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Project

MICRO-CONTROLLER BASED BOTTEL


SEPERATING PROCESS

FUTURE WORD
SUBMITTED IN FULLFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT OF BACHELOR OF
ENGINEERING

SUBMITTED BY,
ABBASI MOHAMMED RIZWAN
ANSARI ARSALAN

ROLL NO: 01
ROLL NO:

06
AWADHUT BHANDARE
AVINASH GAIKWAD
28

GUIDED BY
YUGANDHARA CHOUDHARY

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT
S.S.SANE

MUMBAI UNIVERSITY
1 | Page

ROLL NO: 10
ROLL NO:

2015-2016

CERTIFICATE

SARASWATI EDUCATION SOCIETY GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS


FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
This is to certify that project "MICROCONTROLLER BASED METAL BOTTLE
SEPARATING PROCESS" is submitted by the following students of the final
year Electrical Engineering of academic year 2015-2016 in a satisfactory
manner as per the rules and regulations lay down by the institution and
Mumbai University.

ABBASI MOHAMMED RIZWAN


ANSARI ARSALAN

ROLL NO: 01
ROLL NO:

06
AWADHUT BHANDARE
AVINASH GAIKWAD

ROLL NO: 10
ROLL NO:

28

..

PROJECT GUIDE
(Miss Yugandhara chaudhary)
(Miss Sharwari Sane)

2 | Page

HOD. (Elect)

EXTEANALEXAMINER
PRINCIPAL

( Mr.Prafu
l Jawanjal)

PREFACE
We take an opportunity to present this project report on
Microcontroller based bottle separating process and put before
readers some useful information regarding our project.
We have made sincere attempts and taken every care to present
this manner in precise and compact form, the language is being as simple as
possible.
We are sure that the information contained in this volume would
certainly prove useful for better insight in the dimension of this project in its
true perspective.
The task of completion of the project through being difficult was
made simple, interesting and successful due to deep involvement and
complete dedication of our group Leader.

3 | Page

Acknowledgement

It is indeed a matter of great pleasure of great pleasure and proud


privilege to be able to present this project on MICRO-CONTROLLER
BASED BOTTEL SEPERATING PROCESS.
The completion of the project work is a milestone on student life and its
execution is inevitable in the hands of guide. We are highly indebted the
project guide MS YUGANDHARA CHOUDHARY for her invaluable guidance and
appreciation for giving form and substance to this report. It is due to her
enduring efforts; Patience and enthusiasm, which has given a sense of
direction and purposefulness to this project and ultimately made it a success.
We would like to tender our sincere thanks the staff members for their cooperation.
We would wish to thank the non-teaching staff and our friends who
have helped us all the time in one way or the other.
Really it is highly impossible to repay the debt of all the people who
have directly or indirectly helped us for performing the project.

4 | Page

Abstract

This project is discussed about the design and implementation of


the automated bottle separation using Micro-controller. Conveying and
separation of bottles is done automatically with the help of proper
programmed

circuits.

This

concept

will

be

implemented

in

large

manufacturing industries where constant and continuous processing is


required.
In addition to correctly orienting containers, both wheel and belt
separators can be used to, in a manner of speaking, orient the space
between the bottles without having to remove the bottles from the power
conveyer. Returning to the labeling example, some bottles may not need to
be correctly oriented, but depending to the label type, project may need
space between each bottle. This extra space ensures that labels are applied
consistently and without wrinkles by ensuring that there is no back pressure
on bottles as they move through the labeling machine. Bottle separators also
ensure that the labels are applied one to each bottle, stopping corners from
affixing to a waiting bottle or an existing bottle. Space orienting may, also
5 | Page

take place where a pack station is used, making it easier on manual labor to
grab and pack the product as necessary.

INDEX
SR.NO
PAGE NO

TITLE NAME

Preface
03

Acknowledgement
04
Abstract

3
05
4

Chapter 1
08
-Introduction
08
-History
10

6 | Page

Chapter 2
11
-Working Principle
11
-Construction
13
- Microcontroller- 89S51

14
- Voltage regulator -7805

22
- 230v to 12v step down

24

transformer

- Inductive sensor

25
- IR Sensor

27
- Relay Driver

31
- LCD Display

32
- Power Supply

34
6

Chapter 3
39
-Operation
39
-Advantages, Disadvantages,
40
Applications.

Chapter 4
41
-List of Component
41

7 | Page

Chapter 5
49

-program
49

10

Chapter

51
-Future

Expansion

51
11

Chapter
57
-Conclusion
57

12

-Reference
58

8 | Page

Chapter 1
Introduction

Our group believes that modernization of industries is very


important from the production & Increasing demand point of view. This is
only possible if we apply the latest modern technologys to manufacture and
process the product. For example, if the metal and plastic bottle is needed
to separate from the same conveyer this process can continuously done by
the microcontroller based operating system & it can work accurately through
entire operation. In this concept the human interface is totally been
redundant. The machines work together as programmed.
9 | Page

Final product of the project will be micro-controller based


bottle separating process. Where the conveyer will carry two different types
of bottles which are sensed by the sensors and depending upon bottle
material the bottles are separated by a mechanical arm. This process is
continuous and accurate. This product is prototype of such large machines
which do the conveying, separation and staking. This will help increase the
production rate with reliable and accurate processing.
Automation or automatic control is the use of various control systems for
operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and
heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks, steering and
stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced
human intervention. Some processes have been completely automated.
The biggest benefit of automation is that it saves labor; however, it is also
used to save energy and materials and to improve quality, accuracy and
precision.
The

term automation,

inspired

by

the

earlier

word automatic (coming

from automaton), was not widely used before 1947, when General Motors
established an automation department. It was during this time that industry
was rapidly adopting feedback controllers, which were introduced in the
1930s.
Automation has been achieved by various means including mechanical,
hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, electronic devices and computers, usually in
combination. Complicated systems, such as modern factories, airplanes and
ships typically use all these combined techniques

10 | P a g e

History
The first single chip microcontroller was the 4 bit Intel 4004 released in
1971, with other more capable processors available over the next several
years. These, however all required external chips to implement a working
system, raising total system cost, and making it possible to economically
computerize appliances.
The first computer system on a chip optimized for control applicationmicro controllers was the Intel 8048 Released in 1976, the both RAM and
ROM on the same chip. This chip would find its way into over one Billion PC
keyboards, and other numerous applications.
Most Microcontrollers at this time had two variants. One had an
erasable EEPROM programmer memory, Which Was significantly more
expensive than the PROM variant which was only programmable once.
The Evolution of microcontrollers has undergone a significant change
since 1070s. The Development table of microcontrollers is given below:

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Chapter 2
Working Principle

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The Micro-controllers (89S51) can be programmed thousands of times &


wide ranges of programs are available and can be created for various
purpose. Here it is programmed to separate the bottles.
The circuit needs 5v of power supply so we cannot connect it to 230v
power supply directly so step down transformer which steps the voltage
down to 12v then through voltage regulator(7805) 5v supply is given to the
main circuit.
When the power is given to the circuit then the conveyer starts the
bottle conveying now inductive sensor senses the metal object (Bottle) and
the pulse is given to the microcontroller which decides where to put the
bottle with the help of robotic arm. With helm of Diode, Current limiting
resistor and photodiode the microcontroller counts the bottle passed through
and this counting is displayed on the LCD display.
The conveyer motor is 12v, 100RPM permanent magnet motor &
robotic arm motor is also 12v, 30RPM permanent magnet motor. The process
is controlled by the microcontroller which is accurate and reliable.

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Construction

Major equipments:1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
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Microcontroller- 89S51
Voltage regulator -7805
230v to 12v step down transformer
Inductive sensor
IR Sensor
Relay Driver
LCD Display
Power Supply

MICROCONTROLLER 89S51
The main purpose of using this microcontroller is that it has Skilo bytes of
internal flash memory and it can be programmed thousand times. It needs 5
volt to program & function.

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BLOCK DIAGRAM OF 89S51

17 | P a g e

Pin Description of 89S51


4. Pin Description
VCC
Supply voltage.
GND
Ground.
Port 0
Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bi-directional I/O port. As an output port, each
pin can sink eight TTL
Inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as highimpedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed loworder address/data bus during accesses to external program and data
memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code
bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program
verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification.
Port 1
Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1
output buffers can
Sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are
pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port
1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of
the internal pull-ups. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during
Flash programming and verification.

Port 2
Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2
output buffers can

18 | P a g e

Sink/ source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are
pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port
2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of
the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches
from external program memory and during accesses to external data
memory that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, Port 2
uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external
data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the
contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the highorder address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and
verification.

Port 3
Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3
output buffers can
Sink/ source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are
pulled high by the interPort Pin Alternate Functions
P1.5 MOSI (used for In-System Programming)
P1.6 MISO (used for In-System Programming)
P1.7 SCK (used for In-System Programming)
nal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are
externally being pulled low
Will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups.
Port 3 receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification.
Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S51, as
shown in the following
Table.

19 | P a g e

RST
Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is
running resets
The device. This pin drives High for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog
times out. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable
this feature. In the default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is
enabled.
4.8 ALE/PROG
Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the
address during
Accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input
(PROG) during Flash
Programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6
the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking
purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access
to external data memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting
bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX
or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the
ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution
mode.
PSEN

20 | P a g e

Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory.
When the AT89S51 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN
is activated twice
Each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during
each access to external data memory.
EA/VPP
External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the
device to fetch
Code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to
FFFFH. Note, however,
That if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset.
EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions.
This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during
Flash programming.
XTAL1
Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock
operating circuit.
XTAL2
Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier
11. Oscillator Characteristics
XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting
amplifier that can be
Configured for use as an on-chip oscillator, as shown in Figure 11-1. Either a
quartz crystal or
Ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock
source, XTAL2
Should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven, as shown in Figure 11-2.
There are no

21 | P a g e

Requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input
to the internal clocking Circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but
minimum and maximum voltage high and low
Time specifications must be observed.
Figure 11-1. Oscillator Connections
Note: C1, C2 = 30 pF 10 pF for Crystals
= 40 pF 10 pF for Ceramic Resonators
C2
XTAL2
GND
XTAL1
C1
Basic Reset Ckt.
For 89c51 and 89s51

6. Memory Organization
MCS-51 devices have a separate address space for Program and Data
Memory. Up to 64K
bytes each of external Program and Data Memory can be addressed.
6.1 Program Memory
If the EA pin is connected to GND, all program fetches are directed to
external memory.
On the AT89S51, if EA is connected to VCC, program fetches to addresses
0000H through FFFH are directed to internal memory and fetches to
addresses 1000H through FFFFH are directed to external memory.

22 | P a g e

6.2 Data Memory


The AT89S51 implements 128 bytes of on-chip RAM. The 128 bytes are
accessible via direct
and indirect addressing modes. Stack operations are examples of indirect
addressing, so the
128 bytes of data RAM are available as stack space.
Serial Programming Algorithm
To program and verify the AT89S51 in the serial programming mode, the
following sequence is recommended:
1. Power-up sequence:
a. Apply power between VCC and GND pins.
b. Set RST pin to H.
If a crystal is not connected across pins XTAL1 and XTAL2, apply a 3 MHz to
33 MHz clock to
XTAL1 pin and wait for at least 10 milliseconds.
2. Enable serial programming by sending the Programming Enable serial
instruction to pin
MOSI/P1.5. The frequency of the shift clock supplied at pin SCK/P1.7 needs to
be less
than the CPU clock at XTAL1 divided by 16.
3. The Code array is programmed one byte at a time in either the Byte or
Page mode. The
write cycle is self-timed and typically takes less than 0.5 ms at 5V.
4. Any memory location can be verified by using the Read instruction that
returns the content
at the selected address at serial output MISO/P1.6.
5. At the end of a programming session, RST can be set low to commence
normal device
Operation.
Power-off sequence (if needed):
1. Set XTAL1 to L (if a crystal is not used).
23 | P a g e

2. Set RST to L.
3. Turn VCC power off.
Data Polling: The Data Polling feature is also available in the serial mode. In
this mode, during A write cycle an attempted read of the last byte written
will result in the complement of the MSB Of the serial output byte on MISO.

LM7805 Series Voltage Regulators

VOLTAGE REGULATOR: A voltage regulator is an electricalregulator


designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. It may use an
24 | P a g e

electromechanical mechanism, or passive or active electronic components.


Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC
voltages. With the exception of shunt regulators, all voltage regulators
operate by comparing the actual output voltage to some internal fixed
reference voltage. Any difference is amplified and used to control the
regulation element. This forms a negative feedbackservo control loop. If the
output voltage is too low, the regulation element is commanded to produce a
higher voltage. If the output voltage is too high, the regulation element is
commanded to produce a lower voltage. In this way, the output voltage is
held roughly constant.

General Description
The LM78XX series of three terminal regulators is available with
several fixed output voltages making them useful in a wide range of
applications. One of these is local on card regulation, eliminating the
distribution problems associated with single point regulation. The voltages
available allow these regulators to be used in logic systems, instrumentation,
HiFi, and other solid-state electronic equipment. Although designed primarily
as fixed voltage regulators these devices can be used with external
components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents. The LM78XX series
is available in an aluminumTO-3 package, which will allow over 1.0A load
25 | P a g e

current if adequate heat sinking is provided. Current limiting is included to


limit the peak output current to a safe value. Safe area protection for the
output transistor is provided to limit internal power dissipation. If internal
power dissipation becomes too high for the heat sinking provided, the
thermal shutdown circuit takes over preventing the IC from overheating.
Considerable effort was expanded to make the LM78XX series of regulators
easy to use and minimize the number of external components. It is not
necessary to bypass the output, although this does improve transient
response. Input bypassing is needed only if the regulator is located far from
the filter capacitor of the power supply. For output voltage other than 5V,
12V and 15V the LM117series provides an output voltage range from 1.2V to
57V.
FEATURES

Output current in excess of 1A


Internal thermal overload protection
No external components required
Output transistor safe area protection
Internal short circuit current limit
Available in the aluminum TO-3 package

Voltage Range

LM7805C 5V
LM7812C 12V
LM7815C 15V

Typical Application Circuit

26 | P a g e

In our project we require power supply of 5V. From the mains supply we get
230V, 50 Hz. So to convert that configuration into the required configuration
we need to use following circuits with signal conditioners:

STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER


FULL WAVE BRIDGE RECTIFIER
FILTER CONDENSER
D.C. REGULATED 3 PIN I .C.

Transformer here used is the CENTER TAPPED STEP DOWN


TRANSFORMER. The primary winding turns are greater than that of the
secondary. Input supply to primary is 230V, 50 Hz that produces the 0-24V at
the secondary. Secondary of the transformer is connected to the FULL
WAVE BRIDGE RECTIFIER. It gives unipolar waveform of the transformer
output. It converts the a.c. supply into D.C. voltage.
Output at the bridge rectifier is:
Vdc=2*(Vin)/pi
Vrms=Vm/2
But output obtained from the rectifier is not complete ripple free and
contains the ac nature. Thus it needs to be smoothened using FILTER
CONDENSER. Here the capacitor assembly allows only its rated voltage
through it for one cycle. Property of capacitor to be insensitive to the high
frequency at the input side helps to have smooth output.
Sometimes, due to mains power supply fluctuation and the ageing of
the circuit components the output fails to remain at constant level. Thus we
need to add the VOLTAGE REGULATORS.
Due to the high voltage operating temperatures there may be heat
generation, which leads to the sparks or may even catch fire and damage
the whole circuitry. Thus we use heat sink. All the output is then connected to
the connector to provide the supply for remaining circuit.

INDUCTIVE SENSORS
27 | P a g e

Inductive proximity sensors are noncontact proximity devices


that set up a radio frequency field with an oscillator and a coil. The presence
of an object alters this field and the sensor is able to detect this alteration.
An inductive proximity sensor comprises an LC oscillating circuit, a signal
evaluator, and a switching amplifier. The coil of this oscillating circuit
generates a high-frequency electromagnetic alternating field. This field is
emitted at the sensing face of the sensor. If a metallic object (switching
trigger) nears the sensing face, eddy currents are generated. The resultant
losses draw energy from the oscillating circuit and reduce the oscillations.
The signal evaluator behind the LC oscillating circuit converts this
information into a clear signal. The measurement of proximity, position and
displacement of objects is essential in many different applications: valve
position, level detection, process control, machine control, security, etc.
The body style of inductive proximity sensors can be barrel,
limit switch, rectangular, slot, or ring. A barrel body style is cylindrical in
shape, typically threaded. A limit switch body style is similar in appearance
to a contact limit switch. The sensor is separated from the switching
mechanism and provides a limit of travel detection signal. A rectangular or
block body style is a one piece rectangular or block shaped sensor. A slot
style body is designed to detect the presence of a vane or tab as it passes
through a sensing slot, or "U" channel. A ring shaped body style is a
"doughnut" shaped sensor, where the object passes through center of ring.
Electrical connections for proximity sensors, inductive can be fixed cable,
connector(s), and terminals. A fixed cable is an integral part of sensor and
often includes "bare" stripped leads. A sensor with connectors has an
integral connector for attaching into an existing system. A sensor with
terminals has the ability to screw or clamp down.
Important specifications for proximity sensors, inductive include
operating distance, repeatability, field adjustable, and minimum target
distance. Rated operating distance is the distance at which switching takes
place. Repeatability is the distance within which the sensor repeatably
switches. It is a measure of precision. Field adjustable sensors can be
adjustable while in use. Depending on the sensor's technology, there can be
minimum target size requirements.
Load configurations are also important parameters to consider.
Inductive proximity sensors may switch an AC load or a DC load. DC load
configurations can be NPN or PNP. NPN is a transistor output that switches
the common or negative voltage to the load; load connected between sensor
output and positive voltage supply. PNP is a transistor output that switches
the positive voltage to the load; load connected between sensor output and
voltage supply common or negative. Wire configurations are 2-wire, 3-wire
NPN, 3-wire PNP, 4-wire NPN, and 4-wire PNP. Switch types can be normally
open (NO) or normally closed (NC). Switch specifications include whether or
28 | P a g e

not the switch is normally open or normally closed. Switch repeatability and
maximum switching frequency are important parameters to consider. The
switch may be a NAMUR type switch, a specialized switch for switching a
resistive load. Requires an external amplifier.
Other important parameters to consider when specifying inductive proximity
sensors include power requirements, housing materials, dimensions, special
features, and environmental operating conditions.
|

HOME

Proximity Sensors
- Proximity Sensors Overview
-Capacitive Proximity Sensors
-InductiveProximitySensor
-Magnetic Proximity Sensors

29 | P a g e

IR Sensor

The photo depicts the schematics for an infrared sensor which allows you to
detect an object's distance from the robot. The big picture problem is attach
this infrared sensor on both wings of the aerial robot. Attaching these
sensors on the wing tips will help the robot navigate through the halls of any
building.. This tutorial shows you how to construct and test one infrared
sensor and takes approximately 3 hours to complete.

DESIGN OF INFRARED SENSOR CIRCUIT:

Principle of operation of the I.R. L.E.D. and Phototransistor:A Photodiode is a p-n junction or p-i-n structure. When an infrared photon of
sufficient energy strikes the diode, it excites an electron thereby creating a
mobile electron and a positively charged electron hole. If the absorption
occurs in the junction's depletion region, or one diffusion length away from it,
these carriers are swept from the junction by the built-in field of the
30 | P a g e

depletion region, producing a photocurrent. Photodiodes can be used under


either zero bias (photovoltaic mode) or reverse bias (photoconductive mode).
Reverse bias induces only little current (known as saturation or back current)
along its direction. But a more important effect of reverse bias is widening of
the

depletion

layer

(therefore

expanding

the

reaction

volume)

and

strengthening the photocurrent when infrared falls on it. There is a limit on


the distance between I.R. L.E.D. and infrared sensor for the pair to operate in
the desired manner. In our case distance is about 5mm.

Position calculation is done through


Intensity of reflected light received by
The detector.
Ambient interference is negligible.
Infra-Red emitter sends out IR pulses.

POSITIONING OF SENSORS:31 | P a g e

32 | P a g e

The resistance of the sensor decreases when IR (infrared)


light falls on it. A good sensor will have near zero resistance in presence of
light and a very large resistance in absence of light. Whether the sensors are
Light Dependent Resistors, laser diode, Infrared Sensors, Ultrasonic Sensors
or anything else, the outputs of the sensor modules are fed to the Noninverting input of a comparator . The reference voltage of the comparator is
fed to the inverting input of the comparator by a trim pot or a tuning device
connected between the supply lines. LM339 is a comparator IC that digitizes
the analog signal from the sensor array. Since the output of LM339 is TTL
compatible it can be directly fed to the master microcontroller.

EMITTER
33 | P a g e

The

generalized

microcontroller

34 | P a g e

connection
is

diagram

of

Sensor
shown

Interfacing

with

below:-

The eight NPN Darlington connected transistors in this family of arrays are
ideally suited for interfacing between low logic level digital circuitry (such as
TTL, CMOS or PMOS/NMOS) and the higher current/voltage requirements of
lamps, relays, printer hammers or other similar loads for a broad range of
computer, industrial, and consumer applications. All devices feature open
collector outputs and freewheeling clamp diodes for transient suppression.
The ULN2803 is designed to be compatible with standard TTL families while
the ULN2804 is optimized for 6 to 15 volt high level CMOS or PMOS.
Features
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Eight darlingtons with common emitters;


Output current to 500 Ma;
Output voltage to 50 V;
Integral suppression diodes;
Versions for all popular logic families;
Output can be paralleled;
Inputs pinned opposite outputs to simplify board layout.

LCD Display
DISPLAY:
Various display device such as seven segment display. LCD display,
etc can be interfaced with microcontroller to read the output directly. In our
project we use a two line LCD display with 16 characters each.
LCD
Liquid crystal Display (LCD) displays temperature of the measured
element, which is calculated by the microcontroller. CMOS technology makes

35 | P a g e

the device ideal for application in hand held, portable and other battery
instruction with low power consumption.
GENERAL SPECIFICATION:
Drive method: 1/16 duty cycle
Display size: 16 character * 2 lines
Character structure: 5*8 dots.
Display data RAM: 80 characters (80*8 bits)

Character generate ROM: 192 characters


Character generate RAM: 8 characters (64*8 bits)
Both display data and character generator RAMs can be read from
MPU.
Internal automatic reset circuit at power ON.
Built in oscillator circuit.
Net Media 2x16 Serial LCD Display Module

Pin Configuration
JP1/JP14 Pins 1 8
Pin1
Pin2
Pin3
Pin4
Pin5
Pin6
Pin7
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Description
Ground
VCC (+5)
Contrast
Data/Command (R/S)
Read/Write (W)
Enable (E1)
D0 (Not Used)

JP1/JP14 Pins 9 -16


Pin9
Pin10
Pin11
Pin12
Pin13
Pin14
Pin15

Description
D2 (Not Used)
D3 (Not Used)
D4
D5
D6
D7
VCC (LEDSV+)

Pin8

D1 (Not Used)

Pin16

Ground

LCD Control Codes


Description

Keyboard Code

ASCII or Decimal
value

Display custom character


0-7
BackSpace
Horizontal Tab
New Line
Vertical Tab
Form Feed (Clear Screen)
Carriage Return
Reset Controller
Set Geometry
Set Tab Size
Set Cursor Position
*Not Used
Set Contrast
Set Backlight
Command Escape
Data Escape
Raw Data Escape
*Not Used
Display an ASCII
Character

Ctrl-@ -Through- CtrlG


Ctrl-H
Ctrl-I
Ctrl-J
Ctrl-K
Ctrl-L
Ctrl-M
Ctrl-N
Ctrl-O
Ctrl-P
Ctrl-Q
*****
Ctrl-S
Ctrl-T
Ctrl-U
Ctrl-V
Ctrl-W
*****
None

0-7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
**
19
20
21
22
23
**
22 255

Power supply design:Power supply is the first and the most important part of our project. For
our project we require +5V regulated power supply with maximum current
rating 500Ma.
Following basic building blocks are required to generate regulated
power supply.

Regulated O/P Three


Terminal
Voltage
Voltage req.

Filter
Ckt.

Mains 230 V A.C.


Rectifier Step-down transformer
37 | P a g e

FIGURE 4.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF POWER SUPPLY

Step down Transformer:-

Step down transformer is the first part of regulated power supply. To


step down the mains 230V A.C. we require step down transformer. Following
are the main characteristic of electronic transformer.
1) Power transformers are usually designed to operate from source of
low impedance at a single freq.
2) It is required to construct with sufficient insulation of necessary
dielectric strength.
3) Transformer ratings are expressed in voltamp. The volt-amp of
each secondary winding or windings are added for the total
secondary VA. To this are added the load losses.
4) Temperature rise of a transformer is decided on two well-known
factors i.e. losses on transformer and heat dissipating or cooling
facility provided unit.

Rectifier Unit:Rectifier unit is a ckt. which converts A.C. into pulsating D.C. Generally
semi-conducting diode is used as rectifying element due to its property of
conducting current in one direction only. Generally there are two types of
rectifier.
1) Half wave rectifier
2) Full wave rectifier.
In half wave rectifier only half cycle of mains A.C. is rectified so its
efficiency is very poor. So we use full wave bridge type rectifier, in which four
diodes are used. In each half cycle, two diodes conduct at a time and we get
maximum efficiency at o/p.
Following are the main advantages and disadvantages of a full-wave
bridge type rectifier ckt.

Advantages:

1) The need of center tapped transformer is eliminated.


2) The o/p is twice that of center tap circuit for the same
secondary voltage.
3) The PIV rating of diode is half of the center tap circuit.

Disadvantages:
1) It requires four diodes.
2) As during each half cycle of A.C. input, two diodes are
conducting therefore voltage drop in internal resistance of
rectifying unit will be twice as compared to center tap circuit.

38 | P a g e

Filter Circuit :Generally a rectifier is required to produce pure D.C. supply for using at
various places in the electronic circuit. However, the o/p of rectifier has
pulsating character i.e. if such a D.C. is applied to electronic circuit it will
produce a hum i.e. it will contain A.C. and D.C. components. The A.C.
components are undesirable and must be kept away from the load. To do so
a filter circuit is used which removes (or filters out) the A.C. components
reaching the load. Obviously a filter circuit is installed between rectifier and
voltage regulator. In our project we use capacitor filter because of its low
cost, small size and little weight and good characteristic. Capacitors are
connected in parallel to the rectifier o/p because it passes A.C. but does not
pass D.C. at all.

Three terminal voltage regulator:-

A voltage regulator is a ckt. that supplies constant voltage regardless


of change in load current. IC voltage regulators are versatile and relatively
cheaper. The 7800 series consists of three terminal positive voltage
regulator. These ICs are designed as fixed voltage regulator and with
adequate heat sink, can deliver o/p current in excess of 1A. These devices do
not require external component. This IC also has internal thermal overload
protection and internal short circuit and current limiting protection. For our
project we use 7805 voltage regulator IC.

FIGIRE 4.2 POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT

Design of Step down Transformer


The following information must be available to the designer before he
commences for the design of transformer.
1) Power Output.
39 | P a g e

2) Operating Voltage.
3) Frequency Range.
4)Efficiency and Regulation.

Size of core;Size of core is one of the first considerations in regard of weight and
volume of transformer. This depends on type of core and winding
configuration used. Generally following formula is used to find area or size of
core.
Ai
Ai
P1

P1
----------0.87

= Area of cross - section in Sq. cm. and


= Primary voltage.

In transformer
P1 = P2
For our project we required +5V regulated output. So transformer
secondary rating is 12V, 500mA.
So secondary power wattage is,
P2
= 12 x 500 x 10-3 w.
= 6w.
6
So

Ai

=
0.87

= 2.62
Generally 10% of area should be added to core to accommodate all
turns for low Iron losses and compact size.
So
Ai
= 2.88.

Turns per volt :-

Turns per volt of transformer are given by relation


10,000
Turns / Volt = ----------------------4.44 f Bm Ai
Here,
f is the frequency in Hz
Bm is flux density in Wb/m2
Ai is net area of cross section.

40 | P a g e

Following table gives the value of turns per volt for 50 Hz frequency.
Flux density Wb/m2
Turns per volt

1.14
40/Ai

1.01
45/Ai

0.91
50/Ai

0.83
55/Ai

0.76
60/Ai

TABLE 4.1 TURNS PER VOLT VALUES FOR 50 Hz.


Generally lower the flux density better be quality of transformer.
For project for 50 Hz the turns per Volt for 0.91 Wb/m2 from above
table.
Turns per Volt

= 50 / Ai
50
=
2.88
17

Thus for Primary winding


& for Secondary winding

= 220 x 17 = 3800.
= 12 x 17 = 204.

Wire size:As stated above size depends upon the current to be carried out by the
winding, which depends upon current density of 3.1 A/mm2. For less copper
losses 1.6 A/mm2 or 2.4 A/mm2 may be used. Generally even size gauge of
wire are used.

Rectifier Design:-

R.M.S. Secondary voltage at secondary of transformer is 12V.

So maximum voltage Vm across Secondary is


= Rms. Voltage x 2
= 12 x 2
= 16.97
D.C. O/p Voltage at rectifier O/p is
Vdc

41 | P a g e

2 Vm
---------

2 x 16.97
----------------------

= 10.80 V
PIV rating of each diode is
PIV

= 2 Vm.
= 2 x 16.97
= 34 V
& maximum forward current which flow from each diode is 500mA.
So from above parameter we select diode IN 4007 from diode selection
manual.

Design of Filter Capacitor


Formula for calculating filter capacitor is,
1
C
=
---------------------43 r f RL.
r
= ripple present at o/p of rectifier.
(Which is maximum 0.1 for full wave rectifier.)
F
= frequency of mains A.C.
RL
= I/p impedance of voltage regulator IC.

1
-----------------------------43 x 0.1 x 50 x 28

= 1030 f
1000 f.
And voltage rating of filter capacitor is double of Vdc i.e. rectifier
o/p which is 20V. So we choose 1000 f / 25V filter capacitor.

IC 7805 (Voltage Regulator IC.)


Specifications :
Available o/p D.C. Voltage
= + 5V.
Line Regulation
= 0.03
Load Regulation
= 0.5
Vin maximum
= 35 V
Ripple Rejection
= 66-80 (db)

Chapter 3
Operation
42 | P a g e

1 Phase 230 volt supply is given to step down transformer which


steps down the voltage to 12 volts This AC voltage is then converted to DC
by Bridge Rectifier and 1000microf Capacitor is connected in parallel to
reduce ripple content this DC voltage is then applied to voltage regulator
(7805) this further gives 5 volt pure DC supply to the microcontroller.
Microcontroller needs three things to run Power we just gave, clock
& reset. Clocking is provided by the oscillator (11.0592 MHz) connected
between 18 and 19 pin of microcontroller with two capacitors which helps
crystal to Oscillate and crystal starts clocking which help to execute
program. Pin 9 is Reset which is called power on reset it has one capacitor
and resistor and supply is connected through this to pin 9 when supply is
given it resets the microcontroller and starts it from 0 Position.
Inductive sensors are being used to detect metal bottles which are
going to separate from the non-metallic bottles with the help of robot arm.
When supply is given conveyer starts conveying. If any metallic bottle is
passing below the Inductive sensor it will give signal to microcontroller and
robotic arm will separate the bottle from the conveyer.
For counting the bottles processed one LED Diode and photodiode is
used for counting the objects this data is continuously displayed on the LCD
screen. This is the operation of project in simple language.

Advantages:-

43 | P a g e

1)
2)
3)
4)

Very Fast operation is achievable trough this circuit.


Reliable and Accurate work is done.
Maintenance and operating cost is less.
Power requires is less for operation it is important from energy

conservation point of view


5) The components used in the circuit are cheap and easily available in
market.

Disadvantage:1) It does not provide more functions as other system are providing
over controlling (PLC based systems).
2) The system is less secured.

Application:1) This process can be implemented in various industries. For EX.


Pharmaceutical, Cold drink manufacturer, etc.
2) As the process is simple it can be used in the packaging
industries to separate the metal and non-metal objects.
3) As this system has gas detector it can be used to detect weather
there is harmful gas is being produced during processing.

Chapter 4
List Of Components

44 | P a g e

Voltage Regulator

Product Image

Item Name-

Price

Price - Rs.15.00

7805 - 5V voltage regulator


This is an positive 5V - 500mA to 1.5A regulator

Price - Rs.5.00

78L05 - 5V regulator
This 7805 is an 5V 100mA regulator in TO92 package. 78 L 05 'L' stands for
low power. useful in low power application.

Price - Rs.45.00

LDO Regulator 3.3V


AMS1117-33 is a 800mA LOW DROPOUT VOLTAGE REGULATOR in SOT-223
SMD package. Input voltage difference min 1V to max 1.3V.

Price - Rs.25.00

LDO Regulator 3.3V


LM1117-3.3 is low dropout regulator in SMD.

Price - Rs.25.00

LDO Regulator 5.0V

LED Diodes

Product Image

45 | P a g e

Item Name-

Price

LED RED - 3mm


Price - Rs.2.00

LED GREEN - 3mm


Price - Rs.2.00

LED Red 5mm


Price - Rs.2.00

LED Green 5mm


Price - Rs.2.00

LED-RGB diffused Common Cathode


Price - Rs.20.00
16x2 LCD with green Backlight
Price - Rs.240.00

GLCD 128x64
Price - Rs.900.00

IC Base

46 | P a g e

LED YELLOW - 3mm


Price - Rs.2.00

LED Yellow - 5mm


Price - Rs.2.00

Product Image

Item Name8 pin to 16 Pin IC Base

20 Pin IC Base

28 Pin IC Base Narrow

40 Pin IC Base

ZIF Socket 20 PIN

ZIF Socket 40 PIN

Transistor

47 | P a g e

Price
Price - Rs.8.00

Price - Rs.10.00

Price - Rs.14.00

Price - Rs.20.00

Price - Rs.65.00

Price - Rs.90.00

48 | P a g e

Product Image

Item Name-

Price

BC547 Transistor .

Price - Rs.8.00

BC557 Transistor

Price - Rs.8.00

BC549 Transistor

Price - Rs.8.00

SK100 & SL100 Transistor

Price - Rs.10.00

IRFZ44 mosfet

Price - Rs.20.00

ICS

Product Image

IC-555
Price - Rs.10.00

49 | P a g e

Item Name-

IC -HT12E & D
Price - Rs.90.00

Price

IC- ULN2803
Price - Rs.30.00

IC-MAX232
Price - Rs.35.00

IC-LM324
Price - Rs.25.00

IC-CD4047
Price - Rs.20.00

IC-DTMF8870D
Price - Rs.85.00

IC-CD4047
Price - Rs.20.00

IC-LS74244 & LS74245


Price - Rs.35.00

IC-ADC0808
Price - Rs.100.00

IC-7414
Price - Rs.25.00

IC-L293D
Price - Rs.60.00

MICROCONTROLLER

Product Image

50 | P a g e

Item Name-

Price

MICROCONTROLLER
89S51

Price - Rs.85.00

MICROCONTROLLER
AVR8535

Price - Rs.150.00

MICROCONTROLLER
AVR16

Price - Rs.170.00

MICROCONTROLLER
ARM7-LPC2148SMD64PIN

Price - Rs.700.00

MICROCONTROLLER
PIC-16F877A

Price - Rs.160.00

Motors

Product Image

51 | P a g e

Item Name-

Price

5 RPM to 1500 RPM

Price - Rs.250.00

12v DC Reduction Gear Motor

2.7 RPM to 500 RPM

Price - Rs.500.00

12v DC Reduction Gear Motor

2.7 RPM to 500 RPM high torque

Price - Rs.850.00

12v DC Reduction Gear Motor

12v DC Reduction Gear BO motor

Price - Rs.250.00

30 RPM to 150 RPM

3to 6v Motor 1400RPM

Price - Rs.50.00

(also as techo Generator )

Price - Rs.20.00

3v vibration Motor

Wheel & Tire

Product Image
52 | P a g e

Item Name-

Price

4 inch Bore Wheel thick

4 inch Bore Wheel thin

Price - Rs.80.00

Price - Rs.70.00

Price - Rs.50.00

2 inch Bore Wheel thin

Price - Rs.50.00

2 inch Bore Wheel thick

Price - Rs.50.00

2 inch plastic wheel

Price - Rs.40.00

Chapter 5
Program
53 | P a g e

Dim A As Byte
Dim C As Byte
P1 = 255
P2 = 0
Cls
Lcd " SES GOI FOE"
Wait 2

Cls
Lcd "Guided By:Prof. "
Lowerline
Lcd "Yugandhara C."
Wait 2
Cls
Lcd " Metal Bottle"
Lowerline
Lcd " Seperator "
Wait 2
Do

Cls
Lcd "Metal: " ; Not P1.0
Lowerline
Lcd "Count:" ; C

P2.0 = 1
P2.1 = 0
If P1.0 = 0 Then
Waitms 250
Waitms 250
54 | P a g e

Waitms 250
P2.0 = 0
P2.1 = 1
Waitms 250
P2.1 = 0
C=C+1
Wait 1
End If

Waitms 100
Loop

Chapter 6
Future expansion

55 | P a g e

This system can be further improved by using PLC (Programmable


Logic Controllers) which provides variety of controls and functions

which processing industries require.


By providing security to the system more stability can be caused.
By using latest Capacitive and Inductive sensors the process can be on
the level of accuracy.

In future various modifications can be done in various industrial purposes the


component lists are as follows:-

SENSOR / MODULE
56 | P a g e

Product Image

Item Name-

MQ-3 alcohol sensor

230v/3-0-3 step down


Transformer PT voltage sensor

CT sensor current sensor

Price

Price - Rs.250.00

Price - Rs.65.00

Price - Rs.95.00

Price - Rs.350.00

PIR sensor

Magnetic flux sensor

Price - Rs.150.00

Switches

Product Image

57 | P a g e

Item Name-

Price

2 pin push to on switch

4 pin push to on switch

3 pin Limit switch

2 pin push to on switch

3 pin Slide Switch

3 pin Toggle Switch

Relay

58 | P a g e

Price - Rs.8.00

Price - Rs.10.00

Price - Rs.25.00

Price - Rs.20.00

Price - Rs.15.00

Price - Rs.20.00

Product Image

Item Name-

12v SPDT 25 amp Relay

Heat sink all size

230v/9v Transformer

230v/12v Transformer

230v 2 pin power cord

Connector

59 | P a g e

Price

Price - Rs.45.00

Price - Rs.5 to 500.00

Price - Rs.75.00

Price - Rs.120.00

Price - Rs.20.00

Product Image

Item Name-

Price
Price - Rs.12.00

Burg strip connector

Burg strip connector socket

Price - Rs.18.00

DB9 Male/Female PCB


Mount Connector

Price - Rs.20.00

DB25 Male/Female PCB

Price - Rs.25.00

Mount Connector

Price - Rs.18.00

10-PIN CONNECTOR W/ HEADER

Price - Rs.6.00

3-PIN CONNECTOR W/ HEADER

MIX
Product Image

60 | P a g e

Item Name-

Price

Solder Wire 24 Gauge

Solder iron 25w

Price - Rs.40.00

Price - Rs.140.00

Copper wire
Gauges 1 to 36

Price - Rs.1200.00
Per kg/-

Copper clad PCB

Price - Rs.30.00

Copper clad PCB

Price - Rs.50.00

General Dot PCB

Price - Rs.40.00

1mm PCB drill Tool kit

Chapter 7

61 | P a g e

Conclusion
NEGLECTING THE COST ISSUE THE PROJECT CAN BE STEPPING STONE
TOWORD THE FIELD OF AUTOMATION SO THE AOST IS NOT
EXPENDITURE BUT IT IS AN INVESTMENT WHICH CAN LEAD OUR
COUNTRY TO BRIGHT FUTURE. IT WILL MAKE US STAND IN THE ERA OF
AUTOMATION.

References
Websites:62 | P a g e

www.google.com
www.wikipedia.com
www.engineersgarage.com

Books:-

63 | P a g e

64 | P a g e