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Nondestructive Evaluation Lab

Ultrasonic Testing (UT) Skip-Distance Determination on Notched

Reflector Blocks and Search for Indications Using Shear Waves
The purpose of this lab is to calibrate and use an ultrasonic shear wave transducer. The calibrated
system is then used to demonstrate the concept of skip-distance and measure the same indication
at multiple skip-distances. Finally the calibrated system is then used to locate discontinuities in a
welded specimen.

apply knowledge gained in lecture for the ultrasonic testing technique
practice the application of and interpretation of results from shear wave UT

Materials and Tools

ultrasonic test instrument (USN-52, USD-10, Sonic 1200)
single element pulse-echo shear wave transducer
coupling gel
calibration and reference blocks
digital camera
If any of the required tools or materials are unavailable, see the lab instructor immediately.
Lab Procedures
Visual Exam
Examine the test specimen visually to identify any indications on the surface. Use aids such as a
magnifying glass, ruler or appropriate gages to measure important features. Write a brief
description of the test specimen and its appearance. Try to identify any features that may yield
false-positive or non-relevant indications during the test. Take a picture of the specimen prior to
Calibrate the Ultrasonic Test Instrument
Calibrate using the standard calibration IIW-Type 2 block. Recall the procedure from the last lab
Skip-Distance Determination on Notched Reflector Blocks
Using one of the notched reflector blocks, develop a table for skip-distance, sound path, notch
depth and amplitude as a function of the closest half or full skip-distance from the top and bottom
notches. Measure the notched reflector block thickness and you know the actual transducer angle
from calibration. See the picture below for a more detail.

Block Thickness
Reflector Block #

Relative SkipDistance
1 Bottom
2 Bottom
3 Bottom
1 Top
2 Top
3 Top
4 Top


Measured Skip- Calculated Measured

Actual Notch Measured Notch Amplitude
Distance (P)
Sound Path Sound Path (S) Depth
Depth (D)

Plot the amplitude of both the top and bottom notch indications as a function of actual skip
distance and explain how a DACC could be implemented.
Search for Indications
Using the calibrated system, locate and characterize indications found in the welded plate. Be
sure to chose three reference surfaces on the welded plate to uniquely locate and size any
Write an Engineering Report
The report should include the following sections:
title, name of class, you name, date, names of class members in your group
a summary of the purpose, procedure, results and conclusions
purpose of lab, description of the test method from an engineering viewpoint (physics of the
test method, not the test procedure), test method advantages and limitations
Equipment, Materials, Specimens
describe equipment, materials and specimens
general procedure
detailed procedure
Results and Discussion
results of UT, text and pictures
results of test method, text and pictures
discussion of measurements, results, indications (or the lack of), types of discontinuities
producing the indications
document UT instrument settings
draw conclusions that can be substantiated by the data collected

Tables of raw data