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Impact of Presence of Courtyard on Thermal Characteristics of

Vernacular Residential Building: An Exploration in Hot-dry Vernacular


Context of Ahmedabad.
Thesis Presentation
Masters in Interior Architecture and Design
Faculty of Design, CEPT University

Guide Prof. Rajan Rawal

Date - 7TH Nov.-2012


Mihir Vakharia,
IA0710 MIAD , CEPT University

This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Presentation Overview

Introduction

Background
Research Description

Literature Review

Summary

Methodology and Procedure

Research Methodology
Selection of Pol-House
Selection of Tool
Building Model development
Input parameters and assumptions for model

Results & Analysis

Individual Pol-house analysis


Comparative analysis for all three Pol -houses

Conclusion

Thesis Presentation
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Introduction

Background

The study is based on the hypothesis suggesting that the


presence of courtyard helps in attaining thermal comfort
in naturally ventilated residential buildings. 1 The study
focuses on presence of courtyard in residential unit, a
Pol-House. in the city of Ahmedabad.
A attempt to understand thermal characteristics of
indoor spaces adjacent to courtyard.
On-site measurements and building energy simulation
tools, such as computational fluid dynamic tools have
been used to understand thermal characteristics of Pol
house.

Air speed

MRT

RH %
Clothing
Insulation

Air Temp.

Metabolic
Activity

Thermal Comfort

Thesis Presentation
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Aim, Objectives and Limitation

Introduction

Aim:
To understand thermal characteristics of indoor spaces of Pol house in the presence of the courtyard for hot dry
climate Ahmedabad, India.
Objective:
Impact of courtyard on thermal characteristics of indoor spaces.
Map the environmental variables to understand their effect on thermal comfort of occupants
To study the comfort conditions of naturally ventilated vernacular house with and without presence of
courtyard.
Scope and Limitations:
Study is done to understand the thermal performance of the naturally ventilated courtyard residential building
only.
The study analyses environmental variables e.g. indoor air temperature, air velocity, relative humidity and
mean radiant temperature. Where as the daylight performance and energy consumption are not included in
analysis.
The Input parameters for simulation model is derived from actual case studies for the analysis, region being
defined; Ahmedabad, India i.e. the study is restricted to hot-dry climate of Ahmedabad.
Thesis Presentation
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Literature review
Rajapaksha in her paper explains that a
relatively better indoor thermal modification is
seen when the courtyard acts as an air funnel
discharging indoor air into the sky, than the
courtyard acts as a suction zone inducing air from
its sky opening during daytime hours.
Consequently promotes nocturnal ventilation
(Rajapaksha Indrika, 2004).

Nasibeh in his paper explain that the influence of the internal


courtyard on the thermal condition has a strong reliance on
the envelop openings. This study suggests that the internal
courtyard of a terrace house can affect improvements in
thermal conditions of the courtyard's surrounding
spaces, provided sufficient and efficient openings with shading
devices are suitably incorporated (Nasibeh et al., 2011).

Thesis Presentation
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Literature review
Abel Tablada. Et al, explains Rooms facing one courtyard and having
single side natural ventilation have very low indoor air speeds. The
existence of more than one courtyard provides better ventilation for the
central cross ventilated rooms. Nevertheless, this improvement is quite
different among the three floors and almost insignificant for the
remaining rooms with single-side ventilation. Rooms with exhaust
ventilation considerably increase the indoor air speed (Abel Tablada. Et
al, 2005).
Examine the influence of courtyard configuration and the
effect of pilots, on ventilation patterns inside typical school
buildings found in Macei,
At the courtyard, best results were obtained under 45wind
incidence, when the distance between the buildings was the
largest one. It happened so because the wind flow gets into
the courtyard through its open side, without having to pass
over the structure located windward, creating high speed air
currents (LEONARDO BITTENCOURT AND LUCIANA PEIXOTO 2001).
Thesis Presentation
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Methodology
Thermal parameters of
interior spaces having
courtyard.

Calibration done with


Actual site conditions for
10th April

Prepared model for


same Pol house without
courtyard

POL HOUSES are chosen from


hot and dry climate of
Ahmedabad for the study.

Prepared exiting Pol house


model in Design builder
software for CFD

Analysis

Pol house -1203


Pol house -1213
Pol house -1250
From Moti Hamam ni Pol

Field observation and


measurement- 7 days in April
2012 for every two hours form
600 hrs to 2000 hrs for each
house

Note: The study is based on computational


fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation,
For naturally ventilated building considering
ASHARE standards.

Thesis Presentation
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Methodology

Location of POL HOUSES, Ahmedabad.


OLD CITY MAP

Pol house -1203


Pol house -1213
Pol house -1250
From Moti Hamam ni Pol
selected for study

Onsite Data collection

Measured data -7days


(7th, 10th, 13th, 16th, 18th, 22nd, 24
th in April 2012 (every two hours
form 600 hrs to 2000
Relative Humidity
Air Temperature
Air Velocity
Globe Temperature
Surface Temperature

Weather Data
Ahmedabad collected
for April 2012 (Hourly)
Outside Relative Humidity
Outside Dry Bulb
Temperature
Air Velocity

Weather Data
Ahmedabad
collected for April
July 2012 (Hourly)
Relative Humidity
Air Temperature

Thesis Presentation
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

MOTI HAMAM NI POL


LOCATION MAP

Methodology

Instruments Used Onsite Data


Instruments Used

Measured Parameters

TSI / Airflow: TA430

Air velocity, Relative Humidity


and Air Temperature

Extech HT30 meter

Globe temperature

Fluke 561 Infrared

Surface temperature

Hobo Logger

Thermometer
Hobo Logger

Hourly data for Air


Temperature and Relative
Humidity

http://www.wunderground.c

Weather Data

om
Energy Plus
(IND_AHMADABAD_IWEC)

Weather Data for Simulation

Fluke 561
Infrared
Thermometer

Extech HT30 meter TSI / Airflow: TA430

Thesis Presentation
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Simulation Tool
Building Model Development

DesignBuilder Version 3.0.0.097 is has been used tool for research study.
The developed models have central courtyard , adjacent zones were assumed to be naturally ventilated.
Models were assumed central courtyard or no courtyard with adjacent zones.
Common walls(North-South) with Neighbour structure and ground floor area were kept as adiabatic .
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the term used to describe a family of numerical methods used to
calculate the temperature, velocity and various other fluid properties throughout the region of space.

Thesis Presentation
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Methodology

Input parameter Computational Fluid Dynamics


Input Parameters and Boundary Conditions
Grid Spacing
Boundary conditions for cfd

Grid Line Merge


tolerance

0.3 m
0.03 m

Input parameters for cfd analysis


Activity

residential circulation areas


natural ventilation (no heating

HVAC

and cooling)

Comfort calculation
Personal factors

Metabolic Rate (met

Clothing level (clo.)

0.5 for summer and 1 for winter

Relative humidity

50.00%

Turbulence Model

k-e

CFD Internal analysis


Discretisation scheme

upwind

Cell monitor

centre

Variable

x-velocity comp.
x-velocity, Y-velocity, z-velocity,

Thesis Presentation

Residual

temp., turbulence

This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Case Study

Pol House -1203

Owner Bhimji Bhai Dhabi


House Age > 70 years
No. of Persons 7

House placed between


street A and B in Moti
Hamam Ni Pol, Ahmedabad.

Floor

Area
(sq.m)

Ground
Floor
First
Floor

3.2
14.2
3.2
14.2

2.6

3.0

Second
Floor

3.2
12.2

2.6

Thesis Presentation
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Height
(m)

Case Study

Pol House -1203

45

OPERATIVE TEMP (GF-Courtyard)

OPERATIVE TEMP (GF-Room)

OPERATIVE TEMP (FF-Room)

OPERATIVE TEMP (FF-Bedroom)

OUTSIDE DRY BULB TEMP (WEATHER DATA)

CALCULATED OPERATIVE
TEMPERATURE

40
35
30
25
20

45

RECORDED TEMP(GF-Courtyard)
RECORDED TEMP (FF-Room)
OUTSIDE DRY BULB TEMP (WEATHER DATA)

RECORDED TEMP (GF-Room)


RECORDED TEMP (FF-Bedroom)

RECORDED AIR TEMPERATURE

40
35
30
25
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00

20

This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Case Study

Pol House -1203


RECORDED RH (GF-Courtyard)
RECORDED RH (FF-Bedroom)

RECORDED RH (GF-Room)
RELATIVE HUMIDITY (WEATHER DATA)

RELATIVE HUMIDITY

RECORDED RH (FF-Room)

100
80
60
40
20
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00

East wall

West wall

Slab surface

Outside Drybulb temp

MAX. SURAFACE TEMPERATURE

45
40
35

GF- court yard

GF- Room

FF- Room

This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

FF- Bedroom

24-04-2012

20-04-2012

18-04-2012

16-04-2012

13-04-2012

10-04-2012

07-04-2012

24-04-2012

20-04-2012

18-04-2012

16-04-2012

13-04-2012

10-04-2012

07-04-2012

24-04-2012

20-04-2012

18-04-2012

16-04-2012

13-04-2012

10-04-2012

07-04-2012

24-04-2012

20-04-2012

18-04-2012

16-04-2012

13-04-2012

10-04-2012

07-04-2012

30

Operative Temperature
GF-Courtyard

GF-Room

FF-Room

FF-Bedroom

CALCULATED

OUTSIDE DRY BULB TEMP (WEATHER DATA)

45
40
35
30
25
45

SIMULATION WITH COURTYARD

40
35
30
25
45

SIMULATION WITHOUT COURTYARD

40
35
30
25
00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Relative Humidity
70

GF-Courtyard

GF-Room

FF-Room

FF-Bedroom

MEASURED

RELATIVE HUMIDITY (WEATHER DATA)

60
50
40
30
20
10
0

SIMULATION WITH COURTYARD

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

SIMULATION WITHOUT COURTYARD

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00
10-Apr-12

This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Case Study

Pol House -1203


Out-side dry bulb
temperature
Maximum Temp.
Minimum Temp.
Average Temp.
Median Temp.

GF- Courtyard
43
23
32
32

GF- Room
34
29
32
32

33
30
32
32

FF - Room

FF- Bedroom
44
27
34
33

35
29
31
31

Ground floor room adjacent to courtyard remains in the range of 31 degree C to 34


degree C and shows minimum impact of outdoor temperature.
First floor room shows early heat gains through sloping roof also realise heat gain
with convection through courtyard.
Comparing courtyard house with house without courtyard shows 2 to 4 C degree
temperature. Ground floor room shows 4 C rise in Temperature in evening hours.
First floor room shows less impact of courtyard due to direct solar radiation on roof
surface
and
remains
high
during
day
and
afternoon
hours.

Conclusion:
In case of house without a courtyard, indoor temperature rises due to early heat Gains from the roof
surface and results into rise in temperature and affect the indoor air temperature.
Courtyard also improves humidity levels in the indoor spaces due to this though there is rise in outdoor
temperature, people in the building feel comfortable by increasing airflow.

This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Comparative Analysis
Pol House -1203
Owner Bhimji Bhai Dhabi
House Age > 70 years
No. of Persons 7

Pol House -1213


Owner Bharat Bhai Patel
House Age 100 years
No. of Persons 6

Pol House -1250


Owner Daksha Ben Patel
House Age 100 years
No. of Persons 10

This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Comparative Analysis
Floor

Area

Height

Floor

Area

Height

Floor

Area

Height

Ground Floor

3.2 x 14.2 mts

2.6 mts

Ground Floor

7.2 x 14.0 mts

2.4 mts

Ground Floor

5.8 x 15.4 mts

3.0 mts

First Floor

3.2 x 14.2 mts

3.0 mts

First Floor

7.2 x 14.0 mts

3.0 mts

First Floor

5.8 x 15.4 mts

2.8 mts

Second Floor

3.2 x 12.2 mts

2.6 mts

This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Recorded Air Temperature


50

GF-Courtyard

GF-Room

FF-Room

FF-Bedroom

OUTSIDE DRY BULB TEMP (WEATHER DATA)

HOUSE -1203

45
40
35
30
25
20

HOUSE -1213

50
45
40
35
30
25
20

HOUSE -1250

02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00

50
45
40
35
30
25
20

This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Operative Temperature
GF-Courtyard

GF-Room

FF-Room

FF-Bedroom

OUTSIDE DRY BULB TEMP (WEATHER DATA)

HOUSE -1203

50
45
40
35
30
25
20

HOUSE -1213

50
45
40
35
30
25
20

HOUSE -1250

02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00

50
45
40
35
30
25
20

This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Relative Humidity
90

GF-Courtyard

GF-Room

FF-Room

FF-Bedroom

RELATIVE HUMIDITY (WEATHER DATA)

HOUSE -1203

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

HOUSE -1213

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

HOUSE -1250

02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00
02:00
05:00
08:00
11:00
14:00
17:00
20:00
23:00

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Air Temperature
45

H-1203

H-1213

H-1250

OUTSIDE DRY BULB TEMP (WEATHER DATA)

GF -COURTYARD RECORDED

40
35
30
25
45

SIMULATION WITH COURTYARD

40
35
30
25
45

SIMULATION WITHOUT COURTYARD

40
35
30
25
00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00
10-Apr-12
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Air Temperature
H-1203

H-1213

H-1250

GF -ROOM RECORDED

OUTSIDE DRY BULB TEMP (WEATHER DATA)

45
40
35
30
25

SIMULATION WITH COURTYARD

45
40
35
30
25

SIMULATION WITHOUT COURTYARD

45
40
35
30
25

00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00
10-Apr-12
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

AIR TEMPERATURE
45

H-1203

H-1213

FF -ROOM RECORDED
H-1250

OUTSIDE DRY BULB TEMP (WEATHER DATA)

40
35
30
25

SIMULATION WITH COURTYARD

45
40
35
30
25
45

SIMULATION WITHOUT COURTYARD

40
35
30
25
00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00
10-Apr-12
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Air Temperature
45

H-1203

H-1213

FF -BEDROOM RECORDED
H-1250

OUTSIDE DRY BULB TEMP (WEATHER DATA)

40
35
30
25

SIMULATION WITH COURTYARD

45
40
35
30
25

SIMULATION WITHOUT COURTYARD

45
40
35
30
25

00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00
10-Apr-12
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Relative Humidity
70

H-1203

H-1213

GF -COURTYARD RECORDED
H-1250

RELATIVE HUMIDITY (WEATHER DATA)

60
50
40
30
20
10
0

SIMULATION WITH COURTYARD

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

SIMULATION WITHOUT COURTYARD

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00
10-Apr-12
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Relative Humidity
80

H-1203

H-1213

GF -ROOM RECORDED
H-1250

RELATIVE HUMIDITY (WEATHER DATA)

70
60
50
40
30
20
10

SIMULATION WITH COURTYARD

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

SIMULATION WITHOUT COURTYARD

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00
10-Apr-12
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Relative Humidity
70

H-1203

H-1213

H-1250

FF -ROOM RECORDED

RELATIVE HUMIDITY (WEATHER DATA)

60
50
40
30
20
10
0

SIMULATION WITH COURTYARD

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

SIMULATION WITHOUT COURTYARD

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00
10-Apr-12
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Relative
Humidity
H-1203
H-1213

70

H-1250

RELATIVE HUMIDITY (WEATHER DATA)

FF -BEDROOM RECORDED

60
50
40
30
20
10

SIMULATION WITH COURTYARD

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

SIMULATION WITHOUT COURTYARD

00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00
10-Apr-12
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

CFD Analysis for Pol House With Courtyard 10th April @ 9.00 Am

HOUSE-1203

HOUSE-1213

Comparative Analysis
HOUSE-1250

Section

Section

First Floor

First Floor

Section

First Floor

Ground Floor

Ground Floor

Ground Floor

This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

CFD Analysis for Pol House Without Courtyard 10th April @ 9.00 Am

HOUSE-1203

HOUSE-1213

Section

Comparative Analysis
HOUSE-1250

Section

Section

First Floor

Ground Floor

First Floor

Ground Floor

First Floor

Ground Floor

This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Comparative Analysis
Inferences:

House 1203 Courtyard shows higher temperature than two houses.

In house-1203 Ground floor room adjacent to courtyard remains in the range of 30 C to 32 C

In House 1213 and House1250 First floor room shows early heat gains through pitched roof also realise heat gain

through convection in evening hours.

First floor bedroom of House-1213 shows higher temperature due to east facing wall.

First floor room in all three houses follows similar trend for relative humidity with outdoor environment.

The temperature of first floor courtyard space and indoor remains consistently higher than the ground floor

courtyard and the interior spaces throughout the day

Due to early heat Gains in house-1250 from east facade with big opening results into rise surface temperature

through conduction it results into rise in indoor temperature and affect the indoor air temperature.

Courtyard also improves humidity levels in the indoor spaces due to this though there is rise in outdoor

temperature people in the building, feel comfortable by increasing airflow.


Thesis Presentation
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Comparative Analysis
Conclusion
Incidence

of solar radiation on building roof surfaces is the main source of heat responsible for raising the

temperature of exterior surface of the envelope and also for creating temperature gradient across the
thickness of the envelope. As a result, heat is conducted form outdoor to indoor surfaces and causes a rise in
the interior air temperature.
Ground

floor courtyard is shaded throughout the day and acts as shaft for ventilation, hence improves

thermal environment of adjacent and interior space. Where the first floor interior surface temperatures shows
less impact of courtyard i.e. Nearly 2 to 3 `C rise in temperature during day time.
Walls

on ground floor room inside surface temperature remain same throughout the day and shows

minimum variation with outside dry bulb temperature.


In

all houses presence courtyard shows direct impact on relative humidity and improves the indoor thermal

environment. Hence, the courtyards are useful for passive cooling in Pol-house, Ahmedabad hot-dry climates
mainly due to changed in relative humidity.
Courtyard

also improves the indoor air quality and natural lighting.

Thesis Presentation
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

References
Abdelsalam Aldawoud *, Ray Clark Comparative analysis of energy performance between courtyard and atrium in buildings
Energy and Buildings 40 (2008) 209214Science Direct
Abel TABLADA, et al, "Geometry of buildings courtyards to favour natural ventilation: comparison between wind tunnel
experiment and numerical simulation" THE WORLD Sustainable Building Conference, 2005
Abel Tablada. Et al, Thermal Comfort of Naturally Ventilated Buildings in Warm-Humid Climates: field survey PLEA 2005
Abel Tablada, et.al The influence of courtyard geometry on air flow and thermal comfort: CFD and thermal comfort
Simulations PLEA2005 - The 22nd Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture. Beirut, Lebanon, 2005
Ahmed S. Muhaisen Mohamed B Gadi, Effect of Courtyard Proportions on Solar Heat Gain and Energy Requirement in the
Temperate Climate of Rome, School Of The Built Environment, Science Direct 2005.
Ahmed S. Muhaisen Mohamed B Gadi, Shading Performance of Polygonal Courtyard Forms, School of the Built Environment,
Science Direct 2006
AMR BAGNEID The creation of a courtyard microclimate thermal model for the analysis of courtyard houses, Submitted to the
Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF
PHILOSOPHY August 2006
Gupta Vinod, Natural Cooling Systems of Jaisalmer Architectural Science Review, 1985
Leonardo Bittencourt and Luciana PEIXOTO, THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT COURTYARD CONFIGURATIONS ON NATURAL
VENTILATION THROUGH LOW-RISE SCHOOL BUILDINGS Seventh International IBPSA Conference, building simulation, 2001
Mu jgan S-erefhanog lu So zen, Gu lay Zorer Gedk Evaluation of traditional architecture in terms of building physics: Old
Diyarbakr houses, Building and Environment, Science Direct, 2006.
Rajapaksha Indrika, Passive Cooling in the Tropics: A Design Proposition for Natural Ventilation Plea2004

Thesis Presentation
This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.

Thank You

This work by Mihir Vakharia is Part Fulfillment of the requirement for Masters Degree in Interior Design Program at CEPT University.
Intellectual property of these remains with CEPT University and any content of this should not be copied in total or in part without prior written permission.