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CHAPTER 1

ABOUT THE COMPANY

1.1 India Pistons Limited India Pistons Limited (IPL) is the oldest and one of the largest producers of Pistons, Piston Rings, Gudgeon Pins & Cylinder Liners and allied components in India. Anticipating the auto-component revolution in India, IPL was formed by the late Visionary Mr. S. Anantharamakrishnan way back in July 1949. IPL not only became the First and exclusive auto-ancillary production house in India, but continues to maintain its pre-eminent position by working in close collaboration with domestic OEMs, helping them set a firm footing in their engine development initiatives. India Pistons is one of the flagship companies of the highly successful Amalgamations Group. The company maintains its leadership position in the domestic automotive market and expanding its customer base by consistently scaling up its engineering prowess and performance standards. IPL continues to be the 'top-of-the-mind' choice of majority of domestic OEM's due to its Path- breaking innovations in product design and need-specific enhancements in production processes. In its successful journey spanning over 6 decades, IPL has established world- class benchmarks of engineering excellence, robust adherence to quality-oriented processes, wide range of application-specific products, application of cutting-edge technologies and maintaining enduring customer relationships by consistently delivering value.

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IPL's major OEM customers include Hyundai Motor Company, Maruti, Ashok Leyland, TATA Motors, Eicher Motors, Simpsons & Co., TAFE, Mahindra & Mahindra, Greaves, KOEL, Hindustan Motors, Indian Railways, etc., In addition to the OEM segment, IPL continues to be a leading company in the domestic Replacement market. IPL products are the preferred choice of the most of the re-conditioners in India. IPL continues to make impressive strides in the export market and is among the top exporters of auto components in the country. IPL and its subsidiary companies have posted a combined turnover of over $350 Million USD during 2010-2011 and is poised for an exponential growth.

1.2 Group Overview An amalgamation is a huge conglomerate comprising of 52 companies and 20,000 strong workforces with offices and manufacturing facilities spread across the country. The Amalgamations group is one of the India's largest light engineering groups with established presence in diverse businesses such as auto components, engines, tractors, cutting tools, paints, agricultural implements, distribution and variety of service industries and exports, plantations, batteries, security printing, book selling, pesticides, advertising and communication, warehousing and goods transportation, bus body building, retreating and a range of trade and distribution services. Through their diverse product and service portfolio, the group touches millions of people every day ranging from farmers to business tycoons. What started off with Simpsons & Co, today, Amalgamations is a huge conglomerate comprising of 52 companies and 20,000 strong workforces with offices and manufacturing facilities spread across the country.

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The group is known for its devotion to values, strict adherence to highest quality standards in their products and services, responsible corporate governance and business ethics.

1.3 Mission Statement

To be a Technology Leader, delivering to our customers as a high Quality of Product and Service. This will be achieved through constant Innovation of all products and processes making us a natural first choice to our customers. The company was able to achieve consistent growth and industry leadership through its visionary and qualitative response to the changing consumer and market demands.

1.4 Quality System

Professional project management mechanism designed to identity possible defects during the initial phases of development.

Suppliers are committed to stringent quality standards to ensure the company gets high quality raw materials and components.

Strong vendor development programs to enhance the quality of our vendors.

Customer recognition and host of honors and awards for maintaining outstanding quality is the proof of our commitment to progress through the path of quality.

At all IPL locations, systems and procedures based on TPM, TQM and lean manufacturing procedures are used to ensure that quality levels are on par with the best in the world. All plants of IPL are TS 16949 and ISO 14001 certified.

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CHAPTER 2 INTRODUCTION

2.1. Piston

A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms. It is the moving component that is contained by a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston rings. In an engine, its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting rod. In a pump, the function is reversed and force is transferred from the crankshaft to the piston for the purpose of compressing or ejecting the fluid in the cylinder. Pistons are cast from aluminium alloys. For better strength and fatigue life, some racing pistons may be forged instead. Early pistons were of cast iron, but there were obvious benefits for engine balancing if a lighter alloy could be used. To produce pistons that could survive engine combustion temperatures, it was necessary to develop new alloys such as Y alloy and Hiduminium, specifically for use as pistons.

CROWN

CROWN

alloys such as Y alloy and Hiduminium, specifically for use as pistons. CROWN INSERT SKIRT PAD
INSERT
INSERT
SKIRT
SKIRT
PAD
PAD

Fig.2.1 Piston Casting

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2.2 Foundry

A foundry is a factory that produces metal castings. Metals are cast into shapes by melting them into a liquid, pouring the metal in a mold, and removing the mold material or casting after the metal has solidified as it cools. The most common metals processed are aluminium and cast iron. However, other metals, such as bronze, brass, steel, magnesium, and zinc, are also used to produce castings in foundries. In this process, parts of desired shapes and sizes can be formed. In metalworking, casting involves pouring liquid metal into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowing it to cool and solidify. The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process. Casting is most often used for making complex shapes that would be difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods.

2.3 Gravity Die Casting process

The gravity die casting process begins by preheating the mold to 150-200 °C (300-400 °F) to ease the flow and reduce thermal damage to the casting. The mold cavity is then coated with a refractory material or a mold wash, which prevents the casting from sticking to the mold and prolongs the mold life. Any sand or metal cores are then installed and the mold is clamped shut. Molten metal is then poured into the mold. Soon after solidification the mold is opened and the casting removed to reduce chances of hot tears. The process is then started all over again, but preheating is not required because the heat from the previous casting is adequate and the refractory coating should last several castings. Because this process is usually carried out on large production run work-pieces automated equipment is used to coat the mold, pour the metal, and remove the casting. The metal is poured at the lowest practical temperature in order to minimize cracks and porosity.

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The pouring temperature can range greatly depending on the casting material; for instance zinc alloys are poured at approximately 700 °F (371 °C), while Gray iron is poured at approximately 2,500 °F (1,370 °C). Permanent mold casting is metal casting process that employs reusable molds ("permanent molds"), usually made from metal. The most common process uses gravity to fill the mold, however gas pressure or a vacuum are also used. A variation on the typical gravity casting process, called slush casting, produces hollow castings. Common casting metals are aluminium, magnesium, and copper alloys. Other materials include tin, zinc, and lead alloys and iron and steel are also cast in graphite molds. Typical parts include gears, splines, wheels, gear housings, pipe fittings, fuel injection housings, and automotive engine pistons.

2.4 Melting

The process includes melting the charge, refining the melt, adjusting the melt chemistry and tapping into a transport vessel. Refining is done to remove deleterious gases and elements from the molten metal to avoid casting defects. Material is added during the melting process to bring the final chemistry within a specific range specified by industry and/or internal standards. Certain fluxes may be used to separate the metal from slag and/or dross and degassers are used to remove dissolved gas from metals that readily dissolve certain gasses. During the tap, final chemistry adjustments are made. Several specialised furnaces are used to melt the metal. Furnaces are refractory lined vessels that contain the material to be melted and provide the energy to melt it. Modern furnace types include electric arc furnaces (EAF), induction furnaces, cupolas, reverberatory, and crucible furnaces. Furnace choice is dependent on the alloy system quantities produced. For ferrous materials EAFs, cupolas, and induction furnaces are commonly used.

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2.5 Degassing

In the case of aluminium alloys, a degassing step is usually necessary to reduce the amount of hydrogen dissolved in the liquid metal. If the hydrogen concentration in the melt is too high, the resulting casting will be porous as the hydrogen comes out of solution as the aluminium cools and solidifies. Porosity often seriously deteriorates the mechanical properties of the metal. An efficient way of removing hydrogen from the melt is to bubble argon or nitrogen through the melt. To do that, several different types of equipment are used by foundries. When the bubbles go up in the melt, they catch the dissolved hydrogen and bring it to the top surface. There are various types of equipment which measure the amount of hydrogen present in it. Alternatively, the density of the aluminium sample is calculated to check amount of hydrogen dissolved in it. In cases where porosity still remains present after the degassing process, porosity sealing can be accomplished through a process called metal impregnating.

can be accomplished through a process called metal impregnating. Fig.2.1 Rotary degasser for molten aluminium alloy

Fig.2.1 Rotary degasser for molten aluminium alloy

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2.6 Heat treatment Heat treatment is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. The most common application is metallurgical. Heat treatments are also used in the manufacture of many other materials, such as glass. Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extreme temperatures, to achieve a desired result such as hardening or softening of a material. Heat treatment techniques include annealing, case hardening, precipitation strengthening, tempering and quenching. It is noteworthy that while the term heat treatment applies only to processes where the heating and cooling are done for the specific purpose of altering properties intentionally, heating and cooling often occur incidentally during other manufacturing processes such as hot forming or welding.

during other manufacturing processes such as hot forming or welding. Fig.2.2 Heat treatment of piston casting

Fig.2.2 Heat treatment of piston casting

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2.7 Finishing

The final step in the process usually involves machining the component in order to achieve the desired dimensional accuracies, physical shape and surface finish. After grinding, any surfaces that require tight dimensional control are machined. Many castings are machined in CNC milling centers. The reason for this is that these processes have better dimensional capability and repeatability than many casting processes. However, it is not uncommon today for many components to be used without machining. More and more the process of finishing a casting is being achieved using robotic machines which eliminate the need for a human to physically grind or break parting lines, gating material or feeders. The introduction of these machines has reduced injury to workers, costs of consumables whilst also reducing the time necessary to finish a casting. It also eliminates the problem of human error so as to increase repeatability in the quality of grinding. With a change of tooling these machines can finish a wide variety of materials including iron, bronze and aluminium.

machines can finish a wide variety of materials including iron, bronze and aluminium. Fig.2.3 Machined piston

Fig.2.3 Machined piston casting

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CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE SURVEY

3.1

TYPICAL

DIE

TEMPERATURES

AND

LIFE

FOR

VARIOUS

CAST

MATERIALS

John L., Jorstad et al [1], "Aluminum Future Technology in Die Casting".

Table 3.1 Typical die temperatures and life for various cast materials

Description

Zinc

Aluminium

Magnesium

Brass (leaded yellow)

Maximum die life

1,000,000

100,000

100,000

10,000

[number of cycles]

Die temperature [C° (F°)]

218

(425)

288 (550)

260 (500)

500

(950)

Casting temperature

400

(760)

660 (1220)

760 (1400)

1090 (2000)

[C° (F°)]

 

3.2 Chvorinov’s Rule

Giesserei et al [2], "Theory of the Solidification of Castings".

Chvorinov's Rule is a mathematical relationship first expressed by Nicolas

Chvorinov in 1940, that relates the solidification time for a simple casting to

the volume and surface area of the casting. In simple terms the rule establishes that

under otherwise identical conditions, the casting with large surface area and small

volume will cool more rapidly than a casting with small surface area and a large

volume.

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The relationship can be written as:

The relationship can be written as: Where t is the solidification time, V is the volume

Where t is the solidification time, V is the volume of the casting, A is the surface area of the casting that contacts the mold, n is a constant, and B is the mold constant. The mold constant B depends on the properties of the metal, such as density, heat capacity, heat of fusion and superheat, and the mold, such as initial temperature, density, thermal conductivity, heat capacity and wall thickness. The S.I. units of the mold constant B are

. According to Ask eland, the constant n is usually 2, however Degarmo claims it is between 1.5 and 2.The mold constant of Chvorinov's rule, B, can be calculated using the following formula:

rule, B, can be calculated using the following formula: Where T m = melting or freezing
rule, B, can be calculated using the following formula: Where T m = melting or freezing

Where

T

m = melting or freezing temperature of the liquid (in Kelvin)

T

o = initial temperature of the mold (in Kelvin)

ΔT s = T pour − T m = superheat (in Kelvin)

L = latent heat of fusion (in [J.Kg 1 ])

k = thermal conductivity of the mold (in [W.m 1 .K 1 )]) ρ = density of the mold (in [Kg.m 3 ])

c = specific heat of the mold (in [J.Kg 1 .K 1 ])

ρ m = density of the metal (in [Kg.m 3 ]) c m = specific heat of the metal (in [J.Kg 1 .K 1 ])

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It is most useful in determining if a riser will solidify before the casting, because if the riser solidifies first then defects like shrinkage or porosity can form.

3.3 Minimization of defects in aluminium alloy castings using sqc Chokkalingam, B., and Nazirudeen et al [3], “Analysis of casting defect through defect diagnostic approach”. 3.4 Shrinkages The following points describe how shrinkages occur in castings Shrinkage occurs during solidification as a result of volumetric differences between liquid and solid state. For most aluminium alloys, shrinkage during solidification is about 6% by volume.

Lack of adequate feeding during casting process is the main reason for shrinkage defects.

Shrinkage is a form of discontinuity that appears as dark spots on the radiograph.

It assumes various forms, but in all cases it occurs because the metal in molten state shrinks as it solidifies, in all portions of the final casting.

By making sure that the volume of the casting is adequately fed by risers, Shrinkage defects can be avoided.

By a number of characteristics on radiograph, various forms of shrinkages can be recognized.

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3.5 Types of shrinkages:

(1) Cavity

(2) Dendritic

(3) Filamentary

(4) Sponge types

3.5.1 Shrinkage Cavity The following points explain how shrinkage cavity occurs in castings are:

It appears in areas with distinct jagged boundaries.

When metal solidifies between two original streams of melt coming from opposite directions to join a common front.

It usually occurs at a time when the melt has almost reached solidification

temperature and there is no source of supplementary liquid to feed possible cavities. 3.5.2 Dendritic Shrinkage This type of shrinkage can be identified by seeing distribution of very fine lines or small elongated cavities that may differ in density and are usually unconnected.

3.5.3 Filamentary Shrinkage This type of shrinkage usually occurs as a continuous structure of connected lines of

1. Variable length

2. Variable width

3. Variable density

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3.5.4 Sponge Shrinkage

Sponge shrinkage can be identified from areas of lacy texture with diffuse

outlines.

It may be dendritic or filamentary shrinkage.

Filamentary sponge shrinkage appears more blurred as it is projected through the relatively thick coating between the discontinuities and the film surface.

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CHAPTER 4 MATERIALS AND METHODS

4.1 Process flow for the manufacturing a piston

Manufacturing a piston through casting in aluminium foundry has

consist of various steps are as follows:

MELTING OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY TREATMENT OF ALLOY PREPARATION OF DIE INSERTS FROM PREHEATING OF INSERT
MELTING OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY
TREATMENT OF ALLOY
PREPARATION OF DIE
INSERTS FROM
PREHEATING OF INSERT
FERROUS FOUNDRY
INSERTS DIPPED IN BONDING BATH
INSERTS PLACED IN DIE AND METAL POURED IN TO DIE
FETLING
HEAT TREATMENT OR AGE HARDENING
SENT TO M/C SHOP FOR MACHINING

Fig.4.1 Process flow in Aluminium foundry

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4.2 Melting of Aluminium alloy

There are two types of furnaces for melting the aluminium alloy. They are tower furnace and rotary furnace. These furnaces are oil burn furnace. The oil is preheated to 90°C.this furnaces are used to melt the aluminium ingot one ton per hour. It consists of two chambers. They are namely holding chamber and melting chamber.

Table 4.1 Tapping Temperature of Aluminium Alloys

Aluminium Alloys

Tapping temperatures

IP101 (LM-13)

760-800°C

IP 102 (3L33)

750-800°C

IP 123 (M142)

780-800°C

IP 104 (HE)

800-820°C

4.2.1 Conditions for melting

Holding chamber is preheated till it reaches 600°Cand then slag is removed from the chamber walls. Ingot and returns are charged as per the charge mix. Then it is allowed to melt until it reaches 700°C. Then the Phos-copper and magnesium is added and at last coverall flux is added. Remove dross and close the furnace and switch on the holding chamber burner and allow them to reach 760-800°C. Check the metal level and send the chemistry sample to laboratory. After receiving the chemistry approval tapping temperature is checked.

.

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Table 4.2 Material Composition of LM-13 alloy for piston castings

CHEMICALS

COMPOSITION (%)

 

MINIMUM

MAXIMUM

Aluminium

83

85

Silicon

11.0

13.0

Magnesium

0.80

1.50

Copper

0.70

1.50

Nickel

0.70

1.30

Ferrous

 

0.80

Manganese

 

0.45

Zinc

 

0.50

Lead

 

0.10

Tin

 

0.20

Unlisted impurities (including pb + sn)

 

0.15

Phosphorous

15ppm

100ppm

4.3 Treatment of alloy

The purpose of this step is to remove the hydrogen gas, moisture content, dirt and to achieve grain refinement by adding nucleant and degasser flux and cover flux. It is then stirred by the automation technique and passing nitrogen

(N 2 ) gas. The whole process will be carried out for 30 minutes.

4.4 Preparation of die

The die is cleaned and air blowed to the die cavity. The die is preheated

by using LPG burner and then it is coated. The preheating of die is to attain the

temperature of about 225°C - 250°C. The coating material is prepared by adding

6kgs of Die coat 140, 5kgs of Ivaplast-k and 5litres of sodium silicate in 10

litres of water and stirred. The dust and slags present in the die cavities and air

vents are cleaned.

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4.5

Preheating of insert

Ni-resist piston inserts are found near the top of a piston, where piston rings (compression rings and oil control rings) are located. This section of the piston is grooved for the insertion of these rings. The Ni-resist piston insert is generally cast into the piston to protect the first ring groove, but a second Ni- resist piston insert may also be cast in after the second ring groove. They place the inserts into piston molds and pour molten aluminium into the molds. The piston inserts bond with the aluminium, and become one with the solidified diesel engine piston. It is preheated in induction oven at 250°C. It is preheated inorder to avoid insert hole defect in the piston.

4.6 Insert dipped in bonding material 3L33

After preheating the insert it is dipped in LM-6 (3L33). The chemical compositions of LM-6 are Table 4.3 Material composition of 3L33 (IPL 102) for insert bonding

CHEMICALS

COMPOSITION (%)

 

MINIMUM

MAXIMUM

Aluminium

83.0

85.0

Silicon

10.0

13.0

Magnesium

 

0.50

Copper

 

0.50

Nickel

 

0.80

Manganese

 

0.50

Zinc

 

0.10

Tin

 

0.05

Lead

 

0.10

Titanium

 

0.20

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The purpose of dipping insert in 3L33 is to increase the bonding strength of the insert with the LM-13 alloy.

4.7 Insert placed in die and metal pouring in to die

The filter and dipped insert is placed in a die and then the molten metal (LM-13) is poured in to die. The water is circulated around the die and solidification takes place. After solidified for 120secs the casting is made ready and immediately quenched in water. The runner and riser in the piston casting is fetled off. The filter is used to increase the flow of molten metal properly and to filter the inclusion materials and micro inclusion in the molten material.

4.8 Heat treatment or Age hardening

Heat treatment is the process which is used to increase the hardness and physical strength of the casting. Heat treatment is carried out based on the hardness required. It is usually carried out for 6-8 hours based on the material. Heat treatment will be carried by heating the casting for about 200-240°C by using electric furnace. It is then send to machine shop for further machining.

using electric furnace. It is then send to machine shop for further machining. Fig.4.2 Piston casting

Fig.4.2 Piston casting after machining

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CHAPTER 5 CROWN SHRINKAGE DEFECT

5.1 Major defects in casting There are various defects in casting are

Cold shut

Gas porosity or Skirt porosity

Inclusion

Wall thickness variation

Crown shrinkage 5.1.1 Cold Shut If molten metal is too cold or casting section is too thin, entire mold cavity may not filled during pouring before the metal starts solidifying and the result is misrun. Besides, misrun is often the result of interrupted flow of metal from ladle into the mold.

If the molten metal enters mold cavity through two or more ingates or otherwise if two streams of metal which are too cold, physically meet in the mold cavity but do not fuse together, they develop cold shut defect.

cavity but do not fuse together, they develop cold shut defect. Cold Shut Fig.5.1 Cold shut
cavity but do not fuse together, they develop cold shut defect. Cold Shut Fig.5.1 Cold shut

Cold Shut

Fig.5.1 Cold shut defect in piston casting

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Causes:

a) Too cold molten metal

b) Too thin casting section

c) Too many restriction in the gating system

d) Metal lacking in the fluidity

5.1.2 Inclusion:

Any separate undesired foreign materials present in the metal of the casting are known as inclusion. An inclusion may be oxides, slag, dirt etc. which enters the mold cavity along with the molten metal during pouring. Such inclusion should be skimmed off before pouring the molten metal into the mold cavity.

Remedies:

1)

Proper molding

2)

Molding sand should possess adequate hot strength.

3)

Skimming off or screening of molten metal before pouring.

3) Skimming off or screening of molten metal before pouring. Inclusion Fig.5.2 Inclusion defect in piston

Inclusion

Fig.5.2 Inclusion defect in piston casting

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5.1.3

Gas Porosity or Skirt Porosity

Gas porosity is the formation of bubbles within the casting after it has cooled. This occurs because most liquid materials can hold a large amount of dissolved gas, but the solid form of the same material cannot, so the gas forms bubbles within the material as it cools. Gas porosity may present itself on the surface of the casting as porosity or the pore may be trapped inside the metal, which reduces strength in that vicinity. Nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen are the most encountered gases in cases of gas porosity. In aluminium castings, hydrogen is the only gas that dissolves in significant quantity, which can result in hydrogen gas porosity.

Remedies

 Degassing of molten metal.  Pouring of molten metal above 730°C. Gas Porosity Fig.5.3
Degassing of molten metal.
Pouring of molten metal above 730°C.
Gas Porosity
Fig.5.3 Gas porosity formed in the piston
5.1.4
Wall thickness variation
Wall thickness variation is the variation of boss thickness in the casting.

This is caused due to misalignment of die.

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5.2 REASON TO CHOOSE CROWN SHRINKAGE The defects so far discussed are due to some of the causes shown above and can be rectified. But the defect which is going be discussed does not have the predictable causes. So the scope of the project is to determine the parameters which influence the defect and possible suggestion to rectify it.

5.3. Crown shrinkage Crown Shrinkage is the depression typically internal to the casting that is caused by a molten island of material that does not have enough feed metal to supply it. Shrinkage cavities are characterized by a rough interior surface. The shrinkage causes due to the irregular solidification and improper water cooling to the die.

Crown
Crown

Shrinkage

Fig.5.4 Crown shrinkage visible after the felting process in piston casting

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Crown Shrinkage Fig.5.5 Crown shrinkage after the machining of piston casting gjhghgghhhhghghgjj 24

Crown

Shrinkage

Fig.5.5 Crown shrinkage after the machining of piston casting

gjhghgghhhhghghgjj

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5.4 Steps to determine the predominant causes for crown shrinkage

The crown shrinkage is the challenging dilemma in which the particular

deciding factor cannot be predicted. So, all the parameter influencing the

casting are considered and experimentally analyzed. Based on the experimental

analysis probable causes for the crown shrinkage is determined. The steps

followed in the company are shown below.

Parameters influencing the casting

Experimental Analysing of the casting parameters

Probable inference from the experimental analysis for the crown shrinkage

Solution for the crown shrinkage

Reason to choose this solution

Fig.5.6 Process flow to determine the root causes for crown shrinkage

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5.5 Parameters influencing the castings

The various parameters influencing the castings are as follows

Pouring Metal temperature

Water cooling to die

Solidification timing

Die body temperature

Centre core temperature

Runner and riser design

Degassing of metal

Air vent

5.5.1 Pouring Metal temperature

Pouring is a process by which molten metal is transferred to the cast for cooling and solidification and thus be converted into final product. Pouring temperature is the temperature to which the molten metal has to be raised to before being poured into casts for cooling and setting. This pouring temperature must also take into account the heat loss and caused due to the transfer of metal through ladles, as a distance between furnace and cast has to be covered and also due to the heat absorbed by ladles. However, due to repeated exposure to high temperature of molten metal, these casts have a limited life, or can be used for metals with low pouring temperature requirements. Therefore one of the main requirements of the casting process is refractoriness or in other words, the capability of cast to bear high temperatures of the molten metal without undergoing any changes in its physical properties. This is a very important requirement in alloys with high melting point such as steel. However, this issue may be taken secondary in alloys with lower melting

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points. Where alloys with high melting point are being used, the moulds need to

be lined with an insulating material with refractory properties so that the mould

retains its shape and original characteristics. If the molten metal temperature is

below 720°C else the cold shut is formed in the castings.

5.5.2 Water cooling to die

Water flow rate is defined by the limit: i.e., the flow of water of

fluid (V) through a surface per unit time (t). Since this is only the time

derivative of volume, a scalar quantity, the volumetric flow rate is also a scalar

quantity.

Table 5.1 Standard water flow rate to the die

CASTING MODEL

> 100

PISTON

OUTER

DIAMETER

< 100 PISTON OUTERDIAMETER

WATER FLOW RATE

CENTRE

CORE

4-6 Lt/min

3-4 Lt/min

PIN

2-3 Lt/min

2-2.5 Lt/min

DIE BODY

1-2 Lt/min

0.5-1 Lt/min

CROWN

2-3 Lt/min

2-2.5 Lt/min

5.5.3 Solidification timing

Casting Geometry, material and process determine the solidification time of

a casting. The rudimentary equations that are required to estimate the casting

solidification will be reviewed in this section. The occurrence of solidification

shrinkage defect, which is indicated by the relationship between temperature,

gradient and cooling rate, would also be looked at.

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If the solidification order of distinct regions of a casting is to be determined then the same Chvorinov’s principle can be used. In order to derive the equation that would represent the solidification time of the simply shaped casting, the assumptions made are:

The mold is made semi-infinite (the effect which the finite thickness of

the mold has must be neglected), and the heat flow is unidirectional.

Over a range of considered temperature the properties of metal and mold

material are uniform (throughout the bulk), and remain constant.

The mold surface and the metal are in complete contact (there are no air

gaps).From the commencement to the end of solidification the metal-mold

interface temperature remains constant.

An equation between the heat that the casting gives up Qcast, and the heat that the mould transferees Qmould, can give the solidification time. Here the casting volume (representing the heat content) is represented by V and the cooling surface area (through which heat is extracted), is represented by the A. The casting modulus is given by the ratio V/A.

Table 5.2 Solidification time for the Piston casting

SOLIDIFICATION TIME: 120 SECS

 

WATER STARTS TO FLOW

 

PARTS OF DIE

DELAY

RUN

CENTRE CORE

10 SECS [WHEN TIMER ON]

110 SECS

PIN

15

SECS

25

SECS

DIE BODY

70

SECS

50

SECS

CROWN

100 SECS

20

SECS

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5.5.4 Die body temperature

Die temperature has considerable influence role on the quality of die cast parts and on the production cycle. Working with a die at excessively low temperature, you can encounter the following problems:

• Difficult ejection;

• Piece contraction around pins;

• Bonding between metal and die;

• Unreliable casting dimensions;

• Incomplete filling.

On the other hand, if die temperature is too high there will be:

•Difficult casting expulsion (warping, gripping);

• Fast release lube degradation

• Longer cycle time

• Unreliable casting dimensions

As a result, the correct die temperature is crucial to obtain a smooth and high level of productivity and to optimize the production cycle. Thermal regulators are electrical-mechanical devices designed to regulate dies temperature used during die casting production.

1) Improvement in the mechanical and strength characteristics of castings.

2) Potential boost in casting productivity by reducing cycle time.

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3) Extended die life.

4) Reduction of initial rejects.

3) Extended die life. 4) Reduction of initial rejects. Die body Fig.5.7 Piston castings die (IPL

Die body

Extended die life. 4) Reduction of initial rejects. Die body Fig.5.7 Piston castings die (IPL 400)

Fig.5.7 Piston castings die (IPL 400)

5.5.5 Centre core of the die

Centre core is the interior part of the die which is responsible for the formation of centre hollow part in the piston.

for the formation of centre hollow part in the piston. Centre core Fig.5.8 Centre core of

Centre core

for the formation of centre hollow part in the piston. Centre core Fig.5.8 Centre core of

Fig.5.8 Centre core of the die (IPL 400)

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Fig.5.9 Piston centre hollow section 5.5.6 Runner and riser design A sprue is the passage

Fig.5.9 Piston centre hollow section

5.5.6 Runner and riser design

A sprue is the passage through which liquid material is introduced into a mold. During casting or molding, the material in the sprue will solidify and need to be removed from the finished part. This excess material is also called a sprue. A riser, also known as a feeder, is a reservoir built into a metal casting mold to prevent cavities due to shrinkage. Most metals are less dense as a liquid than as a solid so castings shrink upon cooling, which can leave a void at the last point to solidify. Risers prevent this by providing molten metal to the casting as it solidifies, so that the cavity forms in the riser and not the casting. Risers are not effective on materials that have a large freezing range, because directional solidification is not possible. They are also not needed for casting processes that utilized pressure to fill the mold cavity. A feeder operated by a treadle is called an under feeder.

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Riser Runner Fig.5.10 Runner and riser position in piston casting 5.5.7 Degassing of metal Fluxes

Riser

Runner

Fig.5.10 Runner and riser position in piston casting

5.5.7 Degassing of metal Fluxes composed of chlorine and fluorine containing salts are used for degassing molten aluminium alloys. Degassing fluxes are commonly shaped in form of tablets. Degassing operation starts when a flux tablet is plunged by a clean preheated perforated bell to the furnace bottom. The flux components react with aluminium forming gaseous compounds (aluminium chloride, aluminium fluoride). The gas is bubbling and rising through the melt. Partial pressure of hydrogen in the formed bubbles is very low therefore it diffuses from the molten aluminium into the bubbles. The bubbles escape from the melt and the gas is then removed by the exhausting system. The process continues until bubbling ceases.

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5.5.7.1 Rotary degasser In the rotary degassing method an inert or chemically inactive gas (Argon, Nitrogen) is purged through a rotating shaft and rotor. Energy of the rotating shaft causes formation of a large number of fine bubbles providing very high surface area-to volume ratio. Large surface area promotes fast and effective diffusion of hydrogen into the gas bubbles resulting in equalizing activity of hydrogen in liquid and gaseous phases.

Rotary degasser allows achieve more complete hydrogen removal as compared to the flux degassing. Additionally rotary degasser does not use harmful chlorine and fluorine containing salts.

Rotary degasser may also combine the functions of degassing and flux introduction. In this case the inert gas serves as carrier for granulated flux. The method is called flux injection.

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CHAPTER 6

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS

6.1 Reason to choose experimental analysis than computerization

Analyses through computer softwares such as CFD, Autocast are choosed only when the particular parameter affecting defect is known. Not only because of this reason but also analysis of solidification, heat transfer rate through CFD takes long duration. Upon changing the parameters in CFD would take more duration. So we decided to analysis the casting parameters experimentally. In experimental analysis, changing of input parameters is possible, through which the main parameter causing crown shrinkage can be determined.

6.2 Experimental analysis of the casting parameters

6.2.1 Iteration No.1

The experiment was carried out to determine the inference for the crown shrinkage in piston castings. The parameters influences the castings such as water flow rate, water inlet temperature to the die, water outlet temperature from the die, die body temperature, centre core temperature; crown temperature was observed and recorded to find the reason for the crown shrinkage. The castings are marked as a sample and followed for machining and inspection.

Annexure I is the first experiment done to determine the parameter affecting crown part. Annexure I gives the various reading regarding the piston manufacturing such as water inlet temperature, water outlet temperature from the die, die body temperature, centre core temperature, crown temperature. But the clear inference is not obtained from the experiment. The activities such as air blown to die cavities and white and black coatings are observed during the experiment.

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We found the particular causes .So we changed the variable input parameters of castings such as solidification timing, sleeve size, pouring metal temperature, centre core and die at three stages of temperature.

6.4 Iteration No. 2

As already explained, the first variable which is changed is die body and centre core temperature of the die. The readings at a definite interval of time i.e. at different stages. Then the pistons are cross sectioned perpendicular to the axis and observed the shift of shrinkage towards the riser. Based on the shift of the shrinkage, the inference for the crown shrinkage is obtained.

Table 6.1 Die at low temperature

Die at low temperature

Time: 11:10am

   

CENTRE CORE

S.No

   

CAVITY 1ST

CAVITY 2ND

Units

1

65

60

2

73

76

3

80

83

4

88

87

5

90

95

Based on the above table 6.1, it is clear that the center core temperature should not be maintained at the range between 65-100. Let us discuss what would happen if the centre core temperature maintained beyond this value.

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Table 6.2 Centre core of die at Medium temperature

Die at Medium temperature

Time: 11:40pm

   

CENTRE CORE

S.No

   

CAVITY 1ST

CAVITY 2ND

Units

1

172

178

2

177

210

3

177

213

4

208

206

5

172

191

Table 6.3 Centre core of die at high temperature

Die at high temperature

Time: 12:40pm

   

CENTRE CORE

S. No

   

1ST CAVITY

2ND CAVITY

Units

1

180

210

2

220

226

3

224

228

4

231

234

5

232

238

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6.5 Iteration No.3

6.5.1 Riser Sleeve

Riser sleeves are strong, low-density, tube sleeves of insulating refractory material. They are specifically designed to promote efficient feeding of aluminium castings. The excellent insulation value of keeping metal in the riser liquid longer.

Benefits

Sleeve withstands rough handling and moulding

Increased casting yield

Reduced metal treatment costs

Reduced riser contact area

Reduced casting cleaning costs

Low smoke and fume

Sleeves are easily cut to special heights

There are three types of sleeve used such as 4, 4A, 4C based on the inner diameter and taper angle of sleeve. The riser sleeves are made up of ceramic material to withstand the heat (i.e. the riser sleeve maintains molten metal in liquid state for long duration to feed the metal to casting).

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Fig.6.1 Riser Sleeve size 4 Fig.6.2 Riser sleeve size 4A Fig.6.3 Riser sleeve size 4C

Fig.6.1 Riser Sleeve size 4

Fig.6.1 Riser Sleeve size 4 Fig.6.2 Riser sleeve size 4A Fig.6.3 Riser sleeve size 4C 38

Fig.6.2 Riser sleeve size 4A

Fig.6.1 Riser Sleeve size 4 Fig.6.2 Riser sleeve size 4A Fig.6.3 Riser sleeve size 4C 38

Fig.6.3 Riser sleeve size 4C

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(a) ( b ) (c) Fig.6.4 Drafting of (a) Riser sleeve size 4, (b) Riser

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig.6.4 Drafting of (a) Riser sleeve size 4, (b) Riser sleeve size 4A, (c) Riser sleeve size 4C

An experiment made by using the riser sleeve size 4 as shown in fig.6.4 (a) and then by using the riser sleeve size 4A as shown in fig.6.4 (b) and finally experiment conducted by using the riser sleeve size 4c as shown in fig.6.4 (c) From this experiments the shrinkage shift from the crown surface of the piston to the riser. The increase in sleeve size decreases the crown shrinkage in piston castings. But it affects the yield of molten aluminium alloy. So, the standard sleeve size 4 is used to make the yield improvement in the molten aluminium alloy.

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Circular truncated cone

Volume: V=1/3 π (r 1 2 +r 1 r 2 + r 2 2 ) h

Table 6.4 Volume of molten metal consumed by riser sleeve

Riser sleeve size spec.

Volume of molten metal in sleeve in mm 3

4

1,54,901

4A

2,01,146

4C

2,00,501

6.7 Experiment done by varying pouring metal temperature

Next variable parameter is pouring metal temperature. Although the

pouring metal temperature does not plays predominant role because the pouring

metal temperature is already maintained at a range between 730°C -740°C. But

certain times this plays a role because there may be chance of temperature get

reduced below 730°C so it is account.

of temperature get reduced below 730°C so it is account. Fig.6.5 Piston casting cross section sample

Fig.6.5 Piston casting cross section sample when pouring metal temperature is about 740°C

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Fig.6.6 Piston casting cross section sample when pouring metal temperature is about 720°C 6.7.1 Result

Fig.6.6 Piston casting cross section sample when pouring metal temperature is about 720°C

6.7.1 Result

Based on the fig.7.9, fig.7.10 it gets cleared that there is no probability of

crown shrinkage based on the pouring metal temperature. But if the pouring

metal temperature below 700°C to 650°C, then the crown shrinkage would

takes place. It is quite impossible in the company because there is a temperature

indicator which would indicate the temperature of pouring metal temperature by

dipping the thermocouple. So, parameter pouring metal temperature is neglected

in case of crown shrinkage.

6.8 Experiment done by varying solidification time

Casting Geometry, material and process determine the solidification time of

a casting. In simple terms the Chvorinov's rule establishes that under otherwise

identical conditions, the casting with large surface area and small volume will

cool more rapidly than a casting with small surface area and a large volume.

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Fig.6.7 Piston casting cross section sample when solidification time 90secs is given Fig.6.8 Piston casting

Fig.6.7 Piston casting cross section sample when solidification time 90secs is given

section sample when solidification time 90secs is given Fig.6.8 Piston casting cross section sample when

Fig.6.8 Piston casting cross section sample when solidification time 120secs is given

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Fig.6.9 Piston casting cross section sample when solidification time 150secs is given 43

Fig.6.9 Piston casting cross section sample when solidification time 150secs is given

43

CHAPTER 7

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

7.1 RESULTS

7.1.1. CENTRE CORE TEMPERATURE

From iteration No.2, we found that there is an effect of centre core

temperature towards the shifting of shrinkage from the crown to riser. Based on

the three stages of the centre core temperature cross sectioned piston it may be

concluded that the centre core temperature should not be maintained at very low

temperature. It should be maintained at the optimum level of 200°C-288°C. But

it cannot be concluded that the crown shrinkage is only due to the centre core

temperature. So the experimental analysis was made for other variable

parameters such as sleeve size, pouring metal temperature, solidification timing.

size, pouring metal temperature, solidification timing. Fig.7.1 Cross section of 2 n d cavity piston casting

Fig.7.1 Cross section of 2 nd cavity piston casting at low centre core temperature with gross crown shrinkage

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Fig 7.2 Cross section of 2 n d cavity piston casting at medium centre core

Fig 7.2 Cross section of 2 nd cavity piston casting at medium centre core temperature

d cavity piston casting at medium centre core temperature Fig.7.3 Cross section of 2 n d

Fig.7.3 Cross section of 2 nd cavity piston casting at high centre core temperature

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7.1.2 Riser Sleeve size

From iteration No.3, we found that the effect of increase in size of riser sleeve would increases the shifting of shrinkage from crown to the riser of the piston casting. So, the size of sleeve size is indirectly proportional to the occurrence of crown shrinkage i.e. if the size (diameter) of sleeve is greater, then the probability of occurring of crown shrinkage in the riser. Otherwise, the increase in volume consumed reduces the chance of shrinkage formation in the piston casting crown surface.

of shrinkage formation in the piston casting crown surface. Fig.7.4 Piston casting Cross section with 4

Fig.7.4 Piston casting Cross section with 4 riser sleeve size

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Fig.7.5 Piston casting Cross section with 4C riser sleeve size 7.1.3 POURING METAL TEMPERATURE From

Fig.7.5 Piston casting Cross section with 4C riser sleeve size

7.1.3 POURING METAL TEMPERATURE

From the iteration No.4, it is clear that there is no effect of pouring metal temperature towards the crown shrinkage.

of pouring metal temperature towards the crown shrinkage. Fig.7.6 Piston casting cross section sample when pouring
of pouring metal temperature towards the crown shrinkage. Fig.7.6 Piston casting cross section sample when pouring

Fig.7.6 Piston casting cross section sample when pouring metal temperature is about 740°C and 720°C respectively.

7.1.4 SOLIDIFICATION TIME

From the iteration No.5, it is clear that there is no effect of Solidification time

towards the crown shrinkage by varying solidification time to 90 secs, 120 secs

and 150 secs.

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Fig.7.7 Piston casting cross section sample when solidification time 90secs is given Fig.7.8 Piston casting

Fig.7.7 Piston casting cross section sample when solidification time 90secs is given

section sample when solidification time 90secs is given Fig.7.8 Piston casting cross section sample when

Fig.7.8 Piston casting cross section sample when solidification time 120secs is given

section sample when solidification time 120secs is given Fig.7.9 Piston casting cross section sample when

Fig.7.9 Piston casting cross section sample when solidification time 150secs is given

48

CHAPTER 8

CONCLUSION

Parametric study for the crown shrinkage in piston casting has been studied and following were observed:

1. When the centre core temperature is low (65-175°C) the shrinkage is formed at the crown of piston casting, if it is at medium temperature (175-195 °C) then the shrinkage is shifted from the crown to riser.

2. When the volume of the riser sleeve increases the crown shrinkage moved away.

3. There is no relation with respect to the pouring metal temperature.

4. There is no relation with respect to the solidification time.

49

CHAPTER 9

SCOPE FOR THE FURTHER STUDY

To set the temperature sensor probe for indicating the centre core temperature of the die.

Other parameters such as Solidification time and pouring metal temperature can be widened to study the crown shrinkage formation.

50

Reference

1. John L., Jorstad (September 2006), "Aluminum Future Technology in Die Casting", Die Casting Engineering: 1825, archived from the original on

11-12-2010.

2. Giesserei, "Theory of the Solidification of Castings", 1940, Vol 27, p177-

186.

3. T. Skrzypczak, E. Węgrzyn-Skrzypczak, Simulation of shrinkage cavity

formation during solidification of binary alloy, Archives of Foundry Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 1(2010), 147-152.

4. Minimization of defects in aluminium alloy castings using SQC National

Institute of Technology, Rourkela. With reference Chokkalingam, B., and Nazirudeen, S. S. M., 2009, “Analysis of casting defect through defect

diagnostic approach,” J. E. Annals, Journal of Engineering Annals of Faculty of Engineering Hunedoara, Vol. 2, pp. 209-212.

5. Method for determining the formation of shrinkage defects in the castings,

R. Dyja, N. Sczygiol, Institute of Computer and Information Sciences, Czestochowa University of Technology, J. Dabrowskiego 73, 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland.

6. Piston cooling construction, Eric Bradley Graham, London, England,

assignor to Speeialloid Limited, London, England Application November 29,

1945, Serial No. 631,630 In Great Britain September 15, 1944 Section 1, Public Law 690, August 8, 1946, Patent expires September 15, 1964.

7. Die casting, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Die_casting.

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