular to a and the shearing
strain ab.

## Using Mohrs circle

x
y

= 800
= 200

1
xy = 300
2
Setting the coordinates

X ( 800, 300)
Y ( 200,300)
Centre OC

OC =

800 + 200
= 500
2

Ch 6- 29

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.5
Principal strains and direction

1 = OC + R = 924.3
2 = OC R = 75.7
tan 2P =

300
300

= 1, 2P = 45 , P = 22.5


Other calculations

a = OC + R cos75 = 609.8
b = OC R cos75 = 390.18
1
2

Ch 6- 30

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

## Absolute Maximum Shear Strain

Absolute maximum shear strain is found from the circle having the largest radius.
It occurs on the element oriented 45 about the axis from the element shown in its
original position.

avg =

max + min
2

Ch 6- 31

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

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## Absolute Maximum Shear Strain

For plane strain we have,

This value represents the absolute maximum shear strain for the material.

Ch 6- 32

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.6
The state of plane strain at a point is represented by the strain components,

## x = 400 (106 ) , y = 200 (106 ) , xy = 150 (106 )

Determine the maximum in-plane shear strain and the absolute maximum shear strain.

Solution
From the strain components, the centre of the circle is on the axis at:

avg =
Since

xy
2

400 + 200 6
10 = 100 106
2

( ) ( ))

= 75(106 ) , the reference point has coordinates A 400 106 ,75 106

)
Ch 6- 33

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.6
Computing the in-plane principal strains, we have

## min = ( 100 309)(106 ) = 409(106 )

From the circle, the maximum in-plane shear strain is

## max in plane = max min = [209 ( 409)](106 ) = 618(106 ) (Ans)

From the above results, we have

Ch 6- 34

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

## Three-Dimensional Analysis of Strain

Previously demonstrated that three principal
axes exist such that the perpendicular
element faces are free of shearing stresses.

## By Hookes Law, it follows that the shearing

strains are zero as well and that the principal
planes of stress are also the principal planes
of strain.

## Rotation about the principal axes may be

represented by Mohrs circles.

Ch 6- 35

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

## Three-Dimensional Analysis of Strain

For the case of plane strain where the x and y
axes are in the plane of strain,
the z axis is also a principal axis
the corresponding principal normal
strain is represented by the point Z = 0
or the origin.

## If the points A and B lie on opposite sides of

the origin, the maximum shearing strain is the
maximum in-plane shearing strain, D and E.

## If the points A and B lie on the same side of the

origin, the maximum shearing strain is out of the
plane of strain and is represented by the points
D and E.

Ch 6- 36

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

## Three-Dimensional Analysis of Strain

Consider the case of plane stress,

x = a y = b z = 0
Corresponding normal strains,

a =

a b

b =
c =

+ b
E
E

( a + b ) = ( a + b )
1

## Strain perpendicular to the plane of stress is

not zero.
If B is located between A and C on the Mohrcircle diagram, the maximum shearing strain is
equal to the diameter CA.

Ch 6- 37

## Supplementary Problems 6.2

1)

For the given state of plane strain, determine (a) the orientation and magnitude of the
principal strains, (b) the maximum in-plane strain, and (c) the absolute maximum
shearing strain.
[(a) 37.53o;-32.4e-6; -187.6e-6; (b) 155.2e-6; (c) 187.6e-6]

x = - 90 ; y = - 130 ; xy = 150
2)

For the given state of plane strain, determine the state of strain associated with axes
x and y rotated via the angle .
[-653e-6; 303e-6; -829e-6]

Ch 6 - 38

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

## Generalized Hookes Law

For a triaxial state of stress, the general form for Hookes law is as follow:

x =

1
1
1
x v( y + z ) , y = y v( x + z ) , z = z v( x + y )
E
E
E

## They are valid only for a linearelastic materials.

Hookes law for shear stress and shear strain is written as

xy =

1
G

xy

yz =

1
G

yz

xz =

1
G

xz

E
G=
2(1 + v )

Ch 6- 39

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

## Generalized Hookes Law

Stresses in terms of strains

x =
y =
z =

(1 + v )(1 2v )
E

(1 + v )(1 2v )
E

(1 + v )(1 2v )

+ v ( y + z x )

or x = 2G x + e

+ v ( x + z y )

or y = 2G y + e

+ ( x + y z )

or z = 2G z + e

ote : =

xy

2 (1 + v )

xy

vE

(1 + v )(1 2v )

xz

2 (1 + v )

; and e = x + y + z

xz

yz

2 (1 + v )

xz

Ch 6- 40

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.7
The copper bar is subjected to a uniform loading along its edges. If it has a = 300 mm, b = 50
mm, and t = 20 mm before load is applied, find its new length, width, and thickness after
application of the load. Take ECU = 120 GPa, v = 0.34.

## x = 800 MPa , y = 500 MPa , xy = 0 , z = 0

The associated normal strains are determined from the generalized Hookes law,

v
y + z ) = 0.00808
(
E E
y v
y =
( x + z ) = 0.00643
E E

v
z = z ( x + y ) = 0.000850
E E

x =

Ch 6- 41

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.7
The new bar length, width, and thickness are therefore
a ' = 300 + 0.00808 ( 300 ) = 302.4 mm
b ' = 50 + ( 0.00643)( 50 ) = 49.68 mm
t ' = 20 + ( 0.000850 )( 20 ) = 19.98 mm

Ch 6- 42

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.8
At a point in a stresses body, the strains related to the coordinate set xyz are
given by:

300 100 500 106

## 200 500 400

Determine the complete stress components for this body. Assume Young
Modulus, E = 100 GPa and Poissons ratio, v = 0.33.

Ch 6- 43

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.8
Normal stresses on each axis:

xx =

(1 + )(1 2 )

xx

100 10

+ ( yy + zz xx )

( 200 10

## + 0.33 100 10 400 10 200 10

(1 + 0.33) (1 2 ( 0.33) )
= 2.2114 10 ( 0.000031) = -6.86MPa Ans.

))

11

yy =

yy

zz

+ ( xx + zz yy )

(1 + )(1 2 )
= 2.2114 10 ( 0.000133) = -29.4MPa Ans.
11

zz =

+ ( xx + yy zz )

(1 + )(1 2 )
= 2.2114 10 ( 0.000235) = -51.97 MPa Ans.
11

Ch 6- 44

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies

Example 6.7
ContinueN.

xy =
xz =
yz =

E
1+ v
E
1+ v
E
1+ v

100 10

100 10

xy =

(
1 + 0.33
9

xz =

(
1 + 0.33

100 10

yz =

(
1 + 0.33
6

## 6.86 22.6 15.04

= 22.6 29.4 37.6 MPa Ans.

15.04 37.6 51.97

Ch 6- 45

## Supplementary Problems 6.3

1) Determine the complete stress component of this material. Use E = 200 GPa and G
= 80 GPa.
200 100
0

0 400 0

## 2) A square ABCD of 20 mm side is scribed on the surface

of a thin plate while the plate is unloaded, as shown in
Figure Q2. After the plate is loaded, the lengths of sides
AB and AD are observed to have increased by 4 x106 m and 6 x10-6 m, respectively while angle DAB is
observed to have decreased by 160 x10-6 rad.
Determine;
i.

the

principal

strains

and

its

orientation,

[344.34,155.66,29o]

## ii. the maximum in-plane shear strain, and [188.68]

iii. the average normal strain. 
iv. The principal stresses using E = 200 GPa and v =
0.3. [85.94 MPa,56.92 MPa]

Figure Q2

Ch 6 - 46

## Previous Exam Questions

OCT2009/MEC411/KJM454 Q2(b)
An element is subjected to two mutually perpendicular strains, x= 400 and y= 200,
together with an unknown shear strain xy. If the maximum principal strain in the
material is 500, determine:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

## the magnitude of the shear strain, [346.4]

the other principal strain and the direction of the principal strain, [100,30o]
the strain a in a direction of 30 with the x-axis, and 
If E = 200 GPa and v = 0.03, determine the principal stresses.

APR2011/MEC411 Q5(b)
The state of plane strain at a point in a deformable body is defined by x = 100 , y =
140 , and xy = 150 . Calculate :
i. the orientation and magnitude of the principal strains, [37.53o,-42.38,-197.62]
ii. the maximum in-plane strain, and [150 ]
iii. the new state of x , i.e., x, when the element is rotated + 30o with respect to the
x-axis. [-45.05 ]
Ch 6 - 47

## Previous Exam Questions

JUN2011/MEC411 Q5(d)
The principal stresses (at a point on a certain material) are given as 90 MPa and 30
MPa, both is in tension. Determine the normal and shear stresses on a plane making an
angle of tan-10.25 (ccw) with the principal directions. [86.47 MPa,14.1 MPa]
JAN2012/MEC411 Q5(b)
A state of plane stress consists of a tensile stress 60 MPa exerted on vertical surfaces
and of unknown shearing stresses. If the largest normal stress is 100 MPa, calculate;
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

## the average normal stress, [30 MPa]

the magnitude of the shearing stress, [63.25 MPa]
the maximum shearing stress, and [70 MPa]
the minimum principal stresses. [-40 MPa]

Ch 6 - 48

## Previous Exam Questions

JUN2012/MEC411 Q5(a)
A steel bar is subjected to an axial force of P. The state of stress at a point on the bar
caused by the axial loading is shown in Figure Q5(a). Knowing that the stresses on
plane a-a are y = -100 MPa and xy = 35 MPa, determine using the Mohrs circle;
i)
ii)
iii)

the normal stress, X of the stress component on plane a-a, [-12.25 MPa]
The angle that plane a-a forms with the horizontal, and [19.3o]
The maximum compressive stress in the bar. [-112.25 MPa]
P

a
y

State of stress

Figure Q5 (a)
P

Ch 6 - 49