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Bearing Basic Knowledge

Training Topics

Bearing basic knowledge


- Bearing types and selection
- Bearing internal clearance
- Selection of bearing cages
- Bearing designation
- Bearing tolerance
- Shaft and housing tolerances
PT Schaeffler Bearings Indonesia

Slide 1

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Slide 2

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Introduction to Rolling Bearings

The Beginning of FAG

Once upon a time

Fischer
Aktien
Gesellschaft
The first ever steel ball grinding
machine invented by a German
engineer in 1883.
Slide 3

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Slide 4

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Introduction to Rolling Bearings

Introduction to Rolling Bearings

Outer ring
Inner ring

Rolling
element
Cage

Sliding Friction

Rolling Friction
Lubricant !!

Slide 5

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Slide 6

Bearing Characteristics

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Bearing Characteristics

Bearings which
are seperable

Bearings that can take


"dynamic misalignment"

Bearings which
are non-seperable

Bearings that can take


"static misalignment"

Slide 7

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Slide 8

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Bearing Characteristics

Bearing Characteristics

Cylindrical roller

Ball

Tapered roller

Needle roller
Barrel roller

Slide 9

July 2012

Unsymmetrical
Barrel roller

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Bearing Characteristics

Line contact

Point contact

(more contact)

(less contact)

Roller Bearings

Ball Bearings

Higher load
Lower speed

Lower load
Higher speed

Slide 10

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Bearing Characteristics

POINT contact
Deep groove ball bearing: 6310
Dimensions = d x D x B = 50 x 110 x 27
Static load rating = C0 = 38 kN
Limiting speed = nG = 14000 rpm

"Radial bearings" designed


to take the radial force

Fr

Fr

Fr

"Axial bearings" designed


to take the axial force

Fa

LINE contact

Fa

Cylindrical roller bearing: NU310


Dimensions = d x D x B = 50 x 110 x 27
Static load rating = C0 = 113 kN
Limiting speed = nG = 6300 rpm
Slide 11

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Slide 12

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Bearing Characteristics

Bearing Characteristics

Nominal contact angle is an angle


between the bearing radial plane and
the contact line without any applied load.
Radial bearing has
the contact angle < 45 degrees

Radial
ball bearings

Radial
roller bearings

Axial bearing has


the contact angle > 45 degrees
Axial ball bearings

Axial roller bearings

Contact line
Radial plane

Slide 13

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Slide 14

Pumps
Shipbuilding
Machine tools
Road vehicles
Railway vehicles
Paper machinery
Power transmission
Electrical machinery
Conveying equipment
Agricultural machinery
Household appliances
Steelworks and rolling mill
Food and delicacies industry
Mining and construction
Ventilation engineering

Slide 15

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Deep Groove Ball Bearing

Deep Groove Ball Bearing

Designation 6XXX
e.g. 6208, 6310

July 2012

Good

Good

Prevent water and moisture

Bad

Good

Applications with outer ring rotating

Bad

Good

Higher

Lower

Prevent dust and dirt

Limiting speed (of the same size)

Small misalignment
High speed
Bearing Basic Knowledge

Suffix 2RSR
Seal
Contact Seal

Suffix 2Z
Shield
Gap Seal

The sealed bearing is already filled with STANDARD grease


Slide 16

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Angular Contact Ball Bearing

Deep Groove Ball Bearing

Pumps
Machine tools
Road vehicles
Power transmission
Electrical machinery
Conveying equipment
Ventilation engineering
Steelworks and rolling mill

Designation 7XXX
e.g. 7205, 7306

Video !!
Slide 17

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Slide 18

Slide 19

July 2012

X arrangement
(Face to Face, DF)

Bearing Basic Knowledge

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Angular Contact Ball Bearing

Angular Contact Ball Bearing

O arrangement
(Back to Back, DB)

Small misalignment
High speed

Tandem arrangement
(Tandem, DT)

O arrangement
(Back to Back, DB)

Slide 20

July 2012

X arrangement
(Face to Face, DF)

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Self Aligning Ball Bearing

Axial Ball Bearing

Paper machinery
Conveying equipment
Agricultural machinery
Ventilation engineering
Mining and construction
Food and delicacies industry

Designation 1XXX, 2XXX


e.g. 1207, 2210
Slide 21

Misalignment 4
High speed

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Cylindrical Roller Bearing

Designation 51XXX
e.g. 51120, 51330
Slide 22

NU

Designation NXXX, NXXXX


e.g. N308, NU328, NU2226
July 2012

July 2012

Designation 52XXX
e.g. 52220, 52330

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Cylindrical Roller Bearing


Pumps
Crushers
Centrifuges
Machine tools
Road vehicles
Paper machinery
Railway vehicles
Vibrating machinery
Power transmission
Electrical machinery
Conveying equipment
Household appliances
Ventilation engineering
Mining and construction
Steelworks and rolling mill

Slide 23

No misalignment
High speed

Bearing Basic Knowledge

NUP

NJ

Small misalignment
Low speed
Slide 24

July 2012

SL
Small misalignment
Very low speed

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Needle Roller Bearing

Needle Roller Bearing

Application examples
Brake pedal
Acceleration pedal
Automotive gearbox

Without rings K
e.g. K20X26X12, K24X30X17
With rings NA
e.g. NA4907, NA6906
Slide 25

July 2012

Small misalignment
Low speed

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Slide 26

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Tapered Roller Bearing

Spherical Roller Bearing


Pumps
Crushers
Shipbuilding
Wind turbines
Road vehicles
Railway vehicles
Paper machinery
Vibrating screens
Power transmission
Drum belt conveyors
Conveying equipment
Agricultural machinery
Ventilation engineering
Mining and construction
Steelworks and rolling mill

Designation 2XXXX
e.g. 23020, 22250
Slide 27

July 2012

Pumps
Crushers
Wind turbines
Machine tools
Road vehicles
Railway vehicles
Power transmission
Conveying equipment
Agricultural machinery
Tunnel boring machinery
Steelworks and rolling mill

Misalignment 3
Low speed
Bearing Basic Knowledge

Designation 3XXXX
e.g. 32210, 32215
Slide 28

July 2012

Small Misalignment
Low speed
Bearing Basic Knowledge

Tapered Roller Bearing

Axial Cylindrical Roller Bearing

X arrangement
(Face to Face, DF)

O arrangement
(Back to Back, DB)
Slide 29

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Designation 8XXXX
e.g. 81107, 89312
Slide 30

July 2012

No misalignment
Low speed
Bearing Basic Knowledge

Bearing Selection

Axial Spherical Roller Bearing

Extruders
Gearboxes
Generators
Palm oil mills
Paper machines
Boats and ships

Designation 29XXX
e.g. 29220, 29468
Slide 31

July 2012

Misalignment 3
Low speed
Bearing Basic Knowledge

Slide 32

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Bearing Internal Clearance

Bearing Internal Clearance


Internal clearance is for

Sr
C2
CN
C3
C4
C5

Sa

1. Expansion and contraction of


the inner and outer ring due to
tight fits.

2. Thermal expansion from heat


generated during operation, but
the key value is the temperature
difference between the inner
and outer ring, not how high the
temperature.

ST

- Clearance before mounting


- Clearance after mounting
Radial clearance

- Operating clearance

Axial clearance
Slide 33

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Bearing Internal Clearance

Slide 34

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Bearing Internal Clearance


See HR1 page 215

Clearance class specified by following suffixes


Example: 6205 (CN), 6309-C3, NU230-E-M1-C4
C1 Clearance smaller than C2
C2 Clearance smaller than CN
CN Clearance normal (no suffix)
C3 Clearance bigger than CN
C4 Clearance bigger than C3
C5 Clearance bigger than C4
If the recommended shaft and housing tolerances are fulfilled.
The normal operating clearance is achieved with clearance
CN, in larger bearings, predominantly with C3.
Slide 35

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Example: Bearing 6310 has internal clearance 6-23 microns


Bearing 6310-C3 has internal clearance 18-36 microns
Slide 36

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Bearing Internal Clearance

Bearing Internal Clearance

- Insufficient operating clearance results in hot running and seizing

CN / C3 / C4

- Excessive operating clearance results in high vibration / low accuracy.

Tight Fits

Temperature Difference

0+

6309-2Z used to replace 6309-2Z-C3 in an e-motor, jammed in 1 month.

Slide 37

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Tolerances of Standard Bearings


Tolerance class specified by following suffixes

Slide 38

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Tolerances of Standard Bearings


From HR1 page 122
Tolerance class PN

From HR1 page 124


Tolerance class P6

Example: 6208 (PN), 7310-P5, 6309-P63 etc.


PN

Precision Normal (no suffix)

P6

Precision better than PN

P5

Precision better than P6

P4

Precision better than P5

P2

Precision better than P4


Example:
Inner diameter of 6220 is between 99.980 - 100.000 mm
Inner diameter of 6220-P6 is between 99.985 - 100.000 mm

For an application which requires


high accuracy or very high speed

Slide 39

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Slide 40

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

10

Cage - Functions

Cage - Guidance

Cage functions
- To separate rolling elements
- To keep a pitch between rolling elements
- To hold rolling elements within a bearing
- To guide rolling elements to the raceway

Slide 41

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Cage - Moulded Plastic Cage (Polyamide)

Rolling element guide

Outer ring guide

Inner ring guide

(no additional suffix)


Normal applications

(with suffix A)
High vibration
High speed

(with suffix B)
High vibration
High speed

Slide 42

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Cage - Pressed Steel Cage


Window typed cage
for an spherical
roller bearing

Ribbon type cage


for a ball bearing

Riveted cage
for a ball bearing
Window typed cage for an
angular contact ball bearing
Slide 43

July 2012

Window typed cage for


a cylindrical roller bearing

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Slide 44

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

11

Cage Selection

Cage - Machined Brass Cage


Riveted cage
for a cylindrical
roller bearing

Riveted cage
for a ball bearing

Window typed cage


for a ball bearing

Slide 45

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Maximum Operating Temperature

Max operating temperature of standard BALL bearings


Bearing with a plastic cage (polyamide) can stand up to 120 degrees
Bearing with rubber seal and standard grease can stand up to 100 degrees

Criterion

Steel

Brass

Polyamide

Weight

Good

Bad

Very Good

Strength

Very Good

Very Good

Good

Cost / Price

Good

Bad

Good

Space for lubricant

Very Good

Good

Good

Running noise

Good

Good

Very Good

Corosion from
chemical / lubricant

Very Good

Good

Bad

Temperature more
than 120 degrees C

Good

Good

Bad

1. The plastic cage has its own advantages for weight, noise, and flexibility
2. Strength comparison between two metallic cages i.e. steel and brass cage
3. Brass cage has emergency running behavior, easy to machine with accuracy
4. New bearings are with pressed steel cage, machined brass cage is expensive
Slide 46

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Maximum Operating Temperature

Max operating temperature of standard ROLLER bearings


Bearing with a plastic cage (polyamide) can stand up to 120 degrees
Bearing with rubber seal and standard grease can stand up to 100 degrees

DGBB OD<240 mm is dimensionally stable up to 120 degrees


DGBB OD>240 mm is dimensionally stable up to 200 degrees

CRB every sizes is dimensionally stable up to 120 degrees


SRB every sizes is dimensionally stable up to 200 degrees

ACBB OD<240 mm is dimensionally stable up to 150 degrees


ACBB OD>240 mm is dimensionally stable up to 200 degrees

TRB every sizes is dimensionally stable up to 120 degrees

SABB every sizes is dimensionally stable up to 150 degrees

NRB every sizes is dimensionally stable up to 120 degrees

Slide 47

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Slide 48

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

12

Bearing Designation

Bearing Designation

Bearing designation can tell you

Bearing designation

1. Bearing type
2. Dimensions
3. Part tolerances
4. Bearing clearance
5. Cage design and material
6. Other special characteristics

Slide 49

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Bearing Designation

Prefix

Bearing
type

Slide 50

Suffix

Base designation

Width
series

July 2012

Diameter
series

Bore
code

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Bearing Designation

The last one or two digits is the bore code


The first digit specify the bearing type
1XXX
2XXXX
3XXXX
5XXXX
6XXX
7XXX
8XXXX
NXXXX

Slide 51

July 2012

Self aligning ball bearing


Spherical roller bearing
Tapered roller bearing
Axial ball bearing
Deep groove ball bearing
Angular contact ball bearing
Axial cylindrical roller bearing
Cylindrical roller bearing

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Slide 52

Bore code

Bore diameter

3 to 9
00
01
02
03
04
.
.
.
96
/500
/530

3 to 9 mm
10 mm
12 mm
15 mm
17 mm
20 mm
.
.
.
480 mm
500 mm
530 mm

July 2012

Bore code X5

Bearing Basic Knowledge

13

Bearing Designation

Bearing Designation
One or two digits in the middle are width and diameter series
Dim. series
00 10 20 30

Dim. series

40

02 12

Width series

0 1

22

Dim. series

32

03

13

Width series

23

Dim. series
33

04

Width series

6206
6 = Deep groove ball bearing
(0) = Width series 0
2 = Diameter series 2
06 = 06 x 5 = 30 mm bore

24

Width series

4
3

7305-B
7 = Angular contact ball bearing
(0) = Width series 0
3 = Diameter series 3
05 = 05 x 5 = 25 mm bore

Example:
Spherical roller bearing with designation 23220 is WIDER than 22220
Spherical roller bearing with designation 22320 is BIGGER than 22220
Slide 53

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Bearing Designation

Slide 54

One bearing has 2 rings


inner and outer ring.
There are 2 load cases,
circumferential load and
point load.

NU2314-E
NU = Cylindrical roller bearing
2 = Width series 2
3 = Diameter series 3
14 = 14 x 5 = 70 mm bore
July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Shaft and Housing Tolerances

30209-A
3 = Tapered roller bearing
0 = Width series 0
2 = Diameter series 2
09 = 09 x 5 = 45 mm bore

Slide 55

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

See HR1 page 148

Slide 56

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

14

Shaft and Housing Tolerances


Schematic 2

Shaft and Housing Tolerances


Schematic 1

Inner ring rotates


Outer ring stationary
Load direction constant

Inner ring stationary


Outer ring rotates
Load direction constant

IR - Circumferential load
(tight fit necessary)

IR - Point load
(loose fit permissible)

OR - Point load
(loose fit permissible)
Example:
Shaft weight
Roll press

See HR1 page 148

Slide 57

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Shaft and Housing Tolerances


Schematic 3

See HR1 page 148

Slide 59

July 2012

OR - Circumferential load
(tight fit necessary)
Example
Car hub bearing

See HR1 page 148

Slide 58

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Shaft and Housing Tolerances


Schematic 4

Inner ring rotates


Outer ring stationary
Load direction rotates

Inner ring stationary


Outer ring rotates
Load direction rotates

IR - Point load
(loose fit permissible)

IR - Circumferential load
(tight fit necessary)

OR - Circumferential load
(tight fit necessary)

OR - Point load
(loose fit permissible)

Example
Centrifuges
Vibrating screens

Bearing Basic Knowledge

See HR1 page 148

Slide 60

July 2012

Example
Hub bearing with unbalance

Bearing Basic Knowledge

15

Shaft and Housing Tolerances

Shaft and Housing Tolerances

From HR1 page 150

- Meaning of tight fit


- Meaning of loose fit
- Meaning of transition fit
- Difference between
capital and small letter

Example: 6212 in e-motor, recommended shaft fit is 60 k6

See HR1 page 149


Slide 61

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Slide 62

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Shaft and Housing Tolerances


From HR1 page 155

" Thank you for your attention "

PT Schaeffler Bearings Indonesia


Gedung Graha Pena Suite 707
Jl. A Yani no 88
Surabaya - 60234
Phone : 0318270030
Fax : 0318270030

Example: shaft fit 60 k6, shaft tolerance is +2 / +21 i.e. 60.002 60.021 mm
Slide 63

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

Slide 64

July 2012

Bearing Basic Knowledge

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