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# Experiment #1: Familiarization with Lab Instruments

To apply the Superposition Theorem, the Thevenin & Norton Theorems and
the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem in a concrete experimental circuit.
To develop deeper understanding of circuit construction.
Introduction
The Superposition Theorem deems that the analysis of an electrical circuit can be
done with a single power source acting at a time. By short-circuiting any other voltage
source and open-circuiting any other current source (leaving only one power source
energizing the circuit), one can simplify the analysis procedure and use only basic
formulas.
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Procedure1
Superposition theorem:
1. Connect the breadboard terminals to the outputs on the PSP. Set both output
control knobs at 4-to-8 turns from the minimum position.
2. Measure and record the total resistance of the potentiometer on the breadboard
(between Red and Black wire terminals). Set R (between Black and Blue wire
terminals) to a specific value between 200 and 300.
3. Construct circuit A using a custom layout.
4. Energize PSP. Record Io in the three following conditions:
a. Both Vs and Is sources connected.
b. Vs acting alone.
c. Is acting alone.
Thevenin, Norton and MPT theorems:
5. Choose a circuit from B to E and build it. Record R value used.
6. Set the potentiometer dial to its maximum and then connect the bread board to
PSP (still not ON).
on the PSP to obtain a node voltage V4 in the range of 2-to-7 V. Record this
value. Reconnect wire link mentioned above.
8. Temporarily disconnect the V-input lead and configure DMM as a DC
ammeter. Insert the lead into I-input. Record I41(sc). Reset DMM as voltmeter.
9. Decrease load resistance until V41 falls to 50%. Record Rmpt in the middle row
of Table A.
10. Repeat step 9 by varying load resistance and complete the corresponding
values in Table A.
Results (Superposition) and discussion
Verify the superposition theorem.
Io=Io1+Io2
20.75 mA = 9.5 mA + 11.788 mA
20.75 mA < 21.288 mA
The superposition theorem states that the current in any branch of the circuit is
equal to the sum of the current circulating in that branch with each of the
independent sources acting alone. Therefore, in this first part of the experiment,
the sum of Io1 and Io2 measured with Vs and Is acting alone respectively in each
case should equalize the Io measured with both sources connected. However, as
shown in the comparison above, the sum of I o1 and Io2 exceeds Io by approximately
1 The procedure is paraphrased from the LEC 273 lab manual.

21.288 mA20.75 mA
)
(21.288 mA +20.75 mA ) . This relatively small gap can be
2.56 %
2
neglected (under 5%), and the superposition theorem hence stands.
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(

## Results (Thevenins &Nortons Theorem)

a) Determine TEC and NEC.
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b) Compare the values of RT.
With terminals a and b short-circuited:
Iab(sc) = VT/RT RTVT/Iab(sc)2.73 V/0.00632 A432
RTexp > RTthe
432 > 403
432 403
0.0 695=6.9 5
(432 +403 )
2
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c) Comparison with theoretical values.

Graph A
Maximum power transfer from measured values PL=(VL)2/RL
0
0
0.00461

0
Laod power (W)

0
0

0.00476
0.00467
0.00466

0.00444

0
0
200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

## Theoretical value of PL max :

V T2
2.732
=
4 RT 4(396)

0.00471 W

0.0047 6 W 0.00471 W
0.0106=1 . 06
(0.0047 6 W +0.00471 W )
2
From the low percent difference between the theoretical and experimental values
of PL, it can be concluded that the measured maximum value of load power
correspond within the error margin of the speculative value as the difference is close
to 1%. Although the maximum load power was not reached when R L3=Rmpt=RT, the
difference between the theoretical value and the measured value with R L3 is still
4 67 m W 0.00471m W
0 . 85
(467 m W +471 mW )
negligible (
. This small gap might be the result
2
of the tolerance property on each resistance as the measured load resistance itself
differentiates from the theoretical value. Moreover, because that the chosen values of

load resistance in step 10 was not spread over a wide range, the difference between
measured load voltages are also limited and hence deviating slightly the actual result.
Conclusion
The outcome of this experiment was as expected, and the circuit theorems to study are
verified following the comparison of theoretical and practical measured values
obtained from the former verified the circuit theorems under study. Through the
preparation and the realization of this experiment, the content of the course with
regard to more complex circuit analysis has been revised. Furthermore, the analysis of
the results lead to the initiation to SPICE simulation which introduced a new circuit
analysis
technique
and
the
way
that
actual
engineers
work.
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