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There are still major problems which need to be addressed.

One of these issues is the communication

between riggers and crane operators. The rigger, or signal person, is responsible for getting the correct messages to
the crane operator to let him know that all is clear below. When a crane operator is performing a blind lift, this is often
the only way that he has of knowing that the load is properly secured and that there are no obstructions in the way or
issues with the lift. Until lately, this was mostly done with hand signals or voice signals. Unfortunately, inconsistent
signals and miscommunication has lead to many tragic accidents.
On construction sites, signalling is required in the following situations.



operator cannot see the load.

operator cannot see the load landing area.
operator cannot see the path of travel of either the load or the crane.
operator is too far from the load to judge distance accurately.
crane or other hoisting device is working close to live powerlines or equipment.

Only one person should signal the operator. But anyone can give the STOP signal and it
must be obeyed immediately.
Signals should be clear and, wherever possible, barehanded.
The load should be directed so that it never passes over anyone.
Operators should not make a move until they receive and understand your signal. If contact
between you and the operator is broken for any reason, the operation must stop.
Some situations call for two signallers. For instance, during a concrete pour, one signaller
may be needed to direct the lift while the other directs the drop.
Where a difficult lift demands voice communication, use two-way radios instead of
hand signals.
The single most important precaution in rigging and hoisting is to determine load weight
before attempting any lift.
At the same time, riggers must also
determine the available capacity of the equipment being used
rig the load so that it is stable (unless the centre of gravity of the load is directly below the hook,
the load will shift)
make allowances for any unknown factors.
In addition, riggers must be aware of common hazards, factors that reduce capacity, the inspection
and use of slings, and safe practices in rigging, lifting, and landing loads.
Common Hazards
Defective components .Examine all hardware, equipment, tackle, and slings before use.
Destroy any defective components. Equipment merely discarded may be picked up and used
by someone unaware of its defects.
Unsafe equipment. Do not use any equipment that is suspected to be unsafe or unsuitable until
its suitability has been verified by a competent person.
Hazardous wind conditions. Never carry out any hoisting or rigging operation when winds
create hazards for workers, the general public, or property. Assess load size and shape to
determine whether high winds may cause problems. In particular, avoid handling loads that

present large wind-catching surfaces. Even though the weight of the load is within the normal
capacity of the equipment, high or gusting winds may prevent proper control during the lift.
Wind-loading can be critical to how the load is rigged, lifted, and landed, with consequences for
the safety of everyone involved. When winds reach 25-30 mph, consider limiting hoisting
Hazardous weather conditions. When the visibility of riggers or hoist crew is impaired by snow,
fog, rain, darkness, or dust, strict supervision must be exercised and, if necessary, the lift should
be suspended. At sub-freezing temperatures, supervision must ensure that no part of the
hoisting device or tackle is shock-loaded or impacted, since brittle fracture of the steel may
Electrical contact. One of the most frequent killers of riggers is electrocution caused by an
electrical arc or contact between the hoist, load line, or load and a live overhead power line.
When a crane is operating near a live power line and the load, hoist lines, or any other part of the
hoisting operation could encroach on the minimum permitted distance (see table below), specific
measures described in the Construction Regulation must be taken. For example, constructors
must have written procedures to prevent contact whenever equipment operates within the
minimum permitted distance from a live overhead power line. The constructor must have copies
of the procedure available for every employer on the project.
Factors that Reduce Capacity
The working load limits of all hoisting and rigging equipment are based on almost ideal
conditions seldom achieved in the field. Riggers must therefore recognize the factors that can
reduce the capacity of equipment.
1.Swing. The rapid swinging of suspended loads subjects equipment to additional stresses that
can cause collapse. The force of the swinging action makes the load drift away from the
machine, increasing the radius and side-loading the equipment. The load must always be kept
directly below the boom point or upper load block.
2.Condition of equipment. The rated working load limits apply only to equipment and hardware
in good condition. Any equipment damaged in service should be taken out of service and
repaired or destroyed.
3.Always avoid the sudden
snatching, swinging, and stopping of suspended loads. Rapid acceleration and deceleration
can only increase the stresses on both the machine and the tackle.
4.Weight of tackle. The rated loads of most hoisting equipment do not generally account for
the weight of hook blocks, hooks, slings, equalizer beams, and other parts of the lifting tackle.
Their combined weight must be subtracted from the load capacity of the equipment to
determine the maximum allowable load to be lifted.
Never use damaged slings. Inspect slings regularly to ensure their safety. Check wire rope slings
for kinking(Uljha Howa), wear(Damaged), abrasion(Kharash), broken wires, worn or cracked fittings,
loose seizings and splices, crushing, flattening, and rust or corrosion. Pay special attention to the
areas around thimbles and other fittings.
Slings should be marked with an identification number and their maximum capacity on a flat
ferrule or permanently attached ring. Mark the capacity of the sling for a vertical load or at an
angle of 45. Ensure that everyone is aware of how the rating system works.

Avoid sharp bends, pinching, and crushing. Use loops and thimbles at all times. Corner pads
that prevent the sling from being sharply bent or cut can be made from split sections of large
pipe, corner saddles, padding, or blocking.
Never allow wire rope slings, or any wire rope, to lie on the ground for long periods of time or on
damp or wet surfaces, rusty steel, or near corrosive substances.
Avoid dragging slings out from underneath loads.
Keep wire rope slings away from flame cutting and electric welding.
Never make slings from discarded hoist rope.
Avoid using single-leg wire rope slings with hand-spliced eyes. The load can spin, causing the
rope to unlay and the splice to pull out. Use slings with Flemish Spliced Eyes.
Never wrap a wire rope completely around a hook. The sharp radius will damage the sling.

L greater than S