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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Definition of Key Terms


Before talking more in this chapter, I would like to explain about: the definition of
key terms, background of study, problem of the study, objectives of the study,
scope of the study, significance of the study and hypothesis. They are as follows :
1.1.1

Writing

Writing to learn activity is to give students the opportunity to reflect on their learning,
write their ideas on a graphic organizer and demonstrate ownnership of their
learning.1

1.1.2

Draw Label Caption (DLC)


According to Michael Hutagulung Draw Label Caption (DLC) strategy is the

both a lesson plan and pre-writing technique that can help the students brainstorm
before writing a functional story or a personal narrative. It can also be used to
introduce new vocabulary or review vocabulary. The basic technique is those students
draws a picture, then label everything in the picture and then give an overall caption
or summary of what is happening in the picture.2

Kuta, Katherine Wiesolek, Reading and Writing to learn, Libraries Unlimited/Teacher ideas
Press,USA, 2008, p. 175
2
http:/www.englishadvantage.info/lesson-plans/draw-label-caption, Draw Label Caption, 04-102010

1.1.3

Narrative
A narrative is a text tahat tells a story and,in doing so, entertains the
audience.3

1.1.4 Presentation Practice Production (PPP)


Presentation Practice Production Strategy is relatively straight
forward, and structured enough to be easily understood by both students and
new or emerging teachers. It is a good place to start in terms of applying good
communicative language teaching in the classroom. It has also been criticized
considerably for the very characteristic that makes it the easiest method for
'beginner' teachers, that is, that it is far too teacher-orientated and over
controlled.
1.2 Background of the Study
English is as the international language that is widely used in the world. It
can be used to communicate, interact, and negotiate with others. It has become an
international language that is almost used by all countries as the first, the second
or the foreign language. Moreover English has been declared as a formal language
on International communication for a long time ago.
It means that English is a compulsory learning subject where must be
taught for the students in the school from the elementary school until university.
Mastering English as a foreign language of course is not as simple as learning
English as a national language.Writing is one of the basic language skills that
3

Anderson,Mark, Text types in English, Natioal Library of Australia.Malaysia,1998.p.3

should be mastered by Junior High School students. Writing is language skill that
can be used to communicate and to express with others in written form (paper).
In teaching writing, there are some materials; one of them is about
narrative . Narrative is to entertain, to gain and hold a readers' interest. To write
narrative is not easy or simple as the students have been known. Writing narrative
will be more easy and quickly to be received and understood by the students if the
teacher uses the suitable strategy. One of the teaching strategies that can be used
in writing narrative is Draw Label Caption (DLC) strategy.
The eight class students at State Junior High School 6 Metro have learned
the narrative with using Presentation Practice Production strategy, but their ability
in writing this paragraph is poor. This problem are: the students have low
motivation in writing, the students are not able to write correctly, the students
have low vocabulary, the students are not interested in the writing materials, and
the students can not convert the Presentation Practice Production strategy into the
narrative paragraph writing ability.

1.3 Problem of The Study


Referring to the background of the study above, the reseacher formulates
the problems in this research as follows Is there any difference between the use
DLC strategy and PPP strategy to help students narrative writing ability at Eight
grade of SMP N 6 Metro.

1.4 Objectives of the Study


1.1.4 The objectives of the study is intended to find out whether there is difference
between the use of Draw Label Caption (DLC) strategy and Presentation
Practice Production strategy in increasing the students narrative paragraph
writing ability.
1.1.5 To compare the result of the two strategy in order to determine which more
effective.
1.5 The Significant of Study
1.5.1

For the students


The students will get easy strategy to write something by using Draw
Label Caption (DLC) strategy.

1.5.2

For the teacher


To give information for the English teacher, especially in State Junior
High School 2 Metro, that Draw Label Caption (DLC) strategy is more
effective to be used in teaching narrative paragraph writing ability.

1.5.3

For the researcher


The researcher will know about the students narrative paragraph writing
ability especially by using Draw Label Caption (DLC) strategy and the
research can carry out the strategy to the next teaching and learning in the
classroom.

1.6 Scope of The Study


The researcher realized that it is not possible to investigate all of the problems
concerned with the writing ability. Therefore, the writer limits the problems only

to A Comparative study between the use of Draw Label Caption (DLC) strategy
and Presentation Practice Production strategy in increasing the students narrative
paragraph writing ability at the eight grade students of SMP N 6 Metro in the
academic year of 2014/2015.
1.7 Hypothesis
Hypothesis is usually considered as the principal instrument in research. Its main
function is to suggest new experiments and observations.4 Meanwhile, hypothesis
is while answer toward research problem, which is truth experiment empirical.

Based on the explanation and paradigm above, the researcher draws the
hypothesis of the research. It can be stated follow:

: DLC (Draw Label Capture) strategy is

more effective than PPP (Presentation Practice Production) strategy.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE RELATED THEORY

A. Theoretical Review
1.

Draw Label Caption (DLC) Strategy


a. Concept

C.R. Kothari. Research Methodology Methods and Technique (second revised edition).Jaipur
India:New Age international publisher.2004.p.184

The word strategy in Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary can be


defined as:
1.

The process of planning something or carrying out a plan in a skilful way,

2.

The skill of planning the movements of armies in a battle or war.5


Moreover Iskandar Wassid and Dadang Sunendar state that strategy is

from the word Yunnan strategia which means the art of war or war captain.
Based on this definition, so strategy is a plan to operate in a war, likes the step
to manage a position, or way to war, army or navy. Strategy also can be defined
as a skill to manage an event. In general seldom is stated that strategy is a
technique that is used to get a purpose.6
In educational term, strategy can be defined from J. R. David in Wina
Sanjayas book said that strategy is a plan, method, or series of activities
designed to achieves a particular educational.7
From the statement above, the writer can conclude that strategy is a
learning activity that should be done by the teacher or student in order to the
aim of learning can be effectively and successfully. Strategy also is the easy
plan of operation to get something important in educational term, especially in
6
English subject.
Below is the definition about the draw-label-caption strategy.
5

As Hornby, Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, Oxford University Press, New York, 2000, p.
1336
6
Iskandarwassid and Dadang Sunendar, Strategi Pembelajaran Bahasa, PT remaja Rosda Karya,
Bandung, 2008, p. 2
7
Wina Sanjaya, Strategi Pembelajaran Berorientasi Standar Proses pendidikan, Kencana, Jakarta,
2009, p. 124

a.

Draw
In Oxford Learners Advanced Learners Dictionary the word draw is
defined as:

1) To move something/somebody by pulling it or them gently.


2) To pull a vehicle such as carriage.8
Moreover Steve Peha states that draw is making a quick pencil sketch
of your scene.9
Based on the quotation above, it can be inferred that draw is the
activity make a picture with using a toll (s) with the certain object and
purpose.
b. Label
Etymologically, the word label in Oxford Advanced Learners
Dictionary of Current English can be defined as:
a.

A piece of paper, atc. That is attached to something and gives


information about it.

b.

A word or phrase that is used to describe somebody/something


in a way that seems too general, unfair or not correct.

c.

A company that produces and cells records, CDs, etc10

Oxford University, Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, Oxford University Press, New York,
2000, p. 400
9
Steve Peha, The writing Teachers Strategy Guide, Teaching That Making Sense, Inc, New York,
2003, P. 47
10
As Hornby, op.cit., p. 747

In addition, Steve Peha defines label as create a one or two word text
label for each item in your drawing.11
From the quotation above, the writer assumes that label is a word or
more that can be used to give a name for an object.
c. Caption
In Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary the word caption is defined
as words that are printed underneath a picture, cartoon, etc. that
explain or describe it.12
Based on the quotation above, it can be inferred that caption is a
phrase that can be the main or topic of the paragraph.
From the explanation about the definition of each words Draw Label
Caption (DLC) strategy above, can be explained of the theory of Draw Label
Caption (DLC) strategy.
According to Michael Hutagulung Draw Label Caption (DLC)
strategy is the both a lesson plan and pre-writing technique that can help the
students brainstorm before writing a functional story or a personal narrative. It
can also be used to introduce new vocabulary or review vocabulary. The basic
technique is those students draws a picture, then label everything in the picture
and then give an overall caption or summary of what is happening in the
picture.13
11
12
13

2010

Steve Peha, op.cit., p. 47


As Hornby, op.cit., p. 185
http:/www.englishadvantage.info/lesson-plans/draw-label-caption, Draw Label Caption, 04-10-

Moreover Steve Peha explains that drawing for writing is a little


different than normal drawing because it has a purpose.14
Based on the definition above, the writer can conclude that Draw
Label Caption (DLC) strategy is the strategy that can help the students capture
a scene and focus on important details about the writing their event or activity.
Because the students in this strategy have three steps and every step has a
purpose in writing process.
With using this strategy can be founded the general, specific word and
also about the topic of the sentence in a paragraph. The students can draw from
their own mind that relate with the topic. When the students take a few minutes
to sketch a quick picture, the students give themselves a chance to focus on the
students topic and can make their writing richer and more detailed.

b. Process
In a strategy has process that is started from beginning until the last.
The purpose of the processes is to get a good value. So, in Draw Label Caption
(DLC) strategy also has process that should be done for the students before
they write a paragraph. The students can follow the step process in this
strategy. Below is the explanation about the steps process of this strategy.
According to Steve Peha to achieve the purpose in writing process
there are three steps process in Draw Label Caption (DLC) strategy, like this:
14

Steve Peha, op.cit., p. 47

10

Draw, make a quick pencil sketch of your scene. This is a


rough sketch: use outlines only, stick people are
encouraged. Try to include as many little details as you
can.

Label, create a one- or two-word text label for each item


in your drawing. Label everything you can think of, even
different parts of things.

Caption, write a single sentence underneath the picture


that tells what is happening. This can be a very simple
sentence or something more complicated if youre up for
it.

SCHEME OF DRAW-LABEL-CAPTION (DLC) STRATEGY


Draw-Label-Caption

DRAW

LABEL

11

CAPTION15
From the third process in Draw Label Captain (DLC) strategy above,
the writer can conclude that this strategy have three steps, namely: first, draw a
picture that will be the main idea of their story, second label as many words as
possible around the picture, and then write a caption in the bottom of the
picture to go along with the picture (start with a phrase), after that make a
sentence from the label and the last each sentence can be included into a
narrative paragraph.
Steve Peha suggested that "There are some tips to develop the students
writing ability on the Draw Label Caption strategy, namely:

Drawing can really help in preparation for writing, will be much


more focus, will have better command of the details and while
youre drawing, will spend several minutes thinking about what
you want to say.

Really get into the labeling. Ive already talked about how each
label can be turned into a detail in your piece, and how each
detail can then be turned into a sentence or two.

15

Steve Peha, op.cit., p. 47-48

12

Redo a picture for your cover. I think its cool to put an


illustrated cover on your piece when its finished. Why not take
one of your drawings and redo it? You can use color, fill things
in, add details, etc. The picture you choose might even suggest a
title for your piece.

Explore the fine art of caption writing. If you want to learn a lot
about revising sentences, put in some work on your caption.
Captions are short and you can revise them quickly and easily.

Use dialog and thought bubbles. You can treat your picture as
though it was a panel in a comic strip. Use dialog bubbles to
show people talking. Use thought bubbles to show people
thinking.16

Based on the some tips above, now the students can try to use this strategy to
develop their writing. The following passage below is the example of writing a
paragraph that uses this strategy:
Example 1:
Draw
The following passage below is the drawing a picture. Draw a
picture that will be the main idea of the story.
16

Steve Peha, op.cit., p. 51

13

Figure 1
The Example of Drawing a picture

Label
The following example below is the label about the picture. Label as
many words as possible around the picture.
Figure 2
The Example of Label
The Farmer Rabbit - Problem
Caption
Now have the students write a one sentence caption for their
pictures-what is the main scene or action? What is this story about? For
my picture, I would caption it:

14

Descriptions
Have students write descriptions of everything in their picture.
Encourage them to think about colors, smells, textures, materials. Push
them to be as detailed as possible. Using my picture as an example, I
might write:

Problem : Once again, he didnt get rabbit and the farmer laid by the tree
to wait the rabbit. Unfortunetly, his dream never came true, he didnt
gain the rabit he desired but a deserted farmland with no plants.
Farmer : The man was happy by gaining a free rabbit for his dinner. The
day after, he went farming as usually, but he didnt concentrate on work
as before he frequently galanced at the brush in the hope of seeing a
rabbit again. In the end of the day he obtained nothing. The next day
abandoned work in farm completly so that he could on waiting for the
rabbit.
Rabbit : There was a farmer in Song Dinasty. He used to work hard in the
farm. One day he saw a rabbit from under brush. The rabbit run away
immediately with scare and died for hiting the tree.

15

Complete Story
Now students have more than enough material to write a
complete scene or story. They will have to pick and choose which details
are important and put it together into a complete narrative or topic. For
example:

Figure 3
The Example of draw and label

The Farmer and The rabbit


There was a farmer in Song Dinasty. He used to work hard in the farm.
One day he saw a rabbit from under brush. The rabbit run away
immediately with scare and died for hiting the tree.
The man was happy by gaining a free rabbit for his dinner. The day after,
he went farming as usually, but he didnt concentrate on work as before

16

he frequently galanced at the brush in the hope of seeing a rabbit again.


In the end of the day he obtained nothing. The next day abandoned work
in farm completly so that he could on waiting for the rabbit.
Once again, he didnt get rabbit and the farmer laid by the tree to wait
the rabbit. Unfortunetly, his dream never came true, he didnt gain the
rabit he desired but a deserted farmland with no plants.
2. Presentation Practice Production Strategy
a.

Concept
Below is the definition about the Presentation Practice Production

strategy:
a. Presentation
Presentation is the practice of showing and explaining the content of
a topic to an audience or learner. It is represents the introduction to a
lesson, and necessarily requires the creation of a realistic (or realisticfeeling) "situation" requiring the target language to be learned. This can
be achieved through using pictures, dialogs, imagination or actual
"classroom situations". The teacher checks to see that the students
understand the nature of the situation, and then builds the "concept"
underlying the language to be learned using small chunks of language that
the students already know. Having understood the concept, students are

17

then given the language "model" and engage in choral drills to learn
statement, answer and question forms for the target language. This is a
very teacher-orientated stage where error correction is important.
b. Practice
Practice is learning by repetition. Practice usually begins with
what is termed "mechanical practice" - open and closed pair work.
Students gradually move into more "communicative practice"
involving procedures like information gap activities, dialog creation
and controlled role plays. Practice is seen as the frequency device to
create familiarity and confidence with the new language, and a
measuring stick for accuracy. The teacher still directs and corrects at
this stage, but the classroom is beginning to become more learnercentered.
C. Production
Production is the act of making products (something, goods
and services). It is seen as the culmination of the language learning
process, whereby the learners have started to become independent
users of the language rather than students of the language. The
teacher's role here is to somehow facilitate a realistic situation or
activity where the students instinctively feel the need to actively
apply the language they have been practicing. The teacher does not

18

correct or become involved unless students directly appeal to him/her


to do so.
b. Process
The process of this strategy is the first is the presentation stage
involves explaining the aims of the lesson so that children know what they
will learn and why. It is also during this stage that the teacher explains the
new language, including both its meaning and form, and how to say or write it
correctly. A good presentation will be understandable, interesting and in a
context the children can understand, such as a song, game or story.
The second is practice stage. It is to help the students use the new language
you have just explained to them. The teacher can ask the children to produce
sentences or answer questions that demonstrate they understand how to use
the language correctly. In a good practice stage, language will also be in a
context which children understand. It is at this stage that error correction is
most important.
The final stage is the production stage. This stage can help motivate children
to communicate meaning with the new language. Students should have the
opportunity during this stage to experiment with the language, for example
they can use the names of animals to make a story. You do not need to correct

19

too much during this stage, but you can observe the students and give
feedback at the end of the stage.
3. Writing Ability
a. Concept of Writing Ability
The word ability in Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary can be defined
as:
b.

To do something the fact that somebody/something is able to do


something.

c.

A level of skill or intelligence. 17


Not only that, the word ability can be defined as:

1. The quality of being able to do something, especially the physical,


mental, financial, or legal power to accomplish something.
2. A natural or acquired skill or talent.
3. The quality of being suitable for or receptive to a specified treatment;
capacity: the ability of a computer to be configured for use as a file
server.18

Based on the definition above, the writer can conclude that ability is a
talent or skill which is owned by a person to do activities in her or his life.
17
18

As Hornby, op.cit., p. 2
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/ability, Ability, 20-10-2010

20

According to Paul Davies, writing is probably the linguistic skill that


is least use by most people in their native language. 19
While Sanggam Siahaan states writing is the skill of a writer to
communicate information to a reader or group of readers. Her or his skill is also
realized by his or her ability to apply the rules of the language s/he is writing to
transfer the information s/he has in her or his mind to her or his readers (s)
effectively.20
From the quotations above, the writer can conclude that writing is the
activity transfer the information to the others in written form. Writing also is the
act or art of forming letter and characters in a place or something for the
purpose of recording the ideas which characters and word express,
communicating them to others by visible signs.
From the statement above is probably from the readers point of view.
To writers, on the other hand, writing can be a means of communication.
Through writing, they can express his ideas, experiences, thoughts, and feeling.
It is even through writing that they can communicate over long distance and
period.
Moreover Kasihani K.E Suyanto explains that "writing ability is very
difficult, because involving ability or mastery of grammar, vocabulary, and
spelling. This is skills or logical way of thinking and skill mix words into
19
20

Paul davies, Success in English teaching, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, p. 96
Sanggam Siahaan, The English Paragraph, Graha Ilmu, Yogyakarta, 2008, p. 2

21

meaningful sentences. In addition to a coherent sentence structure and clear


content, punctuation is also important in the English language. "21

It can be said that writing is a crucial part in our global society. Let us
imagine how this world is without writing. Through writing, we can learn a lot of
things, from the simplest one such as how to make a glass of milkshake until
how this earth is formed, for example. In short, writing plays a significant role in
our life.
b. Concept of Narrative text
According to Sanggam Siahaan narrative paragraph is a paragraph in
which a writer recounts an event to his readers. It can be about biographies,
autobiographies, historical event, instructions, and processes.22
In addition Furaidah, et.al defines narrative as a present story such as
your daily activities, or a past one such as your unforgettable experience and all
other events happening in the past.23
Narration is a type in which the writer tries to recount an event (object)
of his world experiences in order his readers can see, feel, smell, hear, and taste it
as he can.24
21
22
23
24

Kasihani K.E Suyanto, English for Young Learners, Bumi Aksara, Jakarta, 2007, p. 68
Sanggam Siahaan, op. cit., p. 110
Furaidah, et.al, Advanced Writing, Universitas Terbuka, Jakarta, 2007, p. 1.37
Sanggam Siahaan, Issues in Linguistics, Graha Ilmu, Yogyakarta, 2008, p. 217

22

Narrative describes the actions that occur within a story. These


consecutive groups of sentences help move the story along by explaining what
happens next and why. They are written in such a way as to place the writer, the
reader, or both rights in the center of the action. When written in the third person
("he," "she," etc.), the reader follows the character around, mentally visualizing
the events and must always be written in an active voice and normally cover past
tense.
The union of narrative paragraph, it is called by narrative text.
Narrative text is the text which contains about a story or fairy tale (can be
folklore (folktale), an animal story (fable), The Legend (Legend), short stories,
etc.). In it there is a conflict / top problem, followed by settlement. The main
function of this text is to entertain readers. Text organizations are:
1) Orientation (who are involved in the story, when, where).
2) Complication (a problem arises followed by other problems).
3) Resolution (solution to the problem).
In narrative has a language features as follow:
1) The use of noun phrases (a beautiful princess, a huge temple)
2) The use of connectives (First, before that, then, finally)
3) The use of adverbial phrases of time and place (in the garden, two days ago)
4) The use of the simple past tense (He walked away from the village)
5) The use of action verb (walk, sleep, wake up)

23

6) The use of saying verbs (say, tell, ask)


7) The use of thinking verb, feeling verbs, verb of senses (She felt hungry, she
thought she was clever, she smelt something burning).

c. Process of Writing a Narrative


Below are the steps which a writer commonly follows to write a
narrative.
First, he or she invents the main topic of the paragraph. He or she can
select any topic from the world of his or her experience. It can be concrete
topic, such as a person, an animal, a plant, or an object such a mountain, a
city, a car, a book, a house, etc. it can also be an abstract one, such a lesson,
an idea, a belief, a conflict, a history, an object, etc. second, he or she
invents the controlling idea of the paragraph by which he or she views his
or her main topic of the paragraph. This idea can be of his or her
experience or the exploitation of his or her mind. It is usually the condition
of the topic, so the common word used to express the idea is by using an
adjective. Third, he or she will formulate the topic sentence of the

24

paragraph. This formulation must be able to signals the overall organization


of the paragraph. In addition to that, it can signal the type of supports for
the topic sentence in elaborating the paragraph. Fourth, he or she collects
the supports. Commonly they are called the data of the paragraph. Fifth, he
or she formulates the concluding paragraph. Sixth, he or she writes the
draft of the paragraph. And last, he or she revises the draft. So writing a
paragraph from the viewpoint of its process involves seven steps together.25
b. Using Draw Label Caption (DLC) Strategy and Presentation Practice
Production Strategy to Increase The Students Narrative Writing Ability.
Strategy is the way for learners to solve problems encountered in
constructing meaning in any context. Unlike skills, strategies chosen by learners
are modified to fit the demands of the learning situation. Strategic learners know
how and when to alter, modify, combine, and test individual strategies against
their prior knowledge, beliefs, and experiences.
Sanggam Siahaan explains that students who are taught with a strategy
are more highly motivated than those who are not and can be lead to a more
effective learning (Nunan, 1999:172). The reason why it is effective, as
according to killen (1998; v), is that a teaching strategy includes: what a
teacher does, the way in instruction is organized, how much the students are
involved actively in learning, how much the students are responsible for the

25

Sanggam Siahaan,, The English Paragraph, p. 11-12

25

learning, and how learning is assed. This tells that a strategy is a teaching
agenda that indicates the direction of the classroom activities to help the
students make an achievement of certain knowledge and skill on a certain
language aspect. A teaching strategy is associated with a certain teaching
material and the classroom teachers are suggested to use the suitable strategy
to make an effect on the achievement of the students on the teaching material
to construct a certain knowledge and skill such as listening, speaking, reading
and writing.26

Based on the quotation above, it can be explained that teach and learn
English with using strategy can motivate and improve the students to study
English. The students also can be easy to understand the material subject that
will be teach the teacher, more active in the class and so it can make the
English teaching and learning process will be more effective.
Moreover, the influence of Draw Label Caption strategy toward writing
ability can be explained as follows:
Draw Label Caption (DLC) strategy is a strategy that refers to the use
of several steps that draw, label and caption, and then developed into a
paragraph, whose purpose is to accelerate the development of individual
student initiative, self confidence, self-improvement and self-learning plan the
student.
26

Sanggam Siahaan, Issues in Linguistics, p. 221

26

The influence between narrative paragraph concept and Draw Label


Caption (DLC) strategy, this strategy is appropriate for the students to
improve their ability in writing skill, especially to get supporting detail in
narrative paragraph and also can help the teacher in order to teaching and
learning process in the class can be run well.
According to Michael Hutagulung Draw Label Caption strategy is the
both a lesson plan and pre-writing technique that can help the students
brainstorm before writing a functional story or a personal narrative. It can also
be used to introduce new vocabulary or review vocabulary. The basic
technique is that students draws a picture then label everything in the picture
and then give an overall caption or summary of what is happening in the
picture. Now they can write description of everything they have labeled and
the action. Now they have a complete description of a scene or even a
complete story.27

Presentation Practice Production Strategy is relatively straight


forward, and structured enough to be easily understood by both students and
new or emerging teachers. It is a good place to start in terms of applying good
communicative language teaching in the classroom. It has also been criticized
considerably for the very characteristic that makes it the easiest method for

27

http:/www.englishadvantage.info/lesson-plans/draw-label-caption, Op. Cit,

27

'beginner' teachers, that is, that it is far too teacher-orientated and over
controlled.
Based on the explanation about the Draw Label Caption strategy,
Presentation Practice Production Strategy and narrative paragraph writing
ability, the teacher must teach the students to get supporting detail by imagine
finding out the main idea to make a narrative paragraph.
The procedures of teaching narrative paragraph by using Draw Label
Caption strategy are:
a) The students must understand about Draw Label Caption (DLC)
strategy and Presentation Practice Production Strategy.
b) The students identify narrative by using Draw-Label Caption
(DLC) strategy and Presentation Practice Production Strategy.
c) The students write narrative by using Draw Label Caption (DLC)
strategy and Presentation Practice Production Strategy.
From the explanation above, it can be inferred that the use of Draw
Label Caption strategy and Presentation Practice Production Strategy can
increase the students narrative writing ability.
a. Theoretical Framework
This is quantitative research. This research is aimed to know the influence
of the independent variable (X) toward the dependent variable (Y).

28

There are two variables in this research. They are independent variable (X)
and dependent variable (Y). The independent variable (X) is Draw Label Caption
(DLC) strategy and Presentation Practice Production strategy. And the dependent
variable (Y) is the students narrative writing ability.
Draw Label Caption (DLC) strategy is the strategy that is used to help the
students identify the main idea and the related supporting ideas of the lesson, text
or concept. It contains three steps, namely draw, label and caption.
Presentation Practice Production strategy is simply one way to help
children learn new language in an enjoyable and effective way.
Narrative writing is the material in English learning that must be master
by the students. This is the skill that students are required to produce written work
in all their core subjects. They are required to hand in reports, narrative and
descriptive essays, biographies, as well as other forms of writing needed in their
various class and homework assignments. Therefore, there is an important need
for them to be instructed and provided with practice activities to develop their
writing skill in order to ensure their success in their school life.
The students narrative writing ability has an important role in English
teaching. So it needs strategy that proper and enjoyable the students to study it.
Therefore, there is difference between the use of Draw Label Caption (DLC)
strategy and Presentation Practice Production strategy in increasing the students
narrative paragraph writing ability at the eight grade students of State Junior High
School 6 Metro in the academic year of 2015/2016.

29

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. Research Design
This research uses the quantitative research. Quantitative research is the
research by which the numeric data are used to find knowledge. This research is
experiment research by using true experimental design which consists of control
group pretest posttest design. This design is used to compare the condition before
and after treatment with control group.
This design can be formulated as follows:
E O1 X O2
K O3 X O4
O1 : Pretest score (before giving treatment)
O2 : Posttest score (after giving treatment)
E : Experimental group
K : Control group
X : Treatment to apply the material. 28
This research will be conducted in State Junior High School 6 Metro. In
this research, the researcher will investigate the eighth grade of State Junior High
School 6 Metro in the academic year of 2014/2015.

28

Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek, PT Rineka Cipta, Jakarta,
2006, p. 86

30

30

B. Population and Sampling Technique


1. Population
According to Yonges Kumarsingh, population or universe means the
entire mass of observation, which is the parent group from which a sample is to
be formed.29
Based on the definition above, it means that the population is the whole
subject that will be researched in the research.
The population in this research is the students at the eight grade students
of State Junior High School 6 Metro in the academic year of 2015/2016. The total
population in this research was 325 students which are divided into seven classes.
In this research, the writer just used two classes, the class VII.2 consists of 35
students and the class VIII.3 consists of 35 students.

2. Sampling Technique
According to Sugiyono sample is part of the amount and characteristic
which is owned by population.30
It means that sample is the part of population which presents that
population which will be researched.
In this research, the writer used purposive sampling as the method in
choosing a sample. Purposive sampling is the sampling technique that has a
29

Yongesh Kumarsingh, Fundamental of Research Methodology and Statistics, New Delhi, New
Age International (P) Limited, 2006, p. 82
30
Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif Kualitatif dan R&D, Alfabeta, Bandung, 2009, p. 81

31

purpose. The reason is based on the grade of the data pre-survey on the students
narrative paragraph writing ability, the students score in the class VIII.2 and class
VIII.3 can be categorized into poor category than the others class.
Moreover based on the explanation above, the sample of the research is at
the eight grade students of State Junior High School 6 Metro in the Academic
Year of 2015/2016 in the class VIII.2 which consists of 35 students and the class
VIII.3 which consist of 36 students. The writer toll class VIII 2 as the Control
class and class VIII 3 as the experimental class.

C. Operational Definition of Variables


Operational definitions of variables ins this research are:
1. Independent variable
Independent variable of this research is Draw Label Caption (DLC)
strategy and Presentation Practice Production strategy. DLC strategy is the
strategy that students draw a picture, then label everything in the picture, and then
give an overall caption or summary of what is happening in the picture. The last
the students can write descriptions of everything they have labeled and the action.
Moreover based on the theoretical review, the indicator of Draw Label
Caption (DLC) and Presentation Practice Production strategy in this research is
the writer gives a treatment about narrative paragraph writing ability.

32

2. Dependent Variable
Dependent variable in this research is narrative paragraph writing ability
includes content, organization, vocabulary, grammar and mechanic. Moreover,
writing a paragraph narrative must be attention how to write into a good
paragraph with the three steps, namely: introduction or the beginning, body and
conclusion.
Based on the theoretical review, the indicator of narrative paragraph
writing ability in this research is the writer gives a pretest and posttest to the
students to make writing about narrative paragraph.

D. Data Collection Method


1. Test
According to Suharsimi Arikunto, test is a series of questions or exercises
and other tools used to measure the skills, knowledge, intelligence or talent
abilities possessed by individuals or groups.31
Based on the explanation above, the writer uses test to collect the data.
The writer uses pre-test and post-test as data collection method to measure of the
students narrative paragraph writing ability.
In collecting data, the writer used test. Test are valuable measuring
instruments for educational research.32 Winarno Surahmad explains that the most of

31
32

Suharsimi Arikunto, Op. Cit., p. 150


Donald Ary, Lucy Cheser Jacobs, and Asghar Razavieh, Loc. Cit. p. 179.

33

research uses test as the main tool to measure the aspect. 33 . It is consist of two kinds
of technique data collecting, they are pre test and post test. The explanation of them
are follow:
1.4.1

Pre test
Pre test given before treatment, to know how far the students

1.4.2

overcome in reading comprehension.


Post test
Post test given to students after treatment, it is to know the
result of students achievement through PPL strategy.
Meanwhile, in order the data trusted, the instrument which will be
tested should have good quality. Therefore, the writer use content
validity. Content validity refers to the relevance of the instrument or
measurement strategy to the construct being measured. 34 In other
words, the instrument would be relevant to the focus of the research.
Therefore the writer use content validity based on the syllabus and
materials at the seventh grade of SMP N 6 in academic year
2015/2016.
According the Creswell quasi experimental has types of test.
And this research the research use pretest-post test only design. It will
be explained below:
Two Group Pretest-Treatment-Posttest Design
The two group pretest-treatment-posttest design is considered a strong
experimental design for several reasons. First, the design includes the
usage of both a control and treatment group. Second, the design also

33

Winarno Suraahmad. Penghantar Penelitian Ilmiah. Bandung. Tarsito.1990. p. 23


Geoffrey Marczyk.,david the mateo, david festinger. Essential of research design and methodology.
Canada: john wiley & sons. Inc. Hoboken, New Jersey.2005.p.107
34

34

requires that a pretest and posttest be administered to both the control


and treatment group. Mr. South then administers a posttest to both the
control and treatment groups to determine the learning outcomes of the
experiment. This design can be diagrammed as:
Group 1 Pretest Administered No Treatment Implemented
Posttest Administered
Group 2 Pretest Administered Treatment Implemented
Posttest Administered.35
E. Research Instrument
Gery Anderson defines an instrument includes test and questionnaire,
observations schedules and any other tool used to collect data. 36 Furthermore, the
research instrument involves:

1. Instrument Blueprint
The test is written test. The writer uses the same type pretest and
posttest instruments in this research. The pretest instrument is different with
the posttest instrument, but has the same difficulty level. The pretest and
posttest is making a narrative story essay which question was prepared by the
writer. In this research the writer uses writing essay test. This test is chosen as
35

Geoffrey Marczyk.,david the mateo, david festinger. Essential of research design and methodology.
Canada: john wiley & sons. Inc. Hoboken, New Jersey.2005.p.107
36
Gary Anderson , Fundamentals of E ducational research, The Falmer Press teachers Library,
USA, 1998. p. 94

35

the instrument because it is required the students to express their own idea and
to decide the scale of instrument. It would be measure certain writing abilities
more be effective than the objective test. Moreover the students write in their
own idea and creativity, it can motivate the students to improve their writing
ability.
In writing, there are indicators that can be used to know the students writing
score. According to Burhan Nurgiyantoro these indicators can be shown in the
table below:
Table 3
The Indicators of Score Narrative Writing
Writing Ability

Score
27-30

Level
Excellent

Indicator
The students really understand the
content of writing. Their writing is
really wide, and complete. Its very

22-26

Good

suitable with the title.


The student can understand the
content of writing. Their writing is

CONTENT
wide, complete and suitable with
17-21

Fair

the title but less detail.


The students less understand the
content. Their writing is less

13-16

Poor

complete and less detail.


The students do not understand to

36

18-20

Excellent

content of writing.
Writing really organized and neat.
Its really clear, much ideas and the

14-17

High

sequence is very logic.


Writing is organized, neat, clear,
much ideas, and the sequence is

10-13

Fair

logic.
Writing is less organized and neat,
it is less ideas and the sequence is

ORGANIZATION
7-9
18-20

Poor
Excellent

less logic.
The sequence is not logic.
The
students
have

many

vocabularies. They use the words


14-17

High

very effective and appropriately.


The
students
have
good
vocabularies;

10-13

Fair

7-9

Poor

18-21

Excellent
High

words

the

words

less

effective and less appropriate.


The students do not master the
words

22-25

the

effectively and appropriately.


The
students
have
little
vocabularies;

VOCABULARY

use

and

translation.
The students

their
can

writing

like

master

the

grammar well.
The students uses and arranges the

37

Fair

sentence simply.
The students are difficult in using

5-10

Poor

and arranging the simple sentence.


The students do not master the

Excellent

11-17
GRAMMAR

grammatical in their writing.


The students can master

the

High

mechanics in writing.
The students master the mechanics

Fair

in writing.
The students

MECHANICS

less

master

the

mechanics in writing and many


2

Poor

mistakes.
The students do not master the
mechanics in writing and their
writing are difficult to be read. 37

F. Data Analysis Technique


To investigate whether there is difference between the use of Draw Label
Caption (DLC) strategy (experimental class) and Presentation Practice Production
strategy (control class) in increasing the students narrative paragraph writing
ability at the eight grade students of State Junior High School 6 Metro in the
academic year of 2015/2016, the writer analysis the data by using t-test.
The formula of t-test is:

37

Burhan Nurgiyantoro, Penilaian Dalam Pengajaran Bahasa Dan Sastra, BPFE Yogyakarta,
Yogyakarta, 2001, p. 307-308

38

M X MY

Y 2 1
1

N X NY 2 N X NY

M : The mean of score each group.


N : Subjects in the sample
X : Deviation of each grade X2 and X1
Y : Deviation of each grade Y2 and Y138

38

Suharsimi Arikunto, Op.Cit., p. 311-312

39

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