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LECTURE 3 ELEMENTARY BUILDING BLOCKS

The formulation of the equations to describe commonly used engineering components


included in electrical, mechanical, fluidic and thermal systems. A discussion of methods of
transduction is also given.
1.

MECHANICAL COMPONENTS

SPRINGS

TRANSLATIONAL    ,

ROTATIONAL  

DAMPERS A resistive force is generated by virtue of relative velocity; e.g. a viscous


retarding force.

TRANSLATIONAL   
 ,

ROTATIONAL  
 

INERTIA A consequence of Newtons 2nd Law

ROTATIONAL  

TRANSLATIONAL    ,

LEVERS For small deflections, we may apply SUPERPOSITION to determine y from x1 and x2

Thus

|  
 , |    


   | 





|  





We can also relate forces in the same way


!  ! |


"#$%&#'

! |


"#$%&#'







GEARS For two inter-meshing gears, we can relate a number of parameters to one another.

)

Thus

,

-
/


. , 0   
- /
/

)  *  +  ,  ,   ,  


Note the gear train reverses at each meshing.


2.

ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS

RESISTANCE
1

23 425
&

OHMS LAW

CAPACITANCE
1

7 79
-6 8

OR

78 79  % : 1-6

INDUCTANCE
1
1  =78 79 -6
<
OR

*8

78 79  < *>

THE CONCEPT OF IMPEDENCE: (this is an interlude)


We may recast all our equations so far into LAPLACE

  

becomes

?   @?

  A


becomes

?  A?@
? @ ?

  

becomes

?  ? @?

2 425

becomes

B? 

7
79

becomes

B?  A?E8 ? E9 ?

1  :78 79 -6
$

becomes

B?  $F E
? E9 ?

1

&

1

*>

C3 D 4C5 D
&

If we consider a VOLTAGE or a FORCE as the initiator and the CURRENT or MOVEMENT as


the output, the coefficient that links the two has the form of IMPEDENCE i.e. impeding the
outcome bigger impedance means less output for same force.
THE SERIES CIRCUIT

G  H1

: 1-6
%

*8

< *> IJAKJ? E?  LH

<?M B?

%D

SERIES IMPEDENCE

THE PARALLEL CIRCUIT


1  1

1&

*N

 *>

: G-6 IJAKJ? B?  L&

?

1P

$D

M E?

PARALLEL IMPEDENCE

KIRCHOFFS LAWS
The net flow of CURRENT to a junction is ZERO

1 1P 1Q  0 or 1  0

The sum total of VOLTAGE around any loop is ZERO

G8 H8
3.

B
-1
= 1-6 <  0

-6

THERMAL COMPONENTS

HEAT CONDUCTION

Flow of heat T  UV

W 4W
*

[Discrete version]

In terms of a thermal impedance


*

X
X  YZ T
*

YZ

has the units of impedance U/? 4


HEAT CONVECTION

Flow of heat T  ]^ VX


X as a simple model
]^ is a surface convective coefficient of heat transfer.
THERMAL CAPACITANCE
The rate of net heat transfer to a body is equivalent to its rate of increase in internal energy.
*W

Thus T  _AE *>

where is density, c is specific heat, V is volume

Let >  _AE and is the thermal capacitance U 4


of the body. This is analogous to
*N
electical capacitance 1  
*>

THERMAL RADIATION
Stefans Law states T  V`X Q , is Stefans Constant. Let us invoke linearisation to make
the law useable in our systems. X9 is the temperature operating point
a9 . V`X9Q , a b 9 . 4V`X9P
 T  V`X9Q

X X9 4V`X9P

 T  4V`X9P X 3V`X9Q . e  

Af

Be careful, the approximation is only valid very close to X9 because of the X Q power law.
4.

FLUIDIC SYSTEMS

We will show how previous concepts can be derived.


RESISTANCE

g
g  Hh T where Hh is known as a fluidic impedance.
CAPACITANCE

 

*>

_E  E

*i
*>

if V is assumed a constant

Apply the equation above to a LIQUID.


By definition p j9  k
Or j 

i5

_ but _ 

m
C

i4i5
i5

at constant volume

  

Ci5
l

k is known as the bulk modulus. Equation for  has similarities to electrical capacitance
in that flow is related to rate of charge of driving force.
Apply the equation above to a GAS.

The gas law is: pE  HX m is in moles, R is universal gas constant.




nC
&W

  

&W

*n
*>

or

&W

j similarly to above.

INERTIA

Mass of fluid   _E  _Vo


The force acting on the slug by the pressure drop is   j
j V
Using Newtons 2nd Law   p
r
j
j V  _V  and  . G  where G is velocity, T is flow rate
Z

 j
j 
i
Z

i
Z

is a term similar to inductance in electrical circuits.

TRANSDUCTION
Study the diagrams of the transducers and work out which graphical result is closest to what
you would expect to happen.
TRANSDUCER

GRAPH