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Instituto de Educacin Superior de Educacin Tcnica y Formacin Profesional

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CARRERA: - Tecnicatura Superior en Soporte de Infraestructura de Tecnologa de


la Informacin
- Tecnicatura Superior en Desarrollo de Software
ESPACIO CURRICULAR:
Ingls
CURSO: 1ro
DIVISION: nica
PROFESOR:
CAMBA, Mara Jos
PROGRAMA DE EXAMENES

CICLO LECTIVO: 2015

UNIDAD TEMTICA N 1
Conceptos bsicos de la comprensin lectora. Lecto-comprensin: Tcnicas y herramientas de
trabajo. El diccionario bilinge. Las tcnicas de la comprensin lectora. Nociones tericas.
Referencia Contextual. Artculos (uso). Comparativos y Superlativos. Imperativos. Presente
Simple. Usos cotidianos de computadores. Tipos y partes del computador.

UNIDAD TEMTICA N 2
Funcin (to be used for) Instrumentos de Input y Output. Instrumentos de almacenamiento. Lectocomprensin y anlisis de textos varios.

UNIDAD TEMTICA N 3
Voz Passiva con verbos regulares e irregulares Presente. Pasado Simple y Continuo. Lectocomprensin y anlisis de textos varios

CRITERIOS DE EVALUACIN
Comprensin en forma global de textos escritos.
Respuesta a diferentes preguntas relacionadas a textos escritos.
Reconocimiento de las distintas funciones del lenguaje aprendidas.
Uso y reconocimiento del vocabulario aprendido.

BIBLIOGRAFA
Oxford Basic English for Computing by E. Glendinning & J. McEwan - Oxford
Infotech English for Computers Users by Stgo. Remacha Esteras - Cambridge
Oxford English for Information Technology by E. Glendinning & J. McEwan - Oxford

UNIDAD TEMTICA N 1

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La lecto-comprensin en la lengua extranjera es alcanzable, en primer lugar, a travs del


apropiamiento del texto de trabajo. Es por esta razn que a continuacin se detallan diferentes
herramientas que pueden ser utilizadas para dicho fin.
Dentro de la gama de herramientas con las que contamos actualmente podemos nombrar
a las siguientes: diccionarios bilinges, diccionarios electrnicos y, tambin, traductores online.
Pero el uso correcto de los mismos debe ser realizado con la precaucin necesaria para que no
afecte el resultado final; el significado del texto.
Empecemos por plantear una serie de proposiciones a tener en cuenta antes de seleccionar
nuestra herramienta de trabajo. Lea y analice las siguientes proposiciones y exprese su opinin
acerca de la veracidad de las mismas.
1.
2.
3.
4.

El contenido del texto es lo que se debe traducir, no la forma.


Los software de traduccin son una excelente herramienta.
En una traduccin todas las palabras deben ser traducidas.
Traducir palabra por palabra es la mejor opcin.

Ahora analizaremos algunas traducciones realizadas con Google Translate. Lea las traducciones y
decida si est de acuerdo con las mismas o si realizara algn cambio.
1.
This impact printing technology allows shops, for example, to print multi-part forms such as
receipts and invoices.
Esta tecnologa permite a tiendas de impresin de impacto, por ejemplo, para imprimir los
formularios de varias partes, tales como los recibos y las facturas.
2.
The Code Red worm infected tens of thousands of machines.
El gusano Code Red decenas infectados de miles de mquinas.
3.
A Russian hacker attempted to extort $100,000 from online music retailer CD Universe.
Un hacker ruso trat de extorsionar a $ 100.000 de msica en lnea minorista CD Universe.
A travs de los ejemplos trabajados podemos llegar a la conclusin que no siempre
podemos confiar ciegamente en las traducciones realizadas por un software de traduccin. A
pesar de que las mismas son correctas en un 85 90% el porcentaje restante afecta la correcta
comprensin del texto. Es por esta razn que debemos ser juiciosos y poder combinar las
diferentes herramientas que tenemos a nuestra disposicin a la hora de traducir.
Ahora bien, llegada la hora de utilizar un diccionario debemos tener en cuenta la otros
aspectos tales como el orden de palabras, preposiciones, diversos significados de una misma
palabra, frases verbales, etc.
A continuacin, pasos a tener en cuenta cuando se realiza una traduccin:
Scanear el texto en busca de palabras conocidas.

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Tratar de interpretar las partes donde se encuentren las palabras conocidas.


Traducir las palabras faltantes.
Tratar de armar el significado de la frase.
Realizar el procedimiento con todo el texto.
Releer el texto y editar las partes confusas.
Revisar.

LAS PALABRAS CONCEPTUALES


SUSTANTIVOS
ADJETIVOS
ADVERBIOS
VERBOS

computer software - desktop


wireless fast - technological
in across - electronically
to read to store to send

EL SUSTANTIVO
Los sustantivos pueden ser agrupados en 2 categoras principales: concretos (hard disc, motherboard) o
abstractos (connectivity,
A su vez, los sustantivos se pueden clasificar en simples (computer), derivados se los reconoce por el uso
de sufijos (intern internship) o compuestos formados por dos o ms palabras cada uno con significado
propio (motherboard).

LISTA DE SUFIJOS
-(E)RY; -(I)AN; -AGE; -AL; -ANCE/ENCE; -ANT; -DOM; -ER; -HOOD; -ING; -ISM; IST; -LET; -MENT;
-NESS; -OR; -SHIP; -SION; -TH; -TION; -Y
Los accidentes del sustantivo tienen que ver con su gnero (masculino/femenino) y nmero
(singular/plural).
Gnero

Masculino: father, boy

Femenino: mother, girl

Nmero los plurales en ingls se forman agregando:


-S
COMPUTER COMPUTERS
SOFTWARE SOFTWARES
-ES
PASS PASSES WRENCH WRENCHES
BOX BOXES
CARGO - CARGOES
-VES LIFE - LIVES
-IES
CITY CITIES
IRREGULARES: MAN MEN; WOMAN WOMEN; CHILD CHILDREN; PERSON PEOPLE
EL CASO POSESIVO s s: muestra una relacin de pertenencia entre dos sustantivos.
Johns computer = la computadora de Juan
a days work = un da de trabajo
Otra forma de mostrar esta relacin de pertenencia es a travs de la preposicin of.
The pages of the manual = la pginas del manual

EL ADJETIVO
Los adjetivos son palabras que dan ms informacin acerca del sustantivo, tal como una cualidad o
caracterstica especfica de la cosa o persona de la que se est hablando. Los adjetivos no varan en su

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gnero ni nmero y siempre se los encuentra delante de los sustantivos o despus de ciertos verbos como
el to be/ to look
Los adjetivos pueden ser simples (strong, fast), derivados (de sustantivos: atom - atomic; de verbos:
restore - restored) o compuestos (son un grupo de palabras: the World Wide Web = la red mundial; general
purpose machine).
COMPARACIN DE ADJETIVOS
Los adjetivos pueden usarse para comparar cosas expresando las ideas de:
1. IGUALDAD: This processor is not as fast as the new one.
2. INFERIORIDAD / SUPERIORIDAD
COMPARATIVO: compara dos cosas/ grupos. Los adjetivos cortos agregan (e)r.
Incandescent light is less expensive than LED. / LED is more expensive than incandescent light.
Incandescent light is cheaper than LED.
SUPERLATIVO: comparan una cosa/ grupo con un grupo. Los adjetivos cortos agregan (e)st.
Incandescent light is the least recent invention in the field. / LED is the most recent invention in the field.
LED is the latest invention in the field.
Cambios ortogrficos
Los adjetivos terminados en y precedida de consonante, cambia y por i. easy easier easiest
Los adjetivos monosilbicos que terminan en consonante precedida de vocal, duplican la consonante. big
bigger - biggest
FORMACION DE ADJETIVOS
Los adjetivos se pueden formar:
- a partir de verbos :
o participio presente ing (disturb disturbing)
o participio pasado ed (worry worried)
- mediante el agregado de:
o prefijos (a-; il-/im-/in-)
o sufijos (-able; -al/ial; -ary/ory; -fold; -ful; -ian; -less; -like; -ous; -some; -ward; -y)

ADVERBIOS
Los adverbios son las palabras de la oracin que modifican a un verbo, adjetivo u otro adverbio. Se
clasifican en: modo, tiempo, lugar, frecuencia.
MODO: badly, sweetly, bravely, well, calmly, easily, slowly, actively, anyhow, carefully, distinctly, gladly,
intentionally, late, promptly, still, quickly, quietly, quite, simply, sincerely, suddenly, together, willingly,
wisely, wrongly.
TIEMPO: tomorrow, now, early, next, afterwards, already, before, immediately, lately, once, presently,
shortly, soon, still, today, tonight, when, yet, yesterday.
LUGAR: here, everywhere, somewhere, there, nowhere, where, above, abroad, across, along, around,
away, back, below, down, downstairs, in, on, up, through, together, under, upstairs.
FRECUENCIA: continually, frequently, generally, occasionally, rarely, regularly, scarcely, hardly ever,
always, never, often, seldom, sometimes.

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Los adverbios pueden ubicarse en diferentes posiciones y modificando:
un adjetivo (antes del mismo): relatively fast
otro adverbio (antes del mismo): quite well
un verbo:
o delante o despus: They secretly decided to go. She speaks quickly.
o Despus del auxiliary en tiempos compuestos: The changes can be clearly identified.
o Separado del verbo: We analised the substances carefully.
o Al principio de la oracin: Sometimes the screen shows the requested area.
EL VERBO
El verbo es la palabra que expresa accin, estado o existencia.
VOZ ACTIVA vs. VOZ PASIVA
La voz activa es la conjugacin del verbo en la cual el sujeto realiza, ejecuta o controla la accin del verbo.
Por el contrario, la voz pasiva es aquella en la que el verbo posee un sujeto que padece la accin, y no la
realiza. Esta ltima es utilizada cuando se desconoce, no se quiere mencionar o se quiere preservar la
identidad de quin lleva a cabo la accin.

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THERE IS THERE ARE
Se utiliza para indicar existencia o inexistencia. Sus formas varan dependiendo del tiempo verbal.
Tiempo
Forma
Ejemplo
There is
There is a big computer.
Presente
There are
There are five monitors.
There was
There was a conference.
Pasado
There were
There were many problems.
Futuro
There will be
There will be more improvements.
There has been
There has been a change in the structure.
Presente perfecto
There have been
There have been four conferences.
Pasado perfecto
There had been
There had been many changes.
MODAL VERBS

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LAS PALABRAS ESTRUCTURALES
LOS ARTICULOS
Es la palabra que se antepone al sustantivo o palabra equivalente.
a/an (indefinido) the (definido): Ambos pueden no ser traducidos dependiendo del contexto de uso.
LAS PREPOSICIONES
Se usan para mostrar relaciones entre palabras en la oracin. Al ser traducidas pueden adoptar diferentes
significados dependiendo del contexto.
about above across after against along amid among around at before back behind
below beneath beside between beyond by concerning during except for from in
into inside like near off of over out outside opposite past since to throughout
till towards under until up upon within without - underneath

LOS PRONOMBRES
Los pronombres se usan para sustituir un sustantivo que ya ha sido mencionado o que es conocido por el
lector/ oyente.

Pronombres

Pronombres

Adjetivos

Pronombres

Pronombres

Personales

Objetivos

Posesivos

Posesivos

Reflexivos

me

my

mine

myself

you

you

your

yours

yourself

he

him

his

his

himself

she

her

her

hers

herself

it

it

its

--

itself

we

us

our

ours

ourselves

you

you

your

yours

yourselves

they

them

their

theirs

themselves

Pronombres Indefinidos
everybody

nobody

somebody

anybody

everyone

no one

someone

anyone

everything

nothing

something

anything

that

whom

Pronombres Relativos
who

which

whose

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Pronombres Recprocos
each other / one another
http://www.shertonenglish.com/resources/es/pronouns.php

LA CONJUNCIN
La conjuncin es la parte de la oracin que une palabras, frases u oraciones. Se las puede clasificar en:
-

COORDINANTES: unen dos elementos de misma funcin gramatical o nivel sintctico.

and; as well as; both...and; but; either...or; however; moreover; neither...nor; nevertheless; nor; or; so;
then; therefore; yet
-

SUBORDINANTES: unen una clausula, con un rol menos importante en la informacin.

after; although; as; as...as; as long as; as soon as; because; before; even if; even though; if; in case; in order
to; now that; once; since; so that; though; unless; until; when; whereas; whether; whether...or.
TIPOS DE ORACIONES
LA ORACIN SIMPLE
La misma contiene un verbo conjugado que aparece con algn pronombre personal del sujeto. La oracin
simple est compuesta por dos partes: sujeto, que es la persona o cosa del cual hablamos; y predicado, que
es lo que decimos de ese sujeto.
El orden de las palabras vara segn su tipo:
Declarativas: sujeto + verbo
The computer is American.
Negativas: insertan NOT despus del verbo auxiliar. These motherboards do not work properly.
Interrogativas: invierten el sujeto y el verbo /verbo auxiliar.
Why do you use that software?
Ordenes y Peticiones: no hay sujeto. Open the door. / Please, lend me your book.
Solicitudes: el sujeto generalmente es YOU.
Will you come?
Exclamaciones: si el sujeto no es un pronombre personal, este aparece despus del verbo.
There comes John!

LA ORACIN COMPUESTA
Est formada por dos oraciones simples unidas por una conjuncin coordinante. El sujeto o el verbo auxiliar
o ambos pueden ser omitidos en la segunda oracin si estos son los mismo que en la primera oracin.
The article was interesting and the audience appreciated it very much.
He is sitting and (he is) listening to me.
LA ORACIN COMPLEJA
Usualmente est constituida por una oracin principal y una proposicin o clusula subordinada.
I spoke to the officer who was standing on the corner.
Principal

subordinada

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LA ORACIONES RELATIVAS
Proporcionan informacin sobre un antecedente que acabamos de nombrar. Hay dos tipos:
- Especificativas: dan informacin esencial. Cuando se refieren a una persona usamos who cuando
hablamos de una cosa usamos which o that en cualquier caso.
- Explicativas: dan informacin superflua. No se puede usar that solamente who o which. Siempre
van entre comas.
Peter is the boy that won the race.
Peter, who won the race, is very shy.
The house that you bought is not very old.
The house, which is not very old, has 4 bedrooms.
Otros relativos son WHAT, WHOSE, WHERE, WHEN, WHY.
Podemos prescindir del relativo cuando el antecedente NO es el sujeto.
The woman who I wanted to see was away on holiday.

I = es el sujeto

LA ORACIN COMPUESTA-COMPLEJA
Esta conformada por, al menos, dos oraciones simples y una o ms clausulas subordinadas.
When I was at university, I had classes every day and (I had) tutorials on Saturdays.

ORACIONES CONDICIONALES

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GERUNDIOS Participio presente
Agregan ing a la mayora de los verbos. Ex. play > playing, cry > crying, bark > barking
Los verbos que terminan en e pierden la misma y agregan -ing. Ex: slide > sliding, ride > riding
Los verbos que terminan en ie cambian a y; luego agregan -ing. Ex: die > dying, tie > tying
Un gerundio es un verbo que termina en ing (presente participio) que funciona como sustantivos que
nombran actividades. Los gerundios pueden:
- aparecer al principio como sujeto de la oracin.
1. Jogging is a hobby of mine.
-

Actuar como objetos despus de verbos.

1. Daniel quit smoking a year ago.


-

Funcionar como objeto despus de preposiciones.

1. I look forward to helping you paint the house.


Algunos verbos o frases verbales son seguidas directamente por gerundios:
1. Paul avoids using chemicals on the vegetables he grows.

INFINITIVOS
Pueden ser utilizados como:
Objeto siguiendo a un verbo.
1. Jim always forgets to eat
Sujeto al inicio de la oracin
1. To travel around the world requires a lot of time and money.
Adverbio modificando un verbo
1. You promised to buy me a diamond ring.
Adjetivo modificando un sustantivo
1. Tara has the ability to succeed.
Algunos verbo son seguidos:
- por un infinitivo
1. Do you want to call your family now?
-

Por un sustantivo o pronombre y luego un infinitivo

1. I convinced Catherine to become vegetarian.


2. He advised me to sell all my shares of stock.
Algunos verbos pueden ser seguidos por gerundios o infinitivos:
- sin variar su significado:
1. Some people prefer getting up early in the morning.

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2. Some people prefer to get up early in the morning
-

Variando su significado:

1. He remembered sending the fax. (He remembered the act of send the fax)
2. He remembered to send the fax. (He remembered the fax and sent it.)

REFERENCIA CONTEXTUAL
Transitional markers are words used to link ideas together so that the text is easier to read. Their function
is to take your thoughts back to something that has already been mentioned in an earlier sentence or
paragraph. Some of these words are:
Pronouns: it, they, them, I, he, she, who, which, whose, that, such, one
Demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those

A computer like any other machine, is used because it does certain jobs better and more efficiently than
humans. It can receive more information and process it faster than any human. The speed at which a
computer works means it can replace weeks or even months of pencil-and-paper work. Therefore,
computers are used when the time saved offsets their cost, which is one of the many reasons they are used
so much in business industry and research.

Using the sample paragraph as a model, draw a rectangle around the word, or words, that the
circled words refer to. Then join the and the
with arrows.

Modern accounting firms use spreadsheet software to do complicated calculations. They can provide their
clients with an up-to-date report whenever it is needed. This software has many
functions and can be integrated with other software. The spreadsheets basic
component is a cell. This may contain a formula which performs a mathematical
operation. It could also contain a label or data. The former describes the information on the worksheet. The
latter is the information itself.
The worksheet is the basic work area of a spreadsheet program. It is made up of cells arranged in rows and
columns. The number of these varies depending on the software you are using. You can change the width
and format of cells. Such parameters are usually quite easy to change with just a few keystrokes.

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THE FUTURE OF LIGHT


What are those glowing red and green indicator lights on electronic equipment such as hi-fis? They
are semiconductor devices called light-emitting diodes, or LEDs. They are replacing incandescent bulbs in
many applications.
Why? LEDs convert electricity into coloured light more efficiently than conventional bulbs. They are
rugged and compact. Some types last a phenomenal 100.00 hours or about a decade of regular use in
contrast to the 1.000 hours of an incandescent bulb.
LEDs are already replacing light bulbs in giant displays,
car brake lights and indicators. They are also appearing in
buildings, where the user, by adjusting the ratio of
wavelength in the emitted light, can get different varieties of
colour.
At present, LEDs are not easily accepted. They cost
more than bulbs but will be cheaper in a few years. As energy
prices rise, users will see the advantage of LEDs: they are not
so expensive since they last much longer and they make a
considerable saving in electricity. Definitely, one solution to
our energy and environmental problems may soon come to
light.
Adapted from Scientific American, February 2001.

Read the text. Answer: True or False?


1. Incandescent lights last longer than LEDs.
2. Today, LEDs are cheaper than incandescent lights.
3. Home users can use LEDs to adjust the colour of light to their own taste.
4. LEDs will become very advantageous if energy prices increase.
5. LEDs last a hundred times more than normal bulbs.

IMPERATIVOS
ERGONOMICS
Whats Ergonomics? Ergonomics derives from two Greek words: ergon,
meaning work, and nomoi, meaning natural laws, to create a word that means
the science of work and a persons relationship to that work. Ergonomics is
commonly thought of in terms of products. But it can be equally useful in the
design of services or processes.
Fuente: http://ergonomics.about.com/od/ergonomicbasics/a/ergo101.htm

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Complete the extracts with the corresponding verb.
Match the extracts with the correct parts of the diagram.
adjust

keep x2

position

square

not let

use x2

1. ________________ your monitor 16-29 inches away from your eyes.


2. ________________the screen to your line of
vision.
3. ________________light shine in your eyes or
on your screen.
4. ________________ a well-made, adjustable
office chair.
5. ________________ a wrist pad to support
your hands when not typing.
6. ________________ your feet flat on the floor.
7. ________________ your chairs backrest such
that the curve of the chair matches with the
curve of your back.
8. ________________ your head and body
straight with shoulders relaxed.

TYPES OF COMPUTER
-

Study these details of different types of computer. Find the answers to these questions. Which type
of computer is:
1.
2.
3.
4.

The most common?


Small enough for a pocket?
The most common portable?
Used by many people at the same
time?

5.
6.
7.
8.

Used like mainframe?


Also called a handheld computer?
The most powerful?
Not suitable for a lot of typing?

Types of computer

Notes

Mainframes

Large, powerful, expensive.


Multi-user systems used by many people at the same time.
Used for processing very large amounts of data.
The most powerful mainframes are called supercomputers.

Minicomputers

Used like mainframes.


Not as big, powerful or expensive as mainframes.
Less common now because microcomputers have improved.

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Microcomputers or
Personal computers (PCs)

The most common type of computer.


Smaller, cheaper and less powerful than mainframes and
minicomputers.

Types of portable

Notes

Laptop

About the size of a small typewriter.


Less common now because smaller and higher portables
are available.

Notebook

About the size of a piece of writing paper.


The most common type of portable.

Subnotebook

Not quite as big as notebooks. Can fi tinto a jacket pocket.

Handheld or Palmtop

Small enough to fit into the palm of one hand.


Not easy to type with because of their size.
Often used as personal organizers.

Match each comment with each daily action.


COMPUTERS EVERYDAY USES
These are some of the new post-PC products .They are designed for all aspects of our lives.

1. Read online news over the morning coffee with a


Web tablet for checking e-mail and Web browsing.
2. Organize your life with a palm-size electronic organizer.
3. Which is the best route to the office? you ask the voice activated
navigational system of your car.
4. It is time to e-mail family news and make calls to
different parts of the world through your
wristwatch-size cell phone.
5. When you return home, your set-top TV box has
automatically stored your favourite shows.
6. You climb into bed to read your paperless electronic book.
7. Do you want to relax? Download music from the
Internet.

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UNIDAD TEMTICA N 2
INPUT DEVICES

The keyboard
Label the picture of a standard keyboard with the groups of keys.(1-5)
1. Cursor control keys include arrow keys that move the insertion point up, down,
right and left, and keys such as End, Home, Page Up and Page Down, which are
used in word processing to move around a long document.
2. Alphanumeric keys represent letters and numbers, as arranged on a typewriter.
3. Function keys appear at the top of the keyboard and can be programmed to do
special tasks.
4. Dedicated keys are used to issue commands or to produce alternative characters,
e.g. the Ctrl key or the Alt key.
5. A numeric keypad appears to the right of the main keyboard. The Num Lock key is
used to switch from numbers to editing keys.

Match the keys described below to the terms in the box.


Arrow keys
return/enter
Caps Lock
space bar
backspace
Ctrl

tab

a. It produces upper-case letters, but it does not affect numbers or symbols.


b. It removes the character to the left of the cursor or any selected text.
c. It works in combination with other keys, e.g. you press this key and C to copy the
selected text.
d. A long key at the bottom of the keyboard. Each time it is pressed it produces a
blank space.
e. It moves the cursor to the beginning of a new line. It is also used to confirm
commands.
f. It moves the cursor horizontally to the right for a fixed number of spaces.
g. They are used to move the cursor as an alternative to the mouse.

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Mouse actions
Complete the text about the mouse with verbs from the box.
click

double-click

drag

grab

select move control

A mouse is a hand-held device that lets you move a pointer and select items on the screen. It
has buttons to communicate with the PC. A scroll wheel lets you move through your
documents or web pages. An optical mouse has an optical sensor instead of a ball underneath
and a cordless (wireless) mouse has no cable; it sends data via infrared signals or radio waves.
It allows you to the cursor and move around the screen very quickly.
Making the same movements with the arrow keys on the keyboard would take much longer.
As youthe mouse on your desk, the pointer on the screen moves in the
same direction. The pointer usually looks like an l-bar, an arrow or a pointing hand, depending
on what you are doing.
A mouse has one or more buttons to communicate with the computer. For example, if you
want to place the insertion point or choose a menu option, you just(press
and release) on the mouse button, and the option is chosen.
The mouse is also used totext and items on the screen. You can highlight
text to be deleted, copied or edited in some way.
The mouse is widely used in graphics and design. When you want to move an image, you
position the pointer on the object you want to move, press the mouse button
andthe image to a new location on the screen. Similarly, the mouse is used
to change the shape of a graphic object. For example, if you want to convert a square into a
rectangle, youone corner of the square and stretch it into a rectangle.
The mouse is also used to start a program or open a document: you put the pointer on the file
name and on the name that is, you rapidly press and release the mouse
button twice.

That must be the new neighbor,


I hear hes a real computer geek.

Read the text and complete it with the words below.


Wireless

webcam
fax

lightpen
mobile

keyboard joystick microphone


scanner mouse

When personal computers came out in the 1980s. there was really only one way to get
information into them - with a ________________. Then graphical interfaces came along,
and it became important to be able to interact with objects on the screen. The commonest
way of doing this is with a _________________, but some computers - for example tablet

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computers, have screens you can write on directly, using a __________________. People
who use their computers mainly for games will tell you that the most important way of
communicating
with
their
computers
is
with
a
_________________.
It took almost a decade before computers became powerful enough to accept voice
commands, but today we can communicate without computer with a ________________.
We can also talk to other computer users, and also see them through a _________________.
The computer has started to replace the _________________ machine, but if you do receive
a printed page, you can still put it into your computer with a _________________.
Today, a _________________network or bluetooth will let you communicate with your
computer with almost any electronic device, such as a _________________ phone.
OUTPUT DEVICES
PRINTERS
A printer is a device that prints your text or graphics on paper. The output on paper or acetate
sheets is called printout or hard copy.
A program in your computer, called the printer driver, converts data into a form that your
printer can understand.
A print spooler store files to be printed when the printer is ready. It lets you change the order
of documents in the queue and cancel specific print jobs.
The output quality, or resolution, is measured in dpi or dots per inch. The speed of your
printer is measured in pages per minute (ppm).
In a network, users can share a printer connected to a print server, a computer that stores the
files waiting to be printed.
Types of printers
A dot-matrix printer uses a group, or matrix, of pins to create precise dots. A print head
containing tiny pins strikes an inked ribbon to make letter and graphics. This impact printing
technology allows shops, for example, to print multi-part forms such as receipts and invoices.
It has two important disadvantages: noise and a relatively
low resolution
(from 72 to 180 dpi)
An ink-jet (also called bubble-jet) printer generates an
image by spraying tiny, precise drops of ink onto the paper.
The resolution ranges from 300 to 1200 dpi, suitable for
small quantities or home use.
A standard ink.jet has a three colour cartridge, plus a black
cartridge. Professional ink-jets have five-colour cartridges,
plus black; some can print in wide format, ranging from 60 cm up to 5 meters (e.g. for printing
advertising graphics)
Some ink-jet based printers can perform more than one task. They are called multi-function
printers because they can work as a scanner, a fax and a photocopier as well as a printer.
Some units accept memory cards and print photos directly from a camera.
A laser printer uses a laser beam to fix the ink to the paper. A laser
works like a photocopier; a powder called toner is attracted to paper by
an electrostatic charge and then fused on by a hot roller.

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Laser printers are fast and produce a high resolution of 1200 to 2400 dpi, so they are ideal for
businesses and for proofing professional graphics work.
Lasers use a page description language or PDL which describes how to print the text and draw
the images on the page. The best known languages are Adobe PostScript and HO Printer
Control Language.
A professional imagesetter is a typesetting printer that generates very high resolution output
(over 3540 dpi) on paper or microfilm. Its used for high quality publications.
A plotter is a special type of printer which uses ink and fine pens
held in a carriage to draw detailed designs on paper. Its used in
computer-aided design, maps, 3-D technical illustrations, etc.

Complete the chart with information from the text.


TYPE

CHARACTERISTICS

Dot-matrix printer

Ink-jet printer

Laser printer

Imagesetter

Plotter

OUTPUT DEVICES: DISPLAY SCREENS


CRTs and LCDs
The screen of a computer is often known as the monitor, or
VDU (visual display unit). Inside the computer, there is a
video card which processes images and sends signals to the
monitor. When choosing a monitor, you have to take into
account a few basics.

USE

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Type of display the choice is between a CRT or an LCD screen.
The Cathode Ray Tube of a monitor is similar to a traditional TV set. It has three electron guns
(one for each primary colour: red, green and blue) that strike the inside of the screen, which is
coated with substances called phosphors, which glow and create colours. CRTs are cheap, but
they are heavy, can flicker and emit radiation.
A Liquid Crystal Display is made from flat plates with a liquid
crystal solution between them. The crystals block the light in
different quantities to create the image. Active-matrix LCDs
use TFT (thin film transistor) technology in which each pixel
has its own transistor switch. They offer better quality and
take up less space, so they are replacing CRTs.

Screen size - the viewing area is measured diagonally; in other words, a 17 screen measures
17 inches from the top left corner to the bottom right.
Resolution the clarity of the image depends on the number of pixels (short for picture
elements) contained on a display, horizontally and vertically. A typical resolution is 1.024 x
768. The sharpness of images is affected by dot pitch, the distance between the pixels on the
screen, so a dot pitch of 0.28 mm or less will produce a sharp image.
Brightness the luminance of image is measured in cd/m2 (candela per square metre)
Colour depth the number of colours a monitor can display. For example, a VGA monitor
produces 256 colours, enough for home use. A SuperVGA can produce up to 16.7 million
colours, so is ideal for photographic work and video games.
Refresh rate the number of times that the image is drawn each second. If a monitor has a
refresh rate of 75 Hertz (Hz), it means that the screen is scanned 75 times per second. If this
rate is low, you will notice a flicker, which can cause eye fatigue.
Correct the false statements.
1. The images shown on a monitor are not generated by the video card.
2. All visible colours can be made from mixing the three primary colours of red, yellow
and blue.
3. Typical CRT-based displays occupy less space than LCD displays.
4. Active-matrix LCDs do not use a technology called thin film transistor or TFT.
5. The size of the screen is measured horizontally.
Find the terms
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The frequency at which a monitor renews its image, measured in Hz.


A flat-panel display which works by emitting light through a special liquid.
The space between a displays pixels.
The smallest element in a displayed image.
Materials that emit light and produce colours when they are activated by an electron
beam.

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UNIDAD TEMTICA N 3
THE PROCESSOR
The processor, also called the CPU or central processing unit, is the brain
of your computer. In PCs, it is built into a single chip a small piece of
silicon with a complex electrical circuit, called an integrated circuit that
executes instructions and coordinates the activities of all the other units.
Three typical parts are:
- the control unit, which examines instructions from memory and executes them;
- the arithmetic and logic unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical operations;
- the registers are high-speed units of memory used to store and control data.
The speed of a processor is measured in gigahertz (GHz). Thus, a CPU running at 4 GHz can
make about four thousand million calculations a second. An internal clock sends out signals at
fixed intervals to measure and synchronize the flow of data.
The main circuit board is known as the motherboard. This contains the CPU, the memory chips,
expansion slots and controllers for peripherals, connected by internal buses, or paths, that
carry electronic signals. For example, the front side bus carries all data that passes from the
CPU to other devices.
Expansion slots allow you to install expansion cards which provide extra functions, e.g. a video
card or a modem. Laptops have PC cards, the size of a credit card, which add features like
sound, memory and network capabilities.
RAM and ROM
When you run a program, the CPU looks for it on the hard disk
and transfers a copy into the RAM. Ram (random access memory)
is temporary or volatile, that is, it holds data while your PC is
working on it, but loses this data when the power is switched off.
However, ROM (read only memory) is permanent and contains
instructions needed by the CPU; the BIOS (basic input/output
system) uses ROM to control communication with peripherals,
e.g. disk drives.
The amount of RAM determines the number of programs you can run simultaneously and how
fast they operate. It can be expanded by adding extra RAM chips.
Read the texts. Then match the sentences beginning (1-6) with the correct endings. (a-f)
1 The CPU processes data and
2 The control unit is the part of the CPU that
3 The arithmetic and logic unit is able to make

a areas within the CPU.


b you cant make changes to it.
c controls the way instructions are
executed.
4 The registers are high-speed storage
d the computer is turned off.
5 Data contained in RAM is lost when
e coordinates the other parts of the
computer.
6 ROM memory can only be read:
f calculations: add, subtract, multiply and divide.

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Complete the sentences.


1. Special cards can be inserted into expansion
2. A..controls the timing within the PC by sending signals to
synchronize its circuit and operations.
3. The processor speed is measured in .
4. .carry signals between different parts of a PC.
5. .cards improve the computers performance.
6. The..uses ROM to control the input/output of data.
7. The main printed circuit board is called the.
Read the product description and answer the questions.
1 How fast is the CPU?

2 Which term is used to describe the CPU data bus?

3 How much RAM does the computer have?

4 Can you add extra RAM chips? How many?

Find the reference


1. That line 3

..

2. That line 12

..

3. Which line 14

..

4. Which line 15

..

5. It line 16

..

Correct the incorrect sentences.


1. The flow of data is measured and synchronized by an internal clock.
2. The CPU carries electronic signals.
3. The instructions needed by the CPU can be found in the RAM.
4. The bigger your RAM is the more programs you can run at the same time.

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The history of Internet and hacking


1971

1974

1981

1987
1988

1989
1991

1992
1997
1998
1999
2000

2001

2004
2006

John Draper discovered that a whistle offered in boxes of Capn Crunch breakfast
cereal perfectly generated the 2,600Hz signal used by the AT&T phone company.
Ray Tomlinson of BBN invented an email program to send messages across a network.
The @ sign was chosen for its at meaning.
Kevin Mitnick, a legend among hackers, began hacking into banking networks and
altering the credit reports of his enemies. He hacked into the North American Defense
Command in Colorado Springs.
Ian Murphy, a 23-year-old Known as Captain Zap on the networks, hacked into the
White House and the Pentagon.
IBM sold the first IBM PC. BITNET provides email and file transfers
to universities.
The IBM international network was paralyzed by a hackers Christmas message.
The Union Bank of Switzerland almost lost 32 million to hackers. Nicholas Whitely
was arrested in connection with virus spreading.
Jarkko Oikarinen developed the system known as Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
A fifteen-year-old hacker cracked the US defense computer.
Kevin Poulsen, known as Dark Dante on the networks, was accused of stealing military
files.
CERN (Conseil Europen pour la Recherche Nuclaire) created the
World Wide Web
David L Smith was prosecuted for writing the Melisa virus, which was passes in Word
files sent via email.
The German Chaos Computer Club showed on TV how to obtain money from bank
accounts.
The Internet 2 network was born. It can handle data and video at high
speed but is not a public network.
Online banking, e-commerce and MP3 music became popular.
A Russian hacker attempted to extort $100,000 from online music retailer CD Universe.
A Canadian hacker launched a massive denial of service attack against websites like
Yahoo! and Amazon.
The ILoveYou virus, cleverly disguised as a love letter, spread so quickly that email
accounts had to be shut down in many companies. The worm overwrote image and
sound files with a copy of itself.
The Code Red worm infected tens of thousands of machines.
Napster, whose software allows users to share downloaded mus ic, was
found guilty of infringement of music copyright.
Network Solutions begins offering 100-year domain registration.
Hackers stole the credit card details of almost 20,000 AT&T online customers.
However, subscribers to its service were not affected
1

See list of irregular verbs on the Appendix.

Answer the following questions.


1.
2.
3.
4.

Which entity created the WWW?


When did online banking, e-commerce and MP3 become popular?
What did Ray Tomlinson invent?
Is the Internet 2 public?

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5. What was shown on the German Chaos Computer Club?
6. How old was Captain Zap when he hacked the White House and the Pentagon?
7. What was the name of the worm that forced many companies to shut down their
email accounts?
COMPUTER GRAPHICS
Computer graphics are pictures and drawings produced by computer. There are two main
categories:
Raster graphics, or bitmaps, are stored as a collection of pixels. The sharpness of an image
depends on the density of pixels, or resolution. For example, text or pictures that are scaled
up-that is, made bigger- may show jagged edges. Paint and photo-editing programs like Adobe
Photoshop focus on the manipulation of bitmaps. Popular raster formats are JPEG, GIF and
TIFF.
Vector graphics represent images through the use of geometric objects, such as lines, curves
and polygons, based on mathematical equations. They can be changed or scaled without losing
quality. Vector data can be handled by drawing programs like Adobe
Illustrator, Corel Draw or Macromedia Freehand. EPS is the most
popular file format for exchanging vector drawings.
Almost all computer users use some form of graphics. Home users
and professional artists use image-editing programs to manipulate
images. For example, you can add filters (special effects) to your
favourite photos, or you can composite images. Compositing is
combining parts of different images to create a single image. Graphic
artists and designers use drawing programs to create freehand
drawings and illustrations for books or for the Web. Businesspeople
use presentation graphics to make information more interesting visually graphs and
diagrams can be more effective ways of communicating with clients than lists of figures.
Electrical engineers use graphics to design circuits in order to present data in a more
understandable form. Mechanical engineers use CAD (Computer Aided Design) software to
develop, model and test car designs before the actual parts are made. This can save a lot of
time and money.
CAD is also used in the aerospace, architecture and
industrial sectors to design everything from
aeroplanes and buildings to consumer products.
Designers start a project by making a wireframe, a
representation showing the outlines of all edges in a
transparent drawing. They then specify and fill the
surfaces to give the appearance of a 3-D solid object
with volume. This is known as solid modeling. Next,
they add paint, colour and filters to achieve the desired look and feel: this is called texturing
the object. Finally, they render the object to make it look real. Rendering includes lighting and
shading as well as effects that simulate shadows and reflections.
Computer art, or digital art, is used in adverts and TV programmes.
Artists and scientists use special graphics applets to create amazing
fractals. Fractals are geometrical patterns that are repeated at
small scales to generate irregular shapes, some of which describe

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objects from nature. Government agencies use GIS (Geographic Information Systems) to
understand geographic data and then plan the use of land or predict natural disasters.
Cartographers use GIS to make detailed maps. Animators use computer animation software to
create animated cartoons or add effects in movies and video games.
Read the text and answer the questions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Whats the difference between RASTER and VECTOR graphics?


What types of File Formats are there?
Whats Compositing?
What does CAD stand for?
What benefits are there in the use of graphics in the car industry?

Match
Resolution
Jagged
Filters
Wireframe
Rendering
Fractals

Special effects applied to pictures.


Technology for generating shadows and highlights.
Geometrical figures with special properties.
Irregular/uneven.
The number of pixels in an image.
Drawing of a model by using features like edges or contour lines

-ING FORM
Decide which functions of the ing form are the following examples.
1. PCs generate graphics by performing mathematical calculations on data.
2. Businesspeople use graphics to make information more interesting.
3. Shes designing a logo for the company.
4. The Internet is a network linking other networks.
Correct the grammar mistakes.
1. Computer animation is the process of create objects which more across the screen.
2. Texturing involves add paint, colour and filters to drawings and designs.
3. You can open the colour palette by click on the corresponding icon.
4. CAD programs are very fast at perform drawing functions.

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SECURITY AND PRIVACY ON THE INTERNET
There are many benefits from an open system like the Internet, but one of the risks is that we
are often exposed to hackers, who break into computers systems just for fun, to steal
information, or to spread viruses. So how do we go about making our online transactions
secure?
Security on the Web
Security is crucial when you send confidential information
online. Consider, for exa mple, the process of buying a book on
the Web. You have to type your credit card number into an order
form which passes from computer to computer on its way to the
online bookstore. If one of the intermediary computers is infiltrated by hackers, your data can
be copied.
To avoid risks, you should set all security alerts to high on your browser. Mozilla Firefox
displays a lock when the website is secure and allows you to disable or delete cookies small
files placed on your hard drive by web servers so that they can recognize your PC when you
return to their site.
If you use online banking services, make sure they use digital certificates files that are like
digital identification card and that identify users and web servers. Also be sure to use a
browser that is compliant with SSL a protocol which provides secure transactions.
Email privacy
Similarly, as your email travels across the Net, it is copied temporarily
onto many computers in between. This means that it can be read by
people who illegally enter computer systems.
The only way to protect a message is to put it in a sort of virtual
envelope that is, to encode it with some form of encryption. A system designed to send
email privately is Pretty Good Privacy a freeware program written by Phil Zimmerman.
Network security
Private networks can be attacked by intruders who attempt to obtain information such as
Social Security numbers, bank accounts or research and business reports. To protect crucial
data, companies hire security consultants who analyse the risks and provide solutions. The
most common methods of protection are passwords for access control, firewalls, and
encryption and decryption systems. Encryption changes data into a secret code so that only
someone with a key can read it. Decryption converts encrypted data back into its original form.
Malware protection
Malware (malicius software) are programs designed to
infiltrate or damage your computer, for example viruses,
worms, Trojans and spyware. A virus can enter a PC via a
disc drive if you insert an infected disc- or via the
internet. A worm is a self-copying program that spreads
through email attachments; it replicates itself and sends a
copy to everyone in an address book. A Trojan horse is disguised as a useful program; it may
affect data security. Spyware collects information from your PC without your consent. Most

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spyware and adware (software that allows pop-ups- that is, advertisements that suddenly
appear on your screen) is included with free downloads.
If you want to protect your PC, dont open email attachments from
strangers and take care when downloading files from the Web. Remember
to update your anti-virus software as often as possible, since new viruses
are being created all the time.
Note: originally, all computer enthusiasts and skilled programmers were known as hackers,
but during the 1990s the term hacker became synonimous with cracker a person who uses
technology for criminal aims. Nowadays, people often use the word hacker to mean both
things. In the computer industry, hackers are known as white hats and crackers are called
black hats or darkside hackers.
Find the terms
1. Users have to enter a____________to gain access to a network.
2. A____________is a person who uses their computer-skills to enter computers and
networks illegally.
3. ____________can infect your files and corrupt your hard drive.
4. Encoding data so that unauthorized users cannot read it is known as______________
5. Companies use______________techniques to decode secret data.
6. Most_____________is designed to obtain personal information without the users
permission.
Match

1. When confidential information is sent

a. with criminal purposes.

2. Cookies are used by

b. your PC but your contacts as well.

3. While travelling across the Net

c. security is very important.

4. Worms can infect not only

d. web servers to recognize your PC.

5. Crackers use technology

e. files leave a temporary trace on


different computers.

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Appendix

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