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An evaluative study of emerging trends and technologies
in University libraries: A survey of Punjab

Submitted By
Balhinder kaur
Under the Supervisor
Dr. C.K. Sharma, Professor

Department of Library and Information Science

J.J.T. University, Jhunjhunu (Raj)

An evaluative study of emerging trends and technologies in University
libraries: A survey of Punjab
1. Introduction:
The field of library and information science, especially the practical side of
the library and its application, has been revolutionized during the last three
decades. The advancement of computer science and its application in every
activities of the library and information centres have made the librarians and
information scientists more creative, more intelligent, and more responsible. The
emerging trends in library and information services are compelling to agree that the
library science is diminishing but the challenges that are a head and being faced by
the librarians camel them to conclude that the entire concept of library science
needs rethinking. The internet came as an important technology. The hardware of
technology is one and the same all over the world. The basic software is also the
same. It is only the application and the add on facilities in the software that are
slight different. Therefore, the solution have also to be global and Universal and
not in any specific or particular area.
These phenomenal changes have resulted in an absolute change in the mind
set of the players of the professional. The smart publishers have changes their
strategy by publishing online journals along with hard copy journals and packaging
the price tag in such a way that the librarian sometimes found trapped in the willful
net of the publishing house. The contribution towards the library networking and
consortia clearly shows that the survival of the libraries and information sources
depend mainly on the collective responsibility. The ICT and internet might have
reduced the distance between the reader and the resources but it is a reality that use
education plays avital role in the success of the library services.

Open source software and institutional repositories are University

acknowledge concepts for library and information resources. The RFID (Radio
Frequency Identification) technology especially with the integration to library
software add new dimensions to library software solutions. The changing concept
of knowledge management and marketing of library services analysis various
strategies for skillful marketing of library services in the digital era. While analysis
the changing roles and responsibilities, it is important to safeguard the existing
information for tomorrows generation.
Web 2.0 technologies and concepts are emerging technologies. There is no
doubt that the services of libraries are going towards library 2.0 with more and
more services in the line of concept of Web 2.0. A quick check in google resulted
in 78 million hits on the concept of Web 2.0 which speaks amply for its
In the digitalized environment data storage become more invisible factor and
the temptation is to do the same keep filing up to capacity until the system seizes
up of course we cannot afford to do that digital storage cost a money and
temptation to think that it is always becoming cheaper, faster and easier. We have
also moved towards e-book, music and film in digital form and proliferation of
databases to provide our library services which forms data management system.
Information is instant power and information literacy (IL) is the is sense on
information society as well as the spinal cord of life long learning and knowledge
management. Library, basically, is a metaphor of memory of mankind. Its basic
purpose is to preserve the post, serve present, and nations. But with the ascent of
the information and communication technology, the internet, and the web, library
today is not the only source of information. Rather it is only one link in the chain
of information.

Knowledge Management:
It is just more than know how know How are the process and procedures
or tools and techniques through which one can get something done by using his
skill, networking, consulting, collaborating, sharing, researching, inflecting,
developing, testing, maintaining innovating etc. knowledge is different from
information. Information is data arranged in a meaning full pattern, knowledge on
the other hand, is the processed information. Knowledge is embedded in the minds
of human being knowledge management has four overlapping areas:
(a) Managing organization (Reading, Sharing, Storing)
(b) Using, Updating and retrieving
(c) Organisational learning
(d) Intellectual capital
(e) Knowledge economics
Internet is a knowledge management tool. It provides improved services, faster
speed case of use for accessing and publishing information simplicity in creation
and maintenance, keeping up with the workforce, user friendly interface,
centralization flexibility, accuracy, effectiveness and efficiency, interactivity,
timeliness, consistency and case and low cost for update.
Network and resources sharing:
Networking is a mechanical process for electronic communication with high
speed, easy transfer of data from one computer to another and form one terminals
to remote side through internet. Network and electronic communication technology
has made possible to store retrieved information and communicating of
information for library resources and sharing of database for betterment of library
service. Information network provide various services, e.g. Sharing of resources,
cooperative software acquisition and Cataloging, cooperative storage, training and
documentation, online facilities, cooperative database management, storage of CD-

ROM, centralized and Union Cataloging, Union Catalogue of serials/Periodicals,

ILL and reference services etc.
Challenges for librarianship:
Information technology has given a new image to the tradional librarian but has
emerged as a challenges for library professionals. Library professionals with the
job of accessing, free flow of information and dissemination of information to the
end users need to enrich their knowledge with updated information or the pattern
and working of different types of library collection and services with the utilization
of modern technology. In fact, any initiative to upgrade academic libraries through
the adoption of I.T. in India faces financial problem. Almost all universities are run
with the assistance of UGC.
Objective of the study:
The main objectives of the study are as follows:
(1) To find out the emerging trends of libraries
(2) To find out the innovative efforts of library services in University libraries
(3) To know different types of technologies applied in libraries
(4) To know different type of document delivery through network and resource
(5) To know accessibility of database resources via network available in the
(6) To know about modern trend in information services in University libraries.

Scope of the study:


The following Universities have been considered for study:

1. Dr. B. r. Ambedkar University, Jalandhar
2. Gurunanak Dev University, Amritsar
3. Lavely Professional University, Bhagwara
4. Punjab Agriculture University, Chandigarh
5. Punjab University, Chandigarh
6. Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar
7. Punjab University, Patiala
8. Sant Longowal University, Longowal
9. Central University, Bathinda
10.Thapar University of Technology, Patiala


Research Methodology:
The locate of study was libraries of Punjab State. A purposive sampling of
non-probable sampling framework has been adopted for the selection of University
libraries of Punjab Universities. A questionnaire will be prefared covering all
aspects of the problems and sent the librarians of University libraries of Punjab.
After data are recived through questionnaire observation and interviews, the
data will be analysis statistically and presented in the form tables and diagrams to
highlight various problems relating to the study.
The following hypothesis will be proved under the study
(a) University libraries have adopted automation?
(b) Libraries have adopted new technologies?
(c) Libraries are giving information services based on new technologies?
(d) Libraries have connectivity with network and sharing the resources of other
University libraries?
Literature Review:
McGlamery, S. and Cottman, S. (2001) : The paper introduces the concept of
Virtual Reference Service (VRS0 in academic libraries. The survey investigates
into the state of VRS in the libraries of premier educational institutions, the IIMs
and IITs in India. The study reveals that although a remarkable advancement in the

automation and electronic access to information has been achieved in these

libraries, there is a long way ahead to march towards the establishment of
standards VRS at par with similar institutions in developed countries.
Keywords: Virtual Reference Service, Digital Reference Service, Live Reference
Pawan (2000) detailed web based education in India. In the presence of great
social diversity it is difficult to change the social background of students, parent,
and their economic condition quality education is possible through national wide
networks. Internet is a ocean of knowledge and introducing information technology
as education delivery medium. The www is used not only to disseminate
information bur it also provide a great opportunity to extend learning outside space
and time boundaries.
Keywords: Web based learning, www.
Adhok Babu, T. (2005): The emergence of the Internet, particularly the World
Wide Web, as a new medium of information storage and delivery in the 21st
century. The phenomenon of consortia or group of libraries buying e-information
together has become very important in the last few years. This paper briefly
discusses the concept, need, factors, advantages, disadvantages of library consortia.
Also this paper covers various models and the benefits of e-journals consortia.
Keywords: Library Consortia, E-Journal; Information explosion.
Balkrishnan, N. (2006). This paper describes the goal of UDL (Universal Library
Project) and present the approach taken and the technological challenges
associated with the Million Books to the web project. The Digital library of India
initiative, which is the Indian a part of UDL and MBP. DLI fosters a large number
of research activities in areas such as text summarization, information retrieval,
machine translation, optical character recognition and morpholological analysis.

This paper provides an overview of the activities of DLI in these areas and shows
how DLI serves as a multilingual resources.
Keywords: Digital library, Information retrieval.
Singh, Sukhadev (2006). Developing of a digital library is just like the
development of conventional library as it also involves the issue of collection,
storage organization users. The main difference between the two types libraries is
the medium of information flow in the form of physical documents, in digital
libraries its flow digitally. This paper gives a brief introduction of the issues, which
are to the considered while developing a digital library. These are the issues
concerning contents selection and acquisition, store, organization and metadata
creation and finally dissemination and use.
H. S. Chopra and Asha Narang (2007) described that millions of documents in
India Archives and approximately 5 millions manusripts written on various forms
of writing material scattered throughout India are in urgent need of digital
preservation. Pper manuscripts with the passage of time are getting fragile and
brittle because of various reasons. Lamination or encapsulation does not seem to be
a permanent solution of preserving the cultural heritage for the posterity. Advent of
informqation technolofy and telecommunication has changed the scenario of
preservation as well as dissemination of informaton of archives and manuscripts
throughout the world.
Rai, P. Priceilla (2007) stated that technological advancement in use and delivery
of information media has changed the role of library professionals. The print media
is getting digitalized and the use of e-resources has created new informations to
users. This technology has put great impact on libraries.
Keywords: Digital library, E-resources.
Kaur (2007). Academic libraries today are reorienting their collection dev. Policies
in the light of e-resources. The dual print and e-environemnt are posing a

challenges to the librarians. E-resources are best source of information and every
library needs to develop its oven model to sserve their clientele.
Keywords: E-resources, Digital library.
Shalini (2007) has urged that digital libraries has been a product of as well as
active participal and catalyst of the changing time. Digital libraries have emerged
as one of the fast developing and continually evalving technology for information
management. The quality of information is increasing. Accessing of information is
being redefined mainly in the field of digital library.
Keywords: Digital libraries, Quality information.
Birdar, G.S. (2007) Stressed an automation and gave an account of its generation
and development trend in libraries. He further discussed the influence of culture,
politics and the social structure on the electronic rsources. In his opinion tomation
is technological development which effected the himan life.
Sanjo, Jse. (2007). Open source digital library packages are gaining popularity
now a days. OSS are preferred economically. This paper tries to identify the extent
of adoption of open source digital library software package in various organisation
through online survey.
Keywords: Open source, Digital Library.
Seems, Vashistha (2007) discussed that due to information revolution, digital
libraries are developing all over the world to collect, store and communicate the
information through electronic media. Digital technologies have revolutionised the
information management activities in the academic libraries during the post few
years developing the digital academic libraries. This paper discussed the various
aspects of the conversions of in-house academic library material. Also the
objective of digitization have been correlated with the mission of the academic

Gupta, D.K. (2008) discussed the networks and resources sharing activities in
University and spl. Libraries. The concept of resources sharing does not mean that
individual entity of the participating libraries is lost.
Keywords: Networking, Resource sharing.
Singh, Kumar and Rao, Bhasker V. (2008) stated that library consortia or
consortium is now being overheard globally. It is more because more because of
electronic or digital form of information. Consortia are all about sharing resources
and improving access to information. These resources are shared among libraries
that have common missions, goals and client (users) and act on those commonlties.
Before we are sharing own library resources through inter library loan, but in this
Information communication technology (ICT) age it has gained momentum even in
the developing countries. When library consortiums are formed, the existing
environment about users preferences and difficulties need to be studied. Initiating
studies would enable to incorporate the findings as the major input in consortium
Keywords: Library Consortia, Consorti management, Networking, E-resources.
Okerson, Aun (2009) discussed the importance of network and resource sharing
activities in university and special libraries. He said that the concept sharing does
not mean that individual identity of the participating libraries is lost. There are
three requisties of resource sharing: resources, intelligence and capability.
A.C. Tikekar (2009) in his paper discussed the modernisation of University and
college libraries in India taken place during the later half of the last century. It
gives an account of the contribution of the University Grant Commission in terms
of reports, conduct of seminars, workshop, financial assistance, for replenishing
collections, constructing library building, upgrading library services. The role of
the national bodies like AIU, AICTE, NAAC and library netwoks also is described.
This modernisation facilitated their transformation into the 21 st Century Academic

libraries librariangly is explained emphasising the new competencies for library

and information professional. It is concluded that though the core work of libraries
remain the same the old ways to carry them out are changed due to ICT
applications. The library services too are enhance and become more effective.
Tariang (2009) reviewed the literature covering the retrieval effectiveness of
internet search engine literature is reviewed uneler appropriate heading and
subheadings and include mostly literature published from 1990 enwards. aThe
source consulted for the purpose of literature review were mostly journals through
relevent websites were also accessed. The more used journals were information
today and JASIS.
Keywords: Internet, Search engine, Retrieval effectiveness.
Mathura (2009) discussed digital preservation and its problems by the rapid
obsolescence of the harding and software requirements. Paper hightlighted the
strategies, issues and challenges and skill requirement of the library personnels,
infrastructure, system development and Unesco guideline.
Keywords: Digital reservation, Unesco guideline.
Sampath Kumar, B.T. and Prithvi raj, K.R. (2009) stated that Academic
libraries have to rpovide very flexible services focused more on individualized and
distant contact with their clients. To anser new demands they not only have to
move their services and resources to the Web but also should consider the different
cultural and educational backgounds of library users. In this context this article
tries to analyze and compare the contents and usability of six Indian management
library an sites and presents conclusion regarding the basis functions they perform.
Library Web sites were evaluated according to a detailed checklist prepared
specially for this purpose.
Keywords: Library Web Site, Content Analysis.


Shivamani, M. and palanisamy, M. (2007) in their paper discussed that now a

days I.T. has changed the can dig into a welath of information sources. Anything
in the library form periodical to photo technique is the part of real reference
collection, as are holding oo libraries in the immediate area or at a national and
international level. Traditional reference material is now available on micro form
CD-ROM discs and online databases. Many reference source are now available on
Gopalkrishnan, and Saravanan (2010) gave an account about internet. This article
identifies a common problem in many academic libraries: user s having difficulties
finding library item. It suggests that a mapping system may help solve the problem
if the difficulties stem from users who do not understand floor structures of the
library or classification of the collection. The article advocates that libraries take
advantage of GIS for its inexpensive development and simple implementation.
Singh, Sudhir Kumar and others (2010) highlighted the reference service and the
rule of reference librarian which the factors determine the attitude of librarians
towards the computer based library system. The result indicated that the
relationship between these variables and attitudes towards the computers are
significant. He suggested that college should organize training programs and the
library should be equipped with adequate computer faculities.
Majumdar (2010) in his paper use of open access journals in academic library in
India: A study has described that application of ICT in library and information
centre has brought a change in its services and states open access is the application
ICT in the field of scholarly publication. Now with the help of ICT the library can
get benefit of the open access journals. Feature and advantages of open access
journals are also discussed here. This paper shows how different libraries of
renoneved academic and research institute in India are linking the open access
journals for their user community.

Keywords: ICT in library, Open sources journals.

GopalKrishnan and Sivaraman (2010) Internet, www. Search engines are
Unavoidable thing now a days. Users who are in higher education sector depend on
digital technology, without which their routines are not easy one. Their day to day
activities have been tied with these kinds of technology. Visiting many palce for
accessing information was a barries in ealier days and they have been removed by
the modern technology at the present digital era Accessing any information from
anywhere is possible now that can be done when er have the sofisticated
infrastructure. Internet brings all to our locations to fullfil our requirements. The
study helps to realise the modern users attitudes towards the internet. Librqary
visit, frequency, purpose etc. have neen studied here.
Keywords: User atttitude, Internet, Higher education.
Shukla, Akhandanand and Tripathi, Aditya (2010) described that examines
status of content on websites of libraries belonging to Indian academic institutions.
Establishes amethod to measure Overall Website Performance Calculation
(OWPC) and Criteria-wise Website Performance Calculation (CWPC) of library
websites. Comparative study of 20 central universites and 19 institutes of national
including Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and Indian Institutes of
Management (IIMs) academic libraries from Indian suggest that the library
websites of institutes of national importance have better content awareness than
central university library websites as per the identified criteria. The criteria studied
would be helpful for linrarians and webmasters to improve content awareness
status of their library websites. The digitalization of library material has made a
tremendous impact on libraries. Library is a changing over free print to e-resources
in their collection. Internet has played a challenging role in the retrieval of
information dissemination of knowledge management libraries are not exception to


it. These libraries started few programmes to provide more digital material to its
patrous in the form of electronic books, e-journals full text material and web page
links to other databases and internet is the only media to bourse, a information.
Singh, Satya Prakash (2011) discussed that libraries are playing very important
role in society by giving all the advanced information to users in many way. The
term .marketing of library services is not now. There have been efforts to increase
the usage of library resources. The another suggests some methods through which
we can increase the usage of library and also attract more users towards the library.


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