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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The importance of Training and Development is obvious given the growing
complexity of the work environment, the rapid change in organization and
advancement in technology, among other things. Training and development helps
to ensure that organizational members possess the knowledge and skill they need to
perform their jobs effectively; take on new responsibilities, and adapt to changing
conditions. Despite the recognition of the importance of training by management
experts and government as expressed in white papers on various reforms in
Nigeria, the experience of manpower training and development in the Nigerian
public service has been more of ruse and waste. Until recently there has been a
general resistance to investment in training in the public service because of the
belief that employee hired under a merit system must be presumed to be qualified,
that there were already trained for their job, and that if this was not so, it was at
fault (Stahl, 1976).
According to Ejiofor (1987), training is indispensable to employee efficiency
especially with the growth and modernization in the banking industry. He added
that, they are essential for better labour utilization and planning of organizational
goals.
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Also, cloyd (1964) viewed that the evolution of training and development signal
the wisdom of man desired toward industrial revolution couple with determination
to pursue their national development. He said further that through this they
invented tools, weapon, clothing and shelters to meet their standard of living. In
1957, there was sudden fallout of knowledge due to proportion of uncertainty, and
absolute information which becomes invalid for human use. He concluded that
training and development is an instrument for reduce deterioration and improved
efficiency.

According to Cole(1997). Training was indispensable to the attainment of


organizational goals because, employee who have not adequate training before
assigned responsibilities lack the necessary confidence to execute its jobs. He cited
example the aspect of difference in training between polytechnic and universities,
which the polytechnic acquire more practical knowledge while, the universities is
more of theoretical.

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT


Some organizations in Nigeria do not engage in proper training and development
of its staff, resulting to low productivity and poor organizational performance. In
most cases, these organizations are not fully aware of the impacts of employee
training and development on the performance of their organization, and thus they
do not undertake training and development exercises for their employees.

According to Cole (2002), ill trained employees will definitely be less productive,
as they do not have the necessary and complete skills and knowledge to achieve
maximum performance in the organization. Training of employees must be
implemented in every organization that wishes to succeed, since training enhances
skills, knowledge, attributes and competencies and ultimately worker performance
and productivity in organizations.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


The objectives of this study are:
1. To identify existing training programs at RoseMore Hotels
2. To evaluate the effectiveness of these training programs.
3. To find out if the training programs have impacted on employee and the firms
overall performance.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS


The following research questions were developed to guide the study:
1. What training programs does RoseMore Hotels have?
2. Are the training programs in RoseMore Hotels effective?
3. What is the impact that these training programs have had on employee
performance?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS


The hypotheses for the study are:
1. Ho: Training programs of RoseMore Hotelsis not effectively administered to
staff of the bank.
Hi: Training programs of RoseMore Hotelsis effectively administered to
staff of the bank.
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2. Ho: There is no significant impact between staff training and employee


performance in RoseMore Hotelsbank.
Hi: There is a significant impact between staff training and employee
performance in RoseMore Hotelsbank.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


The study will help firms understand the importance of training programs. It will
also enable them structure their training programs to make them more effective in
terms of helping to improve the efficiency of the workforce and lead to better
performance. This also ensures the existence of a pool of skilled workforce who
could be utilized for national development. Labour is a major input to the success
of the company. If labour is efficient it will help improve the performance of the
company. As companies perform better they are able to increase output and
contribute more to the economy. They are also able to grow and hire more people
thus helping to decrease the level of unemployment. As companies perform better,
they are also able to compete better enabling the economy to remain vibrant.

The study will also be of great benefit to student researchers who wish to explore
more into the impact training has had on the overall performance of employees in
various organizations. The study will serve as a guide to these students who may
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further get more insights into the recommendations and findings from the study
thereby, forming an empirical literature for them.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY


The study is limited to the role and impact that training have on the performance of
employees of RoseMore Hotelsbank, using their branch office in Umuahia, Abia
State as the focus point. The branch office constitutes an important location of
RoseMore Hotelsand holds a large population of employees.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS


Training: Training could be seen as an Organizational effort aimed at helping an
employee to acquire basic skills required for the efficient and effective execution
of the function for which he/she is hired for.
Planning: Is a strategy by which Organization ensures that right number of
employees with the right talent/skill occupy the right position of the Organization.
It is a deliberate effort put in place to attain a target goal.

Efficiency: This refers to an input-output relationship that is maximum work


achieved for a minimum time or result. It is a notion of Optimization whereby
maximum satisfaction is obtained for a given out lay of resources.
Effectiveness: This is referred to how frequently and perfectly human or machine
are able to carry out a task leading to a required output that always resulted to an
Organizational efficiency. Effectiveness is therefore a means to an end.
Organization: This is referred to as two (2) or more people working together in a
co-ordinated manner to attain group results.
Performance: The accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known
standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed. In a contract, performance is
deemed to be the fulfillment of an obligation, in a manner that releases the
performer from all liabilities under the contract.
Productivity: Productivity is the ratio of output to inputs in production; it is an
average measure of the efficiency of production. Efficiency of production means
productions capability to create incomes which is measured by the formula real
output value minus real input value.
Output: Output is the term denoting either an exit or changes which exit a system
and which activate/modify a process. It is an abstract concept, used in the
modeling, system(s) design and system(s) exploitation.
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Employee: An employee is anyone who has agreed to be employed, under a


contract of service, to work for some form of payment. This can include wages,
salary, commission and piece rates.
Seminar: This is, generally, a form of academic instruction, either at an academic
institution or offered by a commercial or professional organization. It has the
function of bringing together small groups for recurring meetings, focusing each
time on some particular subject, in which everyone present is requested to actively
participate.
Workshop: a gathering of small group of individuals for academic conference or
job training.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 INTRODUCTION
This chapter gives an insight into various studies conducted by outstanding
researchers, as well as explained terminologies with regards to the impact of
training on employee performance.
The chapter also gives a resume of the history and present status of the problem
delineated by a concise review of previous studies into closely related problems.

2.1 OVERVIEW OF TRAINING


One significant function of Human Resource Management to the effective use of
human resources is training and development. Almost everyone now recognizes the
significance of training on the success and growth of organizations. Employees are
however a very crucial and expensive resource to every organization.
There are significant changes today in terms of the value of the employee. Along
with these changing values are the workplace trends that have significant impact
on employees knowledge and skills. Training is therefore necessary to enhance the
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knowledge, skills and attitude of employees. It will also make it easier for
employees to acquire further knowledge based on the foundation gained from the
training and further effect changes in other co-workers.

In order to sustain performance there is the need for training in empowering the
workforce to be creative and innovative. Training of employees will aid in the
productivity, profitability or survival of businesses in the present competitive
business environment. Training is therefore the key element in successful wealth
creation.

2.2 TRAINING
Training can be defined as a learning activity which is directed towards the
acquisition of specific knowledge and skills for the purpose of an occupation or
task (Cole, 2002). The focus of training however is on the job or task to be
performed. For example, the need to have efficiency and safety in the operation of
particular machines is important.
De Cenzo and Robbins (2001), training is basically a learning experience, which
seeks a relatively permanent change in an individual's skills, knowledge, attitudes
or social behaviour. This means that, there is the need to improving employees

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skills and knowledge so that he or she becomes efficient to work on both present
and future jobs and tasks.
Almost all organizations have recognized the importance of training to the
development of their organizations. The birth of new technologies has made certain
jobs and skills redundant. As a result there is an increasing emphasis on the need
for a skilled and highly trained workforce. Many of the jobs and skills that have
been replaced by machines, equipments and other technological devices are as a
result of their unskilled nature, thus this emphasizes the need for labour to attain
more education and skills to be able to secure employment in the future.
For a training program to be successful there is the need for the organization to
identify the training needs of the organization. The organization can measure if the
training has been successful or not if the trainees do not learn what they are
supposed to learn, thus do not perform better than they used to. However, if
trainees return empty from the course designed for them without any substantial
contribution, it could also mean that even though the organization might have done
all that is necessary to ensure a successful training program, the wrong candidates
might have been selected for the training program.
Leaning takes place when the behavior of people changes based on the results from
experiences (McGhee et al, 2000). Thus one can examine if learning has
effectively taken place by comparing individuals behavior before on specific jobs
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and tasks to after experiences on jobs and task. It can, therefore be concluded that
there is no learning if there is no evident behavioural change. Since training is
generally intended to provide learning experiences that will help employees attain
more skills and knowledge, it must follow the learning principle.
Training thus can be defined as a learning experience which creates a permanent
change in the skills, knowledge, and attitude of individuals on a currently held job
and also enables employees to gain knowledge which they can transfer to other job
areas.

2.2.1 IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING


Training is a tool which helps organizations to gain a competitive edge. According
to Krietner (2002) in his book The Good Managers Guide, no matter how
carefully job applicants are screened, typically a gap remains between what the
employee does know and what they should know. There is therefore the need for
organizations to train their human resource to be able to learn in order to acquire
more skills and knowledge to beat competition.
Training is a key element for improved organizational performance through the
increasing level of individual competences. This means that training will help
employees to master knowledge, skills, behaviours, sense of self worth and
confidence upon which they are able to perform efficiently to improve on the
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performance of the organization. Among the many benefits of training, training can
also eliminate risks in organizations because the trained personnel will be efficient,
thus will be able to make better use of the organizations property thereby reducing
and avoiding waste. Training will also make the employees feel a sense of security
thus labour turnover can be avoided. According to Cole (2002) training can achieve
lower cost of production, lower turnover and change management.
There exists a gap between desired targets or standards and actual levels of work
performance in every organizational setting. This means that there can be both a
negative and positive relationship between what should happen and what actually
happens in terms of the work performance in any organization. There is therefore
the need for every organization to adopt strategies in order to achieve the desired
targets or standards set by the company. Training can be one tool that organizations
can use to reach their targets or standards. Although many organizations continue
to have doubts about the cost of training, the development of skills, knowledge and
attitude of employees towards their jobs or tasks will be one of the greatest tools
through which organizations can make employees work more efficiently and beat
competition to reach the desired targets and standards of the company. (Casio,
2003) puts it this way The economic and technological trends, the pace of
innovation, change and development have been growing faster year-by-year and as

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a result, these are clear signals that training and development are very important
that both organizations and individual stakeholders must consider as very serious.
2.2.2 BEST WAYS TO DEVELOP TRAINING PROGRAMS
The best way to develop training programs is to go through the training process.
That is training needs identification, training plans and implementation, evaluation
or training feedback.

2.2.3 DETERMINING TRAINING NEEDS


Training needs analysis answers the questions, who if there is, needs training? And
what training should be given? There is therefore the need for any organization to
first identify the training needs of the organization. The need for training should be
identified in accordance with a well organized procedure looking at the training
needs from the organizational and employee perspective. (Asare-Bediako, 2002).
Based on the organizational analysis, the organization can assess the level of
growth over a defined period of time and then determine the shortfalls and
problems in order to help determine the required training programs. Also in
identifying the training needs from the employees perspective, the organization
can measure the performances of individual employees. This can be measured by
analyzing the efficiency of the individual employees against the required standards
set by the organization through frequent performance appraisals.
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The difference in the organization and employees actual results expected as well as
feedback from customers and shareholders of the organization all can help identify
training needs. However this will depend on the circumstances the organization
may find itself.
Training need arises where there is the need to improve or adapt/adjust to changes
and solve problems in order to improve on both employee and organizational
performance. The purpose of a training needs identification program therefore is to
identify the gap that exist between the required and the actual competencies
expected of organizations and employees so as to determine the kinds of training
that can help bridge the gap (Asare-Bediako, 2002).

2.2.4 TRAINING OBJECTIVES AND PLANS


There is also the need for the organization and the employees to know the motive
for which they undergo training. It can, therefore be concluded that training
programs will not be more effective unless the purpose for which it was
administered is known. Therefore in planning training, it should go through these
stages; develop a training plan, designing a training lesson, selecting the trainer
and prepare the trainer (Zaccarelli, 2000). The training plan will serve as the
guidelines for both the trainer and the trainee to follow in order to successfully
implement the program. It covers the individuals involved in the training, the
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person that will administer the program, the required resources and the content to
be followed. Once the plan for the program has been outlined then the training
lesson is designed.
The training lesson is developed to help the participants focus on the segments
developed and also set out the time frame for each segment. After this, a competent
trainer is hired to undertake the training. The trainer should be able to
communicate and transfer knowledge effectively. Finally, it is very important that
the trainer will be able to communicate and transfer the skills and knowledge
effectively so that the needed impart is realized. Thus the trainer should be well
prepared to take on the task in order to achieve the desired results.

2.2.5 EVALUATING TRAINING PROGRAMS.


In measuring the overall effectiveness of the training program there is the need to
also consider the costs and benefits of the training program. This will help the
organization know whether there has been effectiveness in terms of profits.
Evaluation should take place before, during and after the training programs.
According to Kenney et al (1992) review of the training program should be done
during and after its completion and should be done by a training officer, the line
manager, and the trainees themselves. Training can be evaluated in so many ways.
Some of these are through questionnaires which will serve as the feedback from
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the participants; case studies where the participants will have to apply the learned
skills to practical situations and many others.

2.2.6 METHODS OF EVALUATING TRAINING PROGRAMMES


According to Anka (1985), identifying two basic methods for evaluating training
and development programmes. These are,

1. Objective Method: This is derived from overt behaviour. It does not need
the expansion of opinion judgment, belief or the likes in carrying this out,
objective test of skills, knowledge and attitude can be fairly administered
easily at the beginning of the training and at the end and sometimes, later in
future. To assess the validity of training, it objective should be clearly
defined. The performance of the trainee on the job should also be measure to
determine the permanency of learning.

2. Subjective method: This is based on individual personal views or judgment.


Opinions of trainee are sought by asking them their impression of training
effectiveness during training and at the end of training. This method is useful
if objectives type fails. in this a careful planned interview can be held with
experience worker, trainers, trainers and local supervisors. The interviews
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can be fashioned into more or less objective rods to get the validity of the
program.

However, other related method that can be used to evaluating training is


observation. Under this question were asked about the trainees and his manager
and collect data relevant to performance.

In general, it must be understood that whether objective or subjective method of


evaluation is applied.
In conclusion, there is no sure single method of evaluating effectiveness of training
programmes, however training programmes requires a careful thorough and
realistic evaluations. Also training standard should be formulated by

top

management to ensure performance appraisal.

2.2.7 TYPES OF TRAINING PROGRAMS


The kinds of training selected by each organization should depend on the
objectives and the level of education and position of employees in the organization.
(Cole, 2002). Some of these are the job training, orientation training and career
development training.
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Job Training
This helps employees develop the skills, knowledge, the right attitude and
experiences needed on the job and involves teaching the employees how to work
on the job hired for.
Orientation Training
This is given to newly hired employees to induct them into the organization and
also train them on the job they will hold. The employees are thought the culture,
values, mission and processes and activities followed in the organization.
Career Development Training
This is also given to employees at all levels in the organization to prepare them for
future changes, new venture creations and responsibilities.

2.2.8 TYPES OF TRAINING TECHNIQUES


Byra et al (2003) Identified five categories of techniques suitable for achieving
effective training and development programmes these according to him include the
following:
1.

Case study techniques

2.

Job rotation techniques

3.

Role playing techniques

4.

Coaching techniques
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5.

In basket techniques

1. CASE STUDY TECHNIQUES:


This techniques is used to present real and hypothetical situation for the trainee
to analyze. This techniques also compelled trainee to think through problems
and proposed solution by choose among the alternative. Upon which effective
decision can be taken. However, it has advantages that distinct its from other
techniques. It brings more of realism to the instruction. While the disadvantage
is that there is less emotional involvement by participant.

2. JOB ROTATION TECHNIQUES:


This method involved trainee moving from one job to another within the
organization and generally remaining in each job from six month to a year. The
advantages it has is that the training is practical and allowed trainee to become
familiar with the entire operation. Secondly, it allowed cross-fertilization of
knowledge unlike it disadvantage the trainee is given menial assignment. In
each job longer than necessary.

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3. ROLE PLAYING:
Is the type applied when employee are assigned different roles and requirements
to act out there role in a realistic situation. Also, the technique help participant
to learn from playing out the assigned roles effectively, however, the success of
this technique strongly depend on the ability of the participant to assume her
duty or task realistically. But video tap can be used to evaluate the exercise to
improve it effectiveness constantly.

4. COACHING TECHNIQUE:
This is technique use mostly by experienced managers emphasis the
responsibility of all that managers to developing their employee. Under this
technique, the experienced manager advised and guide in trainee in solving
managerial problem. One major advantage, is that it allowed trainee to develop
their own approaches to management concept and become the more rational in
decision making.

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5. IN BASKET TECHNIQUE:
This is the type use to stimulates a perfect situation which required each trainee
to answer one managers mail and telephone call. This technique is mostly
applied where there are interspersed routine duties on matters too important.
For instance, one call may come from important cost, who is angry.

2.2.9 PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING


Nmadu (1999) suggested the following principles necessary for training
programme:
1. Motivation: A highly motivated trainee learns more easily and
thoroughly, new skill or knowledge. But training must be related to an
end which the trainee desires.
2. Progress Report: There is a relationship between the specify and
amount of progress information on one hand and the rapidity and
effectiveness of learning on the other. Care must be taken therefore, to
ensure that neither excessive information nor information that can be
misinterpreted is given.
3. Reinforcement: When skills are learned, they should be reinforced by
means of reward and punishments. Positive reinforcement includes
pay, increase and praise.

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4. Practice: To effectively acquire a skill, active participation by the


trainee is essential. Carefully spaced practice period must be initiated
for effective learning.
5. Whole versus Part: The long or an more complex a job is, the more
likely that only sub-portion will be taught and the trainee is saddled
with putting the parts into an effective whole. This is an inevitable
part of training in Nigeria. The trainee can be helped if the training
begins from the known proceeding to the unknown.
6. Individual Differences: Although, group training

is

more

economical, individuals vary in intelligence and aptitude. The most


effective training should adjust to both the pace and
7. Complexity of Individual Activities: In essence, the slow learners
should be identified and isolated from those that can assimilate
quickly so that each group will be given a more suitable facilitator.

2.2.10 GUIDLINE FOR EFFECTIVE TRAINING


Evborokhai (2003) noted that designing training and development programme
must start by looking at the objective of training, that is, what is to be achieved at
the end of the period. In a well managed organization, training objectives will be
part of corporate strategy which feeds back into the organizational goals and
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missions. The design will also depend on an understanding and learning


experiences and background of the employees who are to benefit from the
programme. The type and method of training/learning opportunities need to be
designed in such a way that trainees will derive maximum possible benefits from
them. He added the following considerations:
1.
Training results should be emphasized rather than the training
activities itself. Effort must be made to evaluate the effect of a training
2.

programme.
A training must seek to solve relevant problems. A relationship must

3.

exist between training activities and the aim of the firm.


The selection of trainees should be objectively done to ensure that is
relevant to the jobs and problems. It is very risky and demotivating if
trainees are selected on the basis of friendship or place or origin
selection should not be on the basis of tribal sentiment. Besides,
objective selection assures that they are capable of learning and have
sufficient potential and ability to perform the tasks involved. Lack of
confidence in the trainees is immediately apparent to them and has an

4.

adverse effect on the learning process.


The support of top executives is essential for training and
development. Such support must go beyond a policy statement
regarding training. It must include their active participation in
development.
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5.

Training and developing must involve managers at all levels. It is not


just for selected few nor is it only for those at lower levels. Top
managers may recognize the training needs of first-line supervisor, but
not of themselves. Yet top managers should be trained first to provide
an example of their commitment to the continuing development of all

6.

the people in the enterprise.


Needs vary not only for positions at different levels in the
organization hierarchy but also for the individuals, since their
backgrounds, requirements, aspirations and potential are peculiar to
each of them, consequently training and development activities should

7.

be tailored to these specific and individual needs.


No programme or method, fit all needs. Instead, programmes and
method should be selected on the basis of how effective and
efficiently they satisfy personal need and accomplish the overall

8.

developmental objectives of the enterprise.


Training and practice must go hand in hand. Training is one side of
the coin, which is the teaching of theory and the demonstration of
techniques, the other is the actual integration of the theory with
practice. Consequently, it is necessary that facilities are on group to

9.

ensure this integration.


Effective training programme should be adequately funded to cater for
all training expenditure such as equipment, teaching materials,
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instructors and other needs. Consequently, substantial training budgets


10.

should be ensured when preparing the annual enterprise budget.


Those who administer training programmes have great choice of
methods, for imparting learning in trainees. The particular method
selected should be determined by consideration of costs, time
available, number of persons to be trained, depth of knowledge
required, background of the trainees, and many other factors. The
training methods chosen should be strategic and need oriented
depending on whether the aim is to acquire knowledge on a particular

11.

subject or to acquire a specific skill.


Training should be related to promotion policy. It is expected that
training should result in the promotion of deserving trainees to higher

12.

positions in the organization.


A good training scheme is essentially a continuous process. Genuine
interest in the progress of trainees after the course is essential for
successful follow up. Further, training or retraining may be necessary
in some cases whereas in some others rapid progress may result in
promotion. Assessment of long-term results may indicate changes that
need to be made in the training programme. Long-term effective
control of training relies upon conscientious follow-up.

2.3 IMPACT OF TRAINING ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE


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The Following benefits can be derives from training and development programme
as noted by Nwachukwu (2007).

1. Increased Productivity: From the companys point of view, productivity is


at the apex of all training programmes. A well trained employee is capable of
producing more than an untrained employee of equal physical ability. The
success or failure of an organization depends on employees productivity. A
well trained salesman for example produces more than his counterparts with
lesser training, others things being equal.

2. Lower Turnover Rate: An employee who is not capable of producing is


frustrated by failure and is more likely to abandon his work than those who
are capable of producing. He hates his work and abandons it at the smallest
provocation from any source. As well trained employee would want to stick
to his work at all times and give out his best. This of course is a plus not
only to the organization but also to the worker himself.

3. Higher Morale: A man who is trained has confidence in his ability to


perform. He believes that he has control over his environment and is
27

equipped

to

tolerate

occasional

disappointments,

frustrations

and

inconvenience. He learns to rationalize and to accept blame for his own


failure instead of blaming the organization. A trained employee derives
intrinsic satisfaction from his work which promotes his morale.
Organizations that have regular training programmes give employee the
feeling of being wanted and something to look up to. A worker whose
morale is high will always save some labour hours which will mean more
productivity.

4. Better Coordination: Training helps in the coordination of men and


material. During the training programme, employees are taught company
expectations and objectives. They are shown the ladder through which they
can attain their won objectives. This gives rise to equal c congruency and
consequently, everyone pulls in the same direction. Coordination becomes
easy.

5. Quality Products are Assured: Since employees are trained and taught how
to handle their machines and production process. Their outputs are always
qualitative. This is one major benefit that the society derives from an
28

organization that trains its employees. This is because consumers are always
after products that can satisfy their needs.
Evborokhai (2003) added the following:

6. Training Aids in Solving Operational Problem: Well trained employees


avoid making unnecessary mistakes and put in their best as well as making
all possible effort to dedicate their time to their jobs. Examples of such
problem include high labour turnover, absenteeism, accidents, and grievance
rates. Other operational problems are low morale, poor customer service,
excessive wastes and scrap, loss and poor work methods.

7. Aid in Filling Manpower Need: When totally new skills are required by a
company, 1 + 0 often finds it most practical to select from within the
organization rather than seek the skilled personnel in the outside labour
market. This is made possible because the organization has trained its
personnel against the rainy days.

8. It gives Benefits to Employees Themselves: As employees acquire new


knowledge and job skills, they increase their market value and earning
29

power. This possession of useful skills enhances their value to their


employers and also increases their job securities.

2.4 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH TRAINING


Although, so many problems are associated with training programme, its short
comings can be seen in the following areas.
Nmadu (1999) identified the following as barrier to training programme.

1. Financial Constraint: Training programme is quite expensive as it requires


a lot of money to ensure its success. While this may not be a problem to big
organizations with large capital base, it is to small and medium scale
enterprises with little financial resources.

2. Interference with Employees Routine Activities in the Organization:


This affords him/her little or no time to attend to his daily schedules in the
office.

3. Problem of Swapping to Better Jobs: The organization may loose some of


its staff after they might have been trained to pay must higher. The
30

employees in many cases swap to other organizations in search for greener


pasture.

4. Irrelevant Acquisition of Training: This is a problem that emanate from


the lack of

or inadequate analysis of training needs before workers are

selected for a particular training. Each worker needs to be properly analyzed


to know his areas of problem and a particular organized to suit the existing
problem. Some operational problems after all, require only motivation to
correct the situation.

5. Irrelevant Facilities to Carryout Jobs: In most cases, trainees acquire a


great deal of skills and technical know-how on the training ground but back
on the job, they do not have similar facilities to work with. This is quite
demoralizing and soul destroying.

6. Corruption and Favouritism: This is evident in the area of staff selection


for training programmes. In most cases, workers are selected based on

31

friendship, tribalism, favouritism etc thereby forgetting that not all of them
will actually require training.

2.5 EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE


Employee's performance means how well employees perform on the job and
assignments assigned them measured against the generally accepted measure of
performance standards set by their companies. This means there are general
expectations expected of employees in relation to their performance in every
company. Employees can be said to have performed when they have met the
expectations and performed up to standard. (Cole, 2002).
Employee performance can also be defined as the functioning and presentation of
employees. This means, how employees are able to effectively administer their
task and assignments and also how they present their assignment to reflect the
quality and good service desired by their companies.
2.5.1 EVALUATION OF EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE
When evaluating the performance of employees, it is very important to have a
check list that will be used consistently in measuring the performance of all
employees(Cole, 2002).

The techniques for measuring the performance of

employees may differ from every company. Some of these evaluation techniques
are:
32

Ambition / Initiative
Is the employee able to show he has a vision and goals towards his job and makes
the imitative to achieving these goals and vision.
Attitude / Cooperation
Does the employee have a positive attitude towards his fellow employees and his
work and also he is able to work on different task?
Communication skills
Is the employee able to communicate effectively with other employees and
customers? Has he been able to solve issues due to his communication skills?
Focus
Whether the employee is focused on his job and is able to distinguish his task from
personal assignments.

2.6

RELATIONSHIP

BETWEEN

TRAINING

AND

EMPLOYEE

PERFORMANCE
The information thus far reveals a seeming consensus in the belief that there is a
positive relationship between training and employee performance. Thus training
impacts positively on employees performance by generating benefits to both the

33

employees and the organization they work for through the development of skills,
knowledge, abilities, competencies and behavior.
Training plays a significant role in the development of organizations, enhancing
performance as well as increasing productivity, and ultimately putting companies
in the best position to face competition and stay at the top. This means that, there is
a significant relationship between organizations that train their employees and
organizations that do not. (According to Neo et al in his book Human Resource
Management: Gaining Competitive Advantage in 2000), he stated that only 16%
of United States employees have ever received any form of training from their
employers. From the researchers point of view, there is a possibility that in about
five or more years to come the rapid development in technology can cause high
unemployment rate because these forms of technology will replace the unskilled
labor in the United States. There is therefore the need for United States to put
strategies and policies in place to ensure that its human resource is trained in order
to meet the standards of the growing technology. In realization of this, General
Electric, Texas Instruments and Federal Express have already made the initiative
and now invest between 3% and 5% of their payroll in training.
Every organization that is committed to generating profits for its owners
(shareholders) and providing quality service for its customers and beneficiaries
invest in the training of its employees (Evans and Lindsay 2004). According to
34

Robert Simpson Managing director of Legna Construction Limited , a construction


company located in the central region of Nigeria which contributes substantially to
the development of the country through its roads construction and employment of
the countrys human resource, training of the companys human resource
contributed to the company gaining substantial increase in revenue from 2005
2009. (40% increase from 2001 2004). He attributed this to the skills and
knowledge the employees gained through the training that helped them be more
efficient thus reduced cost on the job thereby gaining more revenue. Evans and
Lindsay (2004) also stated that, Motorola & Texas Instruments provide at least 40
hours of training to every employee quarterly and this has significantly impacted
on the employee performance.
Companies committed to investment in their human resource generate long term
and sustainable profitability for the company. In a study in America on the impact
of human capital investments such as employer-provided training and
development, Black and Lynch (1996) citing Bartel (1989) stated that returns on
training and development investments increase productivity by 16%. This further
reinforces the role of training on employees. Based on the attributes that are
developed the employees implement them on their tasks and thus the company is
able to improve thus generate the profits for the firm. Also because the attributes
are imparted and developed through the systematic and planned training program,
35

it becomes a part of the employees thus they are able to implement them on every
task thus the increased profit leading to sustainable profitability.
The review has revealed the importance and purpose of training in organizations,
and how it contributes to employee performance. The essence of training needs,
how and why training needs should be assessed has also been explained. The bases
for which employees should be chosen or selected for training, the types of training
have been duly identified namely job training, orientation training and career
development training.

2.7 EMPIRICAL STUDIES


Training-related changes should result in improved job performance and other
positivechanges (e.g., acquisition of new skills; Hill& Lent 2006, Satterfield &
Hughes 2007)that serve as antecedents of job performance(Kraiger 2002).
Reassuringly, Arthur et al.(2003) conducted a meta-analysis of 1152 effect sizes
from 165 sources and ascertained thatin comparison with no-training or
pretrainingstates, training had an overall positive effect onjob-related behaviors or
performance (mean effect size ord=0.62). However, although differences in terms
of effect sizes were not large,the effectiveness of training varied dependingon the
training delivery method and the skillor task being trained. For example, the

36

mosteffective training programs were those including both cognitive and


interpersonal skills, followed by those including psychomotor skills ortasks.

Benefits of training are also documented fortechnical skills. For example, Davis &
Yi (2004)conducted two experiments with nearly 300participants using behaviormodeling trainingand were able to improve computer skills substantially. Although
behavior-modeling training has a rich history of success (e.g., Decker &
Nathan 1985, Robertson 1990), a unique aspectof this research was that training
was found toaffect changes in worker skills through a changein trainees
knowledge structures or mentalmodels (see also Marks et al. 2002 for an examination of mental models at the team level).
Specifically, mentally rehearsing tasks allowedtrainees to increase declarative
knowledge andtask performance, each measured 10 days after the training was
completed.

More recently, results showed that salespeople who participated in the training
program demonstratedhigher self-efficacy, outcome expectancy (e.g.,I will
increase my sense of accomplishment),and objective outcomes (e.g., number of
newpolicies sold) as well as subjective job performance (i.e., sales managers

37

ratings

of

eachsalespersons

performance).

Training-relatedperformance

improvement was sustained overa 12-month period after training ended.


There are also documented benefits of training for managers and leaders. Collins &
Holton(2004) conducted a meta-analysis of the benefits of managerial leadership
development programs including 83 studies published between1982 and 2001 (see
also Cullen & Turnbull2005). They found that meands (comparingtraining with no
training) ranged from 0.96to 1.37 for knowledge outcomes and from0.35 to 1.01
for expertise/behavioral outcomes.
Knowledge was defined as principles, facts, attitudes, and skills measured using
both subjective (e.g., self-reports) and objective (e.g., standardized tests) measures.
Expertise/behavioraloutcomes were defined as changes in on-the-ob behavior and
were also assessed using bothsubjective (e.g., peer ratings) and objective
(e.g.,behavioral) measures.

2.8 CHAPTER SUMMARY


In summary, although the literature strongly suggests a direct relationship between
job training and job performance as well as job training and employee attitudes,
there is little empirical support for this suggestion. Clearly, there is a need to
provide such empirical support. The purpose of the present study was to explore
38

the relationship between training and development and its perceived impact on
employee attitudes and perceived job performance proficiencies. The empirical
data suggest a perceived gap by the employees between training attitudes and job
proficiencies. This gap could then result in conflict between the employee and
employer relationship. The present study elaborates and extends previous research
by exploring participant attitudes in an academic institution as well as in three
businesses, one of which is a small-to-moderate size business that is usually
overlooked in other research studies. The hypotheses in this study specifically
address the relationship between employees with training experiences who have
positive attitudes about training (training attitudes), and those positive training
attitudes are perceived to improve job proficiency.

39

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 INTRODUCTION
This chapter covers the description and discussion on the various techniques and
procedures used in the study to collect and analyze the data as it is deemed
appropriate.
It is organized under the following sub-headings:

Research Design
Area of the Study
Population of the study
Sample and sampling procedure
Instrument of Data Collection
Validation of the Instrument
Reliability of the Instrument
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis
40

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN


According to Asika (2009), research designs are often referred to as the structuring
of investigation aimed at identifying variables and their relationships to one
another. In this study, questionnaire serves as useful guide to the effort of
generating data for this study. The questionnaire is a survey method and it is an
exploratory research.

3.2 AREA OF THE STUDY


The study will be conducted in Sabon Gari, Kaduna state. Kaduna is the state
capital of Kaduna State in north-western Nigeria, on the Kaduna River, is a trade
center and a major transportation hub for the surrounding agricultural areas with its
rail and road junction. The population of Kaduna was at 760,084 as of the 2006
Nigerian census. The symbol of Kaduna is the crocodile, called kada in the native
Hausa language.

41

3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY


The target population for this study consists of all the female and male members of
the RoseMore HotelsUmuahia branch. The number of population adopted for this
study comprises all the members of staff the totaled to staff is estimated for the
study. The rational behind restricting the population to the members is to enhance
effective participation of all members in the management of RoseMore HotelsPlc.

3.4 SAMPLE OF THE STUDY


Sample or sampling is the fractional unit of the universe or population selected for
the study or observation which conclusions are drawn. It serve as the true
representative of the population as regard to conclusion drawn about it.
Therefore, from the above population, a sample size of the study is 25. the sample
random technique is used to choose the staff that represented the subject of the
study the need for accepting this sample size rest on the premises that researcher
cannot carry out by studying on the other entire population.
42

3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION


These are the tools or methods used in getting data from respondents. In this study,
questionnaires and interview are research instruments used. Questionnaire is the
main research instrument used for the study to gather necessary data from the
sample respondents. The questionnaire is structured type and provides answers to
the research questions and hypotheses therein.
This instrument is divided and limited into two sections; Section A and B. Section
A deals with the personal data of the respondents while Section B contains research
statement postulated in line with the research question and hypothesis in chapter
one. Options or alternatives are provided for each respondent to pick or tick one of
the options.

3.6 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF INSTRUMENT


Reliability means the accuracy of precision of a measuring instrument while
validity means the extent to which the research instrument measures what it is
43

supposed to measure. In order to determine the reliability and validity of the study,
the test-retest method was used. To have a valid instrument, the questions in the
questionnaire will be free from ambiguity (i.e the questions will not be too
complex). To have reliable instrument, the questionnaire will be followed with
interview of sample of respondents to know their view on the subject.

3.7 TECHNIQUES OF DATA ANALYSIS


Having gathered the data through the administration of questionnaire, the collected
data will be coded, tabulated, and analyzed according to the research question and
hypothesis.
In order to analyze the data collected effectively and efficiently for easy
management and accuracy, the simple percentage method was the analytical tools
used for this research project and a sample size of twenty-five(25) will be
represented by 100% for easy analysis of the responses.
Also, Chi-square statistical analytical method will be used in the research work
chi-square as a statistical technique is used in testing of hypothesis so as to predict
what the relationship between two variables should be. It is used in drawing and
reaching conclusion by collecting the observed values from the questionnaire

44

administered to respondents, testing the degree of freedom and carrying out a


decision in determining the critical value of the hypothesis.

The formular being


X2

(F0-FE)2
FE

Where O
E

Observed Frequency

Expected Frequency

The X2 value obtained from the formular is compared with the value of tabulated
X2 for a given significance level and degree of freedom.

45

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 INTRODUCTION
This section will present the findings from the survey, using the statistical tools and
methods chosen for data analyses with summarized analysis on the results.
Problems such as secrecy and indifference on the part of respondents were
limitations in the collection of data. Since the bank is a formal organization, the
letter of approval for the survey to be done had to go through the head managers of
the bank. As a result of this, it took a long time before permission was granted for
survey to be done. Reasons given included lack of time due to heavy workload at
work or the questionnaires not getting to them on time. Even though the sample
size chosen was rather small, when taking into consideration the number of
RoseMore Hotelsemployees, it had to be used to ensure that at least some data
could be collected on time to ensure the timely presentation of the paper. Thus, a
further reduction of respondents due to the eight unanswered questionnaires
reduces further the quality of data collected.
46

The company did not provide any information on the annual headcount of the
company and explained it was confidential and they could not disclose any
information on that.

4.1 PRESENTATION OF DATA

Administered

Returned

Unreturned

Questionnaires
30

Questionnaires
22

Questionnaires
8

TABLE 4.1
Age distribution of respondents
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

18-25

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

26-35

13

59.1

59.1

59.1

36-45

22.7

22.7

81.8

46-55

18.2

18.2

100.0

Total
22
Source: Field Survey, January 2014

100.0

100.0

47

The ages of the respondents ranged between 26 and 55 years. It reveals that none
of the 22 respondents fell within the age range of 18-25 and 56-59. There were 13
respondents between 26-35 years representing 59.1%. 5 of the respondents were
between the ages of 36-45 representing 22.72%. The final 4 respondents were
between 46-55 years representing 18.18% of the total respondents. The non
representation of respondents between 18-25 and 56-59 does not mean the bank
does not have employees within the range, it only means the employees within the
age range were not available to respond to the questionnaire.

48

TABLE 4.2
Gender distribution of respondents

Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Male

female
Total

13

59.1

59.1

59.1

40.9

40.9

100.0

22

100.0

100.0

Source: Field Survey, January 2014.

Out of the 22 respondents 13 were males representing 59.1% and 9 were females
representing 40.9 %. This shows that the male respondents formed the majority. In
contacting a few of the employees I discovered that the statistics above
corresponds to the current situation in the bank. Currently, there are more male
employees in the bank than females.

49

TABLE 4.3
Education level of respondents
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

First degree

Percent Valid Percent

Percent

14

63.6

63.6

63.6

Masters degree

9.1

9.1

72.7

Professional studies

18.2

18.2

90.9

Others

9.1

9.1

100.0

22

100.0

100.0

Total
Source: Field Survey, January 2014

From the table above, it can be observed that about a fourth (63.64%) of the
respondents have a first degree, 2 representing 9.09% have a masters degree, 4
representing 18.18% have professional certificates, whilst 2 representing 9.09%
have other forms of qualification besides a first degree or masters. It can therefore
be concluded that to be employed in a middle or upper level position in the bank
one has to have no less than a first degree.

50

TABLE 4.4
work experience of respondents

Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

1-3

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

22.7

22.7

22.7

4-5

10

45.5

45.5

68.2

6-9

31.8

31.8

100.0

100.0

100.0

Total
22
Source: Field Survey, January 2014

From the table above, the respondents have served in RoseMore Hotelsfrom 1 to 9
years. It can be seen that respondents who have served for 4-5 years representing
45.45% formed the majority whilst respondents who have served for 6-9 years
followed with a frequency of 7 representing 31.82%. The remaining respondents
who have served for 5 years make up 22.73%. However none of the respondents
fell within the range of 10-12 years of service in the bank.

4.3 DATA ANALYSIS

51

OBJECTIVE ONE: TO IDENTIFY EXISTING TRAINING PROGRAMS AT


ROSEMORE HOTELSBANK
TABLE 4.5
Do employee training programs exist in FIDELITY?
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Yes

Percent

22

Valid Percent

100.0

100.0

Percent
100.0

Source: Field Survey, January 2014

Table 4.5 shows the responses of the various respondents on whether employee
training programs exist in the bank. All 22 respondents representing 100%
indicated that employee training programs exist in RoseMore Hotelsbank. This
implies that the bank is concerned about the training and development of its
employees, in order to ensure efficiency in the organization.

TABLE 4.6

52

TRAINING PROGRAMS AVAILABLE IN ROSEMORE HOTELSBANK


Responses
Valid

Percent

Percent of Cases

22

21.4%

100.0%

Career development training 22

21.4%

100.0%

orientation training

22

21.4%

100.0%

15

14.6%

68.2%

22

21.4%

100.0%

103

100.0%

468.2%

Job training programs

Leadership and corporate


governance training program
personality development
programs
Total
Source: Field Survey, January 2014

Table 4.6 shows multiple responses gotten from the respondents on the various
training programs that exist in RoseMore Hotelsbank. 22 of the respondents
representing 100% indicated the existence of job training programs, career
development training, orientation training and personality development programs.
15 of the same respondents representing 68% indicated that leadership and
corporate governance training programs exist in the bank.

53

TABLE 4.7
Participation of employees in training programs
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Yes

22

Percent
100.0

Valid Percent
100.0

Percent
100.0

Source: Field Survey, January 2014

All the respondents have participated in one form of training or another. All the 22
respondents representing 100% have participated in training programs. Thus we
can conclude that it is likely that one has gone through some form of training no
matter the years spent with the institution.

TABLE 4.8

54

What is the source of employee training programs in FIDELITY?


Cumulative
Frequency Percent

Valid Percent Percent

10

45.5

45.5

45.5

4.5

4.5

50.0

11

50.0

50.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Valid Internal Work shops and


seminars
External training
programs
Both

Total
22
Source: Field Survey, January 2014

Table 4.8 shows the responses of the respondents on the source(s) of employee
training programs in RoseMore Hotelsbank. 10 respondents representing 45.5% of
the total respondents indicated that the source of RoseMore Hotelstraining
programs is Internal work shops and seminars, 1 respondent representing 4.5%
indicated external training programs, while the remaining 11 respondents
representing 50% indicated both. This clearly shows that RoseMore Hotelsuses
both internal and external sources to train their employees. This implies that the
employees of RoseMore Hotelsare thoroughly trained since they are trained from
internal sources and outside sources as well.

55

TABLE 4.8
SELECTION OF EMPLOYEES FOR TRAINING
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Yes

Percent

22

Valid Percent

100.0

100.0

Percent
100.0

Source: Field Survey, January 2014

All 22 respondents answered that the selection for training was done by the Human
Resource Manager.

TABLE 4.9

56

Is the training program mandatory for all employees?

Cumulative

Valid

Yes

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

22

100.0

100.0

100.0

Table 4.9 shows responses on whether employee training programs are mandatory
in RoseMore Hotelsbank. All 22 respondents representing 100% indicated that
employee training programs are mandatory in RoseMore Hotelsbank.
This clearly shows the importance of employee training programs in organizations.
Organizations must learn to take employee training and development seriously as
performance of the employee might be improved.

57

OBJECTIVE

TWO:

TO

EXAMINE

THE

EFFECTIVENESS

OF

ROSEMORE HOTELSTRAINING PROGRAMS

TABLE 4.10
In your opinion do you think that your training programs are effective enough
to increase employee performance?
Cumulative

Valid

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Yes

20

90.9

90.9

90.9

No

9.1

9.1

100.0

Total
22
100.0
Source: Field Survey, January 2014

100.0

Table 4.10 shows the responses on whether the respondents think that their
organizations training programs are effective enough to increase performance. 20
respondents representing 90.9% indicated yes, while the remaining 2 respondents
representing 9.1% indicated No.
This clearly shows that Fidelitys training programs are effective enough to
increase employee performance, as indicated by majority of the respondents who
work at the bank. However, the training programs of RoseMore Hotelsmay not be

58

excellent as 2 respondents making up 9.1% of the total population indicated


otherwise.

TABLE 4.11
If 'Yes' rate your bank's training programs
Cumulative

Valid

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

9.1

9.1

9.1

Good

31.8

31.8

40.9

Excellent

13

59.1

59.1

100.0

Average

Total
22
100.0
Source: Field Survey, January 2014

100.0

Table 4.11 shows various ratings for the training programs at RoseMore Hotelsby
the various respondents. 2 respondents representing 9.1% indicated Average, 7
respondents representing 31.8% indicated Good, while the remaining 13
respondents representing 59.1% indicated that the training program in RoseMore
Hotelsis excellent.
This illustrates that the training program at RoseMore Hotelsis excellent, since
majority of the respondents indicated so.

59

TABLE 4.12

Are you well educated on the objectives of training?

Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Yes

Percent

22

100.0

Valid Percent
100.0

Percent
100.0

Source: Field Survey, January 2014.

All the 22 respondents indicated that the objective of the training programs by the
bank was to help improve employee performance and also to help the employees
acquire more skills. However out of the 22, six also added that training was to
facilitate promotion, learn about advancements in the industry and also an
opportunity for employees to brainstorm in order to develop strategies for the bank.

60

TABLE 4.13
Respondents opinion on planned and systematic nature of RoseMore
Hotelstraining program
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Yes
Not sure

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

20

90.9

90.9

90.9

9.1

9.1

100.0

100.0

100.0

Total
22
Source: Field Survey, January 2014.

It can be observed from the table that, 20 respondents representing 90.90%


affirmed training at RoseMore Hotelsis planned and systematic, 2 of the
respondent representing 9.1% indicated they were not sure whiles none of the
respondents answered no. Developers of a training program might attest to having
carefully designed it to meet their objectives. However, when participants also
share the same view it validates the effectiveness of the program. The fact that
some participants were not sure however, means the program is not perfect. It is
important for developers to investigate why some participants hold this view to
enable them improve upon their successes thus far.
TABLE 4.14

61

Your organization pays considerable attention to training of its staff, are the
training programs effectively administered in order to maximize employee
performance?

FREQUENCY
Strongly Agree
20
Agree
2
Undecided
0
Dis-Agree
0
Strongly Dis-Agree
0
Total
22
Source: Field Survey, January 2014

PERCENTAGE (%)
91
9
0
0
0
100

Table 4.14 shows respondents response on a ranked manner. 20 respondents


representing 91% strongly agreed, 2 respondents representing 9% agreed to this
assertion.
This clearly shows that the employees of RoseMore Hotelsbelieve that their
training programs have been effective in aiding organizational goals in the
organization. Since majority of the respondents strongly agreed and agreed to this
assertion, it is strongly believed that the training programs that exist in RoseMore
Hotelsare effective.

62

OBJECTIVE THREE: TO FIND OUT IF THE TRAINING PROGRAMS


HAVE

IMPACTED

EMPLOYEES

AND

THE

FIRMS

OVERALL

PERFORMANCE

TABLE 4.15
HAVE YOU BEEN INFLUENCED BY THE TRAINING PROGRAM OF
YOUR BANK?
63

Cumulative

Valid

Yes
No

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

20

90.9

90.9

90.9

9.1

9.1

100.0

Total
22
100.0
Source: Field |Survey, January 2014

100.0

The table above shows that majority of the respondents: 20 representing 90.9% feel
motivated by the training activities of the bank whiles 2 of the remaining
respondents representing 9.1% do not feel motivated by the training activities
provided by the bank. Even though the 2 who do not feel motivated are few
compared to those who feel motivated, it can have a significant impact on the
business since the zeal and attitude to work of each employee contributes to the
growth of the bank. In the supporting research it was revealed that employee
performance can be evaluated with a look at ambition, initiative and focus.
Motivation results in focus and a drive to succeed and excel.

Even though some of the employees stated they are not motivated by the training
activities they all indicated that they have gained some form of knowledge as a
result of the training. This reveals that employees are being equipped to aid in the
64

growth of the business. The fact that all employees were able to state clearly how
they have been impacted by the training reveals the effectiveness of the training
programs. There are objectives involved in training and if participants are able to
identify the objectives as well as state how these have been met then it highlights
how well structured the program is.

TABLE 4.16

65

IMPACT OF TRAINING PROGRAMS ON EMPLOYEES OF


ROSEMORE HOTELSBANK
Responses
Valid

Improved skills
Acquisition

of

Percent

Percent of Cases

20

29.3%

100.0%

20

29.3%

100.0%

18

24.0%

81.8%

13

17.3%

59.1%

75

100.0%

340.9%

new

knowledge
Increase in efficiency and
better performance
Improvement in personality
of employees
Total
Source: Field Survey, January 2014
Table 4.15 highlights the various impact of training programs on the employees of
RoseMore Hotelsbank. Through multiple responses gotten from the respondents,
all 20 respondents (that indicated that they are influenced by training programs of
RoseMore Hotelsbank) representing 100% indicated that improved skills and
acquisition of new knowledge is a major impact of training programs on
employees of RoseMore Hotelsbank. 18 of the same respondents representing
81.8% of the total responses indicated increase in efficiency and better

66

performance, while 13 respondents representing 59.1% indicated improvement in


personality of employees.

TABLE 4.17
In your opinion do you think there is a significant impact between employee
training and employee performance?
FREQUENCY
Strongly Agree
19
Agree
2
Undecided
1
Dis-Agree
0
Strongly Dis-Agree
0
Total
22
Source: Field Survey, January 2014

PERCENTAGE (%)
86.4
9.1
4.5
0
0
100

Table 4.17 shows responses on the impact of training on employee performance in


a ranked scale of strongly agree to strongly dis-agree. 19 respondents representing
86.4% strongly agree that training has impact on employee performance, 2
respondents representing 9.1% agree, while the remaining 1 respondent was
indecisive. This clearly shows that training has impact on employee performance
as indicated by majority of the respondents.

4.4TEST OF HYPOTHESES
67

Having given a careful analysis of the responses, the hypothesis earlier formulated
in chapter one of this study are approached by the use of chi-square at 0.05 (5%)
level of significance.

HYPOTHESIS ONE
1. H0:

Training programs of RoseMore Hotelsis not effectively administered

to staff of the bank.


Hi: Training programs of RoseMore Hotelsis effectively administered to
staff of the bank.

QUESTION 1:

Your organization pays considerable attention to training of its

staff, are the training programs effectively administered in order to maximize


employee performance?
VARIABLES
0
E
0-E
STRONGLY AGREE
20
4.4
15.6
AGREE
2
4.4
-2.4
UNDECIDED
0
4.4
-4.4
DISAGREE
0
4.4
-4.4
STRONGLY DISAGREE
0
4.4
-4.4
TOTAL
22
2
2
From the value, X C= 69.82, X T at 0.05 with df=4 is 9.49

(0-E)2
243.36
5.76
19.36
19.36
19.36

(0-E2)/E
55.31
1.31
4.4
4.4
4.4
69.82

68

DECISION
Since the test statistics X2C=69.82 is greater than the actual value X 2T = 9.49, the
null hypothesis (H0) is rejected and the alternative hypothesis (H1) is accepted
which states that training programs are effectively administered in RoseMore
Hotelsto maximize employee performance.

HYPOTHESIS TWO
Ho: There is no significant impact between staff training and employee
performance in RoseMore Hotelsbank.
Hi: There is a significant impact between staff training and employee
performance in RoseMore Hotelsbank.

QUESTION 2:

In your opinion do you think there is a significant impact

between employee training and employee performance?


VARIABLES
STRONGLY AGREE
AGREE
UNDECIDED

0
19
2
1

E
4.4
4.4
4.4

0-E
14.6
-2.4
-3.4

(0-E)2
213.16
5.76
11.56

(0-E2)/E
48.45
1.31
2.62
69

DISAGREE
0
4.4
-4.4
STRONGLY DISAGREE
0
4.4
-4.4
TOTAL
22
2
2
From the value, X C= 61.18, X T at 0.05 with df=4 is 9.49

19.36
19.36

4.4
4.4
61.18

DECISION
Since the test statistics X2C=61.18 is greater than the actual value X 2T = 9.49, the
null hypothesis (H0) is rejected and the alternative hypothesis (H1) is accepted
which states that there is a significant impact between employee training and
employee performance in RoseMore HotelsPlc.

70

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0 INTRODUCTION
This chapter will present a detailed analysis of results, conclusions and
recommendations for the study in answering the research questions. It starts by
addressing the research questions, and then gives the conclusion based on the
analysis from the results followed by the proposed recommendations.
The study covered twenty-two employees of RoseMore HotelsBanks Umuahia
Office. Out of these 22 respondents 13 of them were males and the rest of the 9
respondents were females. This statistics corresponds to the current representation
at the bank. However there was no distinct pattern in responses provided by the
two groups. Both categories of respondents responded in the same way to the
questions in the questionnaire. The researcher however expected that, the
respondents from the upper level management might have undergone more diverse
training than the respondents from the middle level management. However from
71

the results, both the upper level management and the middle level management
have participated in training provided in house.

5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS


With respect to the objectives of this study, the following findings were revealed
by the researcher.
Data collected revealed that RoseMore Hotelsstarted introducing its training
program at the time the company began its operations, till date. Most employees
have had some form of training.As a growing organization in the early 1990s, it
was clear to the promoters; the Government of Nigeria that training could be used
to induct new employees that are hired and also improve performance and
efficiency of existing employees.

The research also revealed that the purpose of training and development activities
at RoseMore Hotelsis to achieve both individual and organizational performance.
However the basic purpose of training as shown from the literature review is to
improve the knowledge and skills of employees. It is also to change the attitudes
and behavior of the employees for the purpose of enhancing the effectiveness of
the organization as a whole and increase performance.
72

The rapid changes in technology also require that employees possess the
knowledge, skills and abilities needed to handle the new processes and production
techniques in order to be ahead of other competing organizations. Thus, there was
the need to find out the major purposes for which RoseMore Hotelstrains its
employees because reasons may differ per organization.
According to the Human Resource Manager, employees at RoseMore Hotelsare
trained in order to improve their skills, knowledge, abilities, competencies,
behavior and confidence. The ultimate objective however is to help improve both
individual and organizational performance. Thus one can observe that the purpose
of training at RoseMore Hotelsis in line with the general purpose of training from
different literature reviewed. Training at RoseMore Hotelsdates back to the time
the bank commenced business. It can also be seen from the responses from the
table above that all respondents have participated in training in one form or the
other at the bank. However, it is very important that employees are selected first by
the identification of needs for each employee. This section found out how the
respondents were selected to undertake training programs. From the research the
selection for training was by the Human Resource Manager. Employees believed
that they are selected for training as and when the Human Resource Department
identifies the need for each employee to enhance their knowledge in order to meet

73

standards, changes and also gain more diverse skills to help in the development of
the bank. This reveals an aspect of the structure of the program.

Concerning the second objective of this study, the following findings were made:
It is very essential that the employees who undergo the training know the
objectives for each training program they undertake. Employees knowledge of the
reason for which they undergo training will help them be focused and enable them
appreciate the program. It will in the long-run also reflect in the growth of the bank
through the profits, reduced time periods on the job among others. The bank
however is also certain and confident of a strong employee base who are ready to
work under changes in the banking sector that may occur and also replace the
experienced employees who may retire or leave the business. The human resource
manager stated that the objective for which their employees undergo training is to
help them improve on their performance, acquire more skills, meet the required
standards in the banking industry, as refresher courses to learn their processes and
procedures so they become more efficient. The respondents also affirmed this, all
the respondents said the objectives are to improve on their performance an also
enable them acquire new skills. Some out of the 22 also added that the training
programs are to enable them work on a higher task based on a promotion; learn a
74

new advancement in the industry and also an opportunity for them to brainstorm in
order to develop strategies for the bank.

The data revealed that RoseMore Hotelsonly has an in-house training program for
its employees. The possible benefits of this is that first of all having introduced the
program since the inception of the bank one can assume that the program would
have been improved over the years to make it more effective. Time would have
allowed management to continuously evaluate the effectiveness of its program and
to consistently tweak it so as to make it more efficient. The program being Inhouse also allows management to customize the program so as to enable it
contribute to the attainment of the entitys overall objectives. Management would
also be able to access the unique needs of its employees and structure the program
as to cater for its needs.
However, one may also point out that the existence of only the in-house program
can pose a limitation. If programs were varied then employees having choices can
make a selection that best suits their personal goals and objectives. With employees
having the option of external courses for example, they can gain some exposure in
ideas and practices probably not existent in the bank and then transfer this
knowledge when they return to the job. With this the bank creates a system where
they obtain feedback based on employee experiences as they participate in other
75

training programs thus ensuring that the institution stays abreast with
developments not only in their sector but globally that they can utilize to their
benefit. The research also revealed that training at the bank is formal, organized,
and standardized.

Effects of Training on employee performance


Employees are motivated to work better on the job if they are made to feel their
employers think of their well-being. Training is one strategy that employers can
however adapt to make employees feel this way. When employers put in place
training programs for their employees, they become aware of the desire of their
employers to see them improve, thus will be motivated to work better. Therefore,
the study sought the opinion of the respondents whether they are motivated and
satisfied with the training program of the bank.
The results shows that, majority of respondents are motivated and satisfied with the
training programs provided by the bank. It is very important that the employees are
motivated and satisfied with the training programs put in place by the bank. This is
because being motivated will boost their morale thus enabling them to work hard
to achieve the corporate goals and mission of the bank and help them live up to the
institutions corporate values.

76

It is vital in accessing the effectiveness of the training programs provided by the


bank to not only obtain the perspective of management but the trainees
(employees) as well. The data revealed that employees were able to identify
specific improvements to their development as a result of the training they have
obtained and were also able to clearly state that the training provided over the
years has been beneficial to them in terms of the improvement as well as the
acquisition of new skills and knowledge, improved efficiency and also believed
that training had enabled them contribute to the growth of the institution. Their
ability to clearly identify these things highlights the effectiveness of the training
provided. Labour is a major input in the operations of any entity. Efficient labour
has a direct impact on the output of the firm and productivity of the firm. Analysis
of productivity can be simplified by accessing the output per unit of input. The
more output per unit of input the more productive a firm is. The main focus of this
study is on employee training and development and the impact of such skills,
knowledge, efficiency and performance on the performance and productivity of the
individual employees. This is based on the basis that employees do not perform
well until they have become aware of what they are to do and how to do it.

It is therefore essential to note that it is the knowledge, skills and efficiency gained
that will make the individual employees more effective. The data revealed that
77

training results in improvement of Skills, Knowledge, Efficiency, and


Performance.

It is interesting to note that De Cenzo and Robbins (2001), stated that training is
basically a learning experience, which seeks a relatively permanent change in an
individual's skills, knowledge, attitudes or social behavior. The elements they
highlighted seems to be similar to the aspects of the employee the training program
provided by the firm seems to have tackled.
The difficulty has always been the basis for evaluating the impact of employee
training on the performance of the firm. The initial approach was to use the
productivity approach by evaluating the contribution of each unit of labor to the
companys profit. If each unit of labor was contributing more to profit over time
then one could conclude that labor was more efficient and could thus connect it to
training. However, the non-availability of information on labor makes this
approach difficult to utilize. Thus the new approach to be adopted though not the
most efficient but the most expedient based on available information would be to
analyze the growth of profit. If profit has indeed grown then we go further to
analyze the basis. This could either be an increase in income or decrease in
expenditure. I analyzed income per unit invested in the company. If every unit
invested is resulting in more income then we can conclude an improvement in
78

efficiency. Since the entitys main input is labor then we can go further to conclude
that labor is thus contributing more to the performance of their firm and then also
go further to state the contribution training would definitely have made.

5.2 CONCLUSION
RoseMore Hotelshas training programs for its workers. Specifically, it has an in
house training program which was introduced from the inception of the bank. All
employees no matter their qualification, age or rank consistently go through inhouse training. Training has been effective with its core objective being to improve
individual and organizational performance as can be seen from the improvement in
returns per unit invested in expenditure as well a consistent increase in income and
profit. The training program is structured, planned and systematic and has resulted
in improvement in skills, efficiency and performance as well as the acquisition of
new skills and knowledge. Training has had an effect on the performance of the
firm with increased profits and income as well as an increase in income per unit of
expenditure invested. RoseMore Hotelshowever, should consider the possibility of
other training programs besides its In house one so as to ensure that the bank is
abreast with developments in the sector and globally as well as providing options
for its employees and providing the benefit of choice.

79

Since it was discovered that not all employees were motivated with the current
training programs an increasing of available options can help to tackle this.
Competition in the banking sector in Nigeria continues to increase with the
continuous emergence of new players. Thus, it is important for banks to invest if
they intend to stay ahead of their competitors. Quality of human resource impacts
the competitive edge of businesses in the service sector.
As the banking sector continues to evolve, especially after the current financial
crisis, it is important that banks place their employees in a position to enable them
adjust to changing trends. One way of doing this is through frequent training.
The structure of training programs, their objectives and benefits discussed in the
analysis affirms the theories identified in the literature. Training programs are
planned and systematic as also identified by the theories in the literature. It was
also established in the literature that the fundamental objective of training is to
achieve both individual and organizational performance. This was affirmed in the
results as respondents identified that the basic objective of their training is to
improve both employee and organizational performance.

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS

80

1) RoseMore Hotelscurrent in-house training program is effective but the


company should also consider enabling employees to further their studies to
improve their qualifications.
2) RoseMore Hotelsshould also continue with its in-house program with
periodic analysis of the program to ascertain its effectiveness, the certainty
that the program caters to the specific needs of its employees and that
program is in line with developments of the time.
3) RoseMore Hotelsshould increase transparency to let the public know their
contribution to the Nigerian economy in terms of employment.
4) It is important for the Nigerian Corporate sector to understand that training
does not have an impact on just employee performance but on a firms
overall performance. There should be a willingness thereof, to invest in
employee training with the understanding that it is an investment that will
yield returns.

81

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Asare-Bediako, K (2002). Professional Skills in Human Resource


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Asika, L.K., (2009). Essentials of Research Methodology. Owerri:


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Black, S. E. and Lynch L. M (1996). Human-Capital Investment and


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Cole G.A (2007): Personnel and Human Resource Management. Fifth


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Daver R.S (2005): Personnel Management and Industrial Relations.
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84

APPENDIX
15 Okigwe Street
Aba, Abia state
15th April, 2014
The Manager
RoseMore HotelsPlc
Umuahia
Questionnaire for Employees ofRoseMore HotelsPlc
This questionnaire has been designed to solicit information for purely academic
purposes. This is to enable Dim Ifeoma Maureen a final year student of , complete
his thesis on the topic; the impact of training on employee performance: a case
study of RoseMore HotelsUmuahia , in pursuance of a degree in Business
Administration degree. Thank you for participating in this study.
NB. All information given would be treated with utmost confidentiality and I will
like to share results if you will leave your e-mail address.
Date:
Yours Faithfully,

85

Nwankwo, Ifeoma Maureen

SECTION A
BASIC DEMOGRAPHIC DATA (PLEASE TICK WHERE APPROPRIATE)
1. How old are you? (Years)
a) 18 25 ( )
b) 26 35 ( )
c) 36 45 ( )
d) 46 55 ( )
e) 56 59 ( )
2. Gender;
a) Male ( )
b) Female ( )
3. Educational Background;
a) Advance Level ( )
b) Higher National Diploma ( )
c) First Degree ( )
d) Masters Degree ( )
86

e) Please tick if more than one


e) Other 48

OBJECTIVE ONE: TO IDENTIFY EXISTING TRAINING PROGRAMS IN


ROSEMORE HOTELSBANK.
4. Does employee training exist in ROSEMORE HOTELSbank?
a) Yes ( )
b) No ( )

5. If Yes what training programs exist in ROSEMORE HOTELSbank?


a) 1 3 years ( )
b) 4 5 years ( )
c) 6 9 years ( )
d) 10 12 years ( )
6. Are you aware of any training programmes in ROSEMORE HOTELSBank?
a) Yes ( )
b) No ( )
7. Have you participated in any form of training since you joined ROSEMORE
HOTELSBank?
a) Yes ( )
87

b) No ( )
8. What is/are the source(s) of training programs in ROSEMORE HOTELSbank?
a) Internal workshops and seminars ( )
b) External Training Programs ( )
c) Both ( )

9. Is the training program mandatory for every employee of the bank?


a) Yes ( )
b) No ( )

10. How were you selected? Please specify and state at least (two)
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................

OBJECTIVE TWO: TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE


TRAINING PROGRAMS OF ROSEMORE HOTELSBANK
12. In your opinion do you think that your banks training program(s) is/are
effective enough to increase employee performance?
a.) Yes ( )
88

b) No ( )

13. If Yes rate the training programs of your bank?


a) Low ( )
b) Average ()
c) Good ( )
d) Excellent ( )

14. What were the objectives of the training?


a) To help improve performance ( )
b) To acquire more skills ( )
c) Other please specify ( )
d) If more than one check all

15. What kind of training did you participate in? Please specify

..

89

16. In your opinion, do you think training at RoseMore Hotelsis planned and
systematic?
a) Yes ( )
b) No ( )
c) Not sure ( )

17. In your opinion do you think there is a significant impact between employee
training and employee performance?
a) Strongly Agree ( )
b) Agree ( )
c) Undecided ( )
d) Disagree ( )
e) Strongly Disagree ( )

OBJECTIVE THREE: TO FIND OUT IF THE TRAINING PROGRAMS AT


ROSEMORE HOTELS HAVE IMPACTED EMPLOYEE AND THE FIRMS
OVERALL PERFORMANCE.

90

18. Have you as an employee of RoseMore Hotelsbeen influenced by the training


programs of ROSEMORE HOTELSBank?
a) Yes ( )
b) No ( )
19. If Yes how have ROSEMORE HOTELStraining programs impacted on your
performance?

..
20. In your opinion do you think there is a significant impact between employee
training and employee performance?
a) Strongly Agree ( )
b) Agree ( )
c) Undecided ( )
d) Disagree ( )
e) Strongly Disagree ( )

91

92