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CONF-810399-27

THIRD SYMPOSIUM
ON THE CERRO PRIETO GEOTHERMAL FIELD,
BAJA CALIFORNIA, MEXICO
Sponsored by
United States Department of Energy, Office of Renewable Technology
Geothermal and Hydropower Technology Division
in Cooperation with
Comisidn Federal de Electricidad de Me'xico
Q

DO NOT MlCROflL

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PROCEEDINGSIACTAS
March 24 26, 1981
San Francisco, California

Coordinadora Ejecutiva

Earth Sciences Division


Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
University of California
Berkeley, California 94720

de Cerro Prieto
Mexicali, Baja California,
Mgxico

Prepared for the US. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC03-76SFOCO98

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RESULTS FROM TWO YEARS OF


RESISTIVITY MONITORING AT CERRO PRIETO
M. J. Wilt and N. E. Goldstein
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
University of California
Berkeley, California,U.S.A.

ABSTRACT
Dipole-dipole resistivity measurements
for the combined purposes of reservoir delineation
and resistivity monitoring were first made at
Cerro Prieto in 1978 and have continued on an
annual basis since then. Two 20 km long dipoledipole lines with permanently emplaced electrodes
at one kilometer spacings were established over
the field area; one of these lines is remeasured
annually. Resistivity measurements are taken
using a 25 kW generator capable of up to 8OA
output and a microprocessor controlled signal
averaging receiver; this high power-low noise
system is capable of highly accurate measurements
even at large transmitter-receiver separations.
Standard error calculations for collected data
indicate errors less than 5 percent for all
points, but 95 percent confidence intervals
show error limits about 2-4 times higher.
Analysis of collected data indicate little
change in the apparent resistivity of the upper
300 m over the field production zone and that
in this section measurements are relatively insensitive to the annual rainfall cycle.
Apparent resistivity increases were observed
over the older producing zone at Cerro Prieto
at depths of 1 km and greater. Large zones of
decreasing apparent resistivity were observed
flanking the zone of increases on both sides.
The increase in apparent resistivity in the
production region may be due to an increasing
fraction of steam in the reservoir resulting
from a production related decline in reservoir
pressure. Alternatively the increases may be
the result of fresh water influx from the
Colorado river. The zone of declining resistivity flanking the area of increase may be due to
the movement of saline waters into the reservoir
region as a result of the pressure decline.
Quantitative modeling of observed changes is
impractical owing to the high uncertainty in
estimating apparent resistivity changes and the
nonuniqueness of models.

changes in the subsurface resistivity (e.g., due


to continuing fluid production) from surface
measurements. The project plan was to establish
a permanent array of stations and to duplicate
the measurement on a yearly basis for the purpose
of observing changes in subsurface conditions.
The resistivity structure derived from
surface measurements has been described in Wilt
and Goldstein (1979). In this paper, we present
the results of two years of resistivity monitoring
at Cerro Prieto. We describe the field system
used for measurements and the methods for obtaining
high quality repeatable data. In addition,
observed changes over the two year span will be
examined in terms of the existing two-dimensional
resistivity model. Finally, an attempt is made
to explain geological and hydrological processes
related to groundwater withdrawal and tectonism.
EXPERIMENT DESIGN
The dipole-dipole resistivity method was
chosen for the resistivity monitoring array at
Cerro Prieto. This method, which is commonly
used in mining exploration, was chosen for
several reasons: (a) the ease in establishing
the relatively few permanent electrodes needed
for monitoring; (b) the inherent sensitivity of
the method to laterally discontinuous resistivity
structure; and (c) the relatively short lengths
of wire needed for field operation.
A schematic diagram of the field system
is shown in Figure 2. The 25 kW generator is
capable of providing square wave currents of up
to 80 amps peak to peak into the ground at up to
1200 volts for square wave periods from 1 to 1000
seconds. This power source proved ideal for the
Cerro Prieto survey since it is portable yet
powerful enough to provide adequate signals for
distant stations. Because of the highly conductive
ground at Cerro Prieto, 40 second period square
waves were used to minimize inductive coupling
effects. Trials of 10 second period square waves
showed severe inductive attenuation for distant
sites which resulted in erroneously low apparent
resistivity estimates.

INTRODUCTION
Beginning in 1978, Lawrence Berkeley
Laboratory (LBL), in cooperation with the Comisibn
Federal de Electricidad in Mexico (CFE), began a
project of monitoring changes in subsurface
resistivity with surface resistivity measurements
over an area of intense steam and water production
at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in Baja
California, Mexico (Figure 1). The project goals
include: (a) the delineation of subsurface
resistivity structure at Cerro Prieto and reservoir
boundaries and (b) the feasibility of detecting

With the LBL system, signals are received


at four dipoles simultaneously at integer multiples
of 1 to 10 times the 1 tan transmitter dipole
length. The signals are detected with porous pot
copper-copper sulfate electrodes and electronical-ly filtered and amplified. Filtering is n e c e s s a b
to remove 6 0 Hz and telluric noise. After analog
processing, the signals are digitized, decomposed
into Fourier components and stacked using a
372

DISCLAIMER
This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an
agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States
Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees,
makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal
liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or
usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process
disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately
owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product,
process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or
otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,
recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any
agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein
do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States
Government or any agency thereof.

DISCLAIMER
Portions of this document may be illegible in
electronic image products. Images are produced
from the best available original document.

multichannel spectrum analyzer (Morrison et el. ,


1978). This system was found to be very effective
for obtaining high quality data since it was
possible to eliminate much of the noise prior to
--tacking and efficiently reduce the remaining
ise by stacking the signals from four dipoles
imult aneously

td

at stations 12 and 13. The error difference is


probably due to the higher noise level at stations
7 and 8, which are close to the power plant.
Although it is likely that the confidence
intervals provide a more accurate representation
of actual error, their calculation for three sets
of data is a formidable task. Because of the
limited number of observations taken for each
point, the accuracy of these more rigorous
confidence interval calculations is still suspect.
We have therefore limited error calculations to
the standard error. The advantage of this
approach is that it gives a fairly accurate
representation of relative error for. values in
the pseudosection. A pseudosection plot of
standard errors
the fall 1980 data set is
given in Figure
This figure shows errors
increasing with separation, and relatively
greater errors are observed in the western end of
the line where it is comparatively more difficult
to impress large currents in the ground. Errors
are relatively low in the central and eastern
portions of the line, which overlie the reservoir
region.

Two 20 km long dipole-dipole lines


oriented east-west were established in the field
area (Figure 1). Line D-D' is outside of the
producing field area and lies adjacent to the
Cerro Prieto volcano; this line was primarily
used for background information. Line E-E'
crosses directly over the production zone (Figure
3) and is remeasured on an annual basis for
monitoring purposes. Measurements are taken-at
130 points to a maximum n-spacing of 8, which
corresponds to a transmitter-receiver separation
of 9 km and a maximum depth of penetration of
about 3 km. A minimum of 30 square wave cycles
were averaged at each site; and, for the distant
sites, where signals are weakest, more than 200
cycles were averaged. Measurements were often
taken during the evening hours and during
weekends, when telluric and cultural noise levels
were lowest. Almost half of the points were
measured twice or more during each annual field
session. This was done to estimate repeatibility
of measurements over a short time interval and to
compare short time repeatability with errors
estimated from individual data sets.

Observed Apparent Resistivity Changes.


Figure 5 is a line plot of observed apparent
resistivity differences for h-spacings of 1 and 4
over line E-E'.
The plot shows percent difference
calculations for two sets of data relative to
baseline measurements taken in the spring of
1979. For the n=1 line plot (Figure 5a), the
differences are large for both sets of data at
the western end of the line but relatively small
elsewhere.

RESULTS
Estimate of Error. For all measurements,
means and standard deviations (g) of apparent
resistivities were computed, and from these
quantities and N, the number of cycles averaged,
the percent standard error (SEI was computed,
percent SE *

To assess the effect of the annual


rainfall cycle on subsurface conditions, a set of
measurements taken in the fall of 1980, at the
end of the dry season, is compared with measurements taken in the spring of the same year.
Figure 5a shows that the apparent resistivity
differences for measurements taken over the
producing field (stations 6-13) at the n=l
spacing are very small for both data sets. This
indicates that the clays and muds in this region
are relatively insensitive to the annual rainfall
cycle. In contrast, the apparent resistivity
differences of the near surface in the alluvial
fan material adjacent to the Cucapa mountains
(stations 1-5) is much greater; this suggests
that the resistivity of the near surface in this
region is very sensitive to the annual rainfall

U
7
x 100

A' FT
average apparent resistivity.
This number estimates the error in the mean of a
given data set. With only random noise in the
signal this is a reasonable estimate of the
measurement error. Unfortunately, signals are
often contaminated by non-random sources (i.e.,
power lines, fence lines, vehicular traffic), and
such sources could provide a bias to the data
measurements. To estimate how severe this bias
can be, we made repeat measurements over particular
points two and three times during each annual
survey. The time interval between measurements
ranged from 12 hours to 8 days. For some of
these data, 9 5 percent confidence 1
calculated, as displayed in Table 1.
In all cases, we find that the calc
exceed the standard errors by a
In addition, the differences
s of remeasured Val
fall within the confidence interval
two entries in the table show the results when
transmitter and receiver position were
terchanged. The calculated means for this case
are very close to each other; however, the errors
are much larger when the transmitter is located

In Figure 5b, the apparent resistivity ences for an n=4 spacing ar


both spring and fall of 1980 data
to the 1979 baseline. The n==4sp
to a maximum depth of penetration of about 1300
m. The figure indicates a sign
in.apparent resistivity over th
zone at Cerro Prieto (stations 7-11) and significant decreases in an apparent resistivity for the
areas flanking the high. A similar pattern is t
observed for n spacings.of 3 through 7. Because'
these changes are observed only at the larger
separation, this suggests that significant
resistivity changes are occurring at depth in the
producing reservoir at Cerro Prieto as well as in

373

the region surrounding the reservoir.


Interpretation of results. Figures 6a
and 6b are pseudosection plots of apparent
resistivity 'differences from the spring and fall
of 1980 data respectively, relative to the 1979
baseline measurements. The differences, plotted
in percent, show apparent resistivity increases
as greater than 25 percent for points adjacent to
the Cucapk mountains, but also show decreases as
much as 25 percent in regions immediately eastward
and westward from the present steam production
zone. Both sets of data show a similar pattern.
For n spacings greater than 2, a significant
increase in apparent resistivity is observed over
the present steam production zone flanked on
either side by large regions of decreasing
apparent resistivity. Differences for both
figures are contoured at 2 and 5 percent, which
is close to or within the confidence limits for
these data. Because the changes occur for
clusters or groups of points in the psuedosection
that increase or decrease together, the observed
pattern of differences is probably significant,
although the actual shape of the patterns may be
sensitive to measurement error. The magnitude of
such changes does, however, suggest significant
subsurface variations caused by extensive fluid
withdrawal and subsequent groundwater recharge
into the system.
Figure 7 shows the present two-dimensional
dipole-dipole resistivity model over the region
encompassing the producing zone. For the purpose
of analyzing apparent resistivity changes, we
briefly discuss the working two-dimensional model
presented in an earlier paper (Wilt and Goldstein,
1979). The most striking feature of the model is
the relatively resistive (4.0 ohm-m) body associated with the zone of present steam production.
The body is also associated with a zone of
increased consolidation (de la Peiia et al.,
1979) and metamorphic minerals (Elders et el. ,
1979). Well log analysis has indicated that both
sands and shales increase in resistivity in this
region (although for the shales the increase is
more dramatic) and that the bulk density is
greater and bulk porosity lower than for corresponding rocks outside this zone (Lyons and van
de Kamp, 1979; Elders et al., 1981).

indicating fresher pore waters as we approach the


Colorado River. West of the steam production
zone the resistivity at depth is low, less than
1.5 ohm-m. Lyons and van de Kamp (1979) have
interpreted this section as a sequence of marine
beds saturated with partially evaporated sea
water.
With this conceptual model, it is
possible to explain in a general way the observed
apparent resistivity changes at Cerro Prieto. An
increase in apparent resistivity in the older,
shallower-producing zone can be explained by an
increase in steam fraction in the formation due
to production or by a replacement of produced
waters by less saline Colorado River water, or a
combination of these two. Evidence for the
former comes from the observation that enthalpy
has increased and pressure has decreased in many
of the older wells over the past several years
(Goyal et al., 1981). The chemistry of produced
waters has also changed markedly over the past
several years to more closely resemble Colorado
River water (Grant et al., 1981). This, along
with isotopic evidence (Williams and Elders,
19811, suggests significant fresh water recharge
for the geothermal system. For a 10 percent
increase in resistivity in a year, a 15 percent
replacement of reservoir waters with waters
one-tenth as saline would be required. Considering the annual fluid production at Cerro Prieto
(Goyal et al., 19811, this is not unreasonable.

A possible explanation for the regions


of resistivity decrease on either side of the
high is that more saline waters are moving
towards the reservoir in response to the pressure
drop caused by production. East of the power
plant, the apparent resistivity decreased by as
much as 25 percent for a large region extending
from the surface to great depths. If faulting is
important in this region, as suggested by selfpotential measurements and microearthquake
surveys, then flow channels may be created by
fault induced fracturing. The pore fluids may
then be moving fairly rapidly in response to
the production pressure drop.
In order to quantify these observations,
an attempt was made to match the observed differences by perturbing the working two-dimensional
model. It was quickly discovered, however, that
the range of acceptable models that match the
data is very large. A second drawback is that
the pattern of observed differences is not
well-defined due to the margin of error in the
field data.

Immediately east of this 4.0 ohm-m


resistivity zone lies a thin, steeply inclined
conductive body. This region correlates well
with a plane of microearthquake hypocenters on
the Hidalgo fault (Majer and McEvilly, 1981) and
the inferred source plane location for the
observed self-potential anomaly (Corwin et al.,
1979). Well log analysis indicates that this
region is characterized by warm water and low
resistivity sands and shales (Diaz et al.,
One explanation is that this area corre1981).
sponds to a plume of ascending hot waters connecting the zone of deep production east of the
power plant to the shallower production zone
adjacent to and west of the plant (Elders et
It is also possible that this zone
al., 1981).
represents a mixing area for upward-moving hot
waters and colder waters moving in from the sides
or downward from above. East of this conductor,
the rocks gradually increase in resisitivity

CONCLUSIONS
The two year resistivity monitoring
experiment has yielded some significant results:
(1) It is possible and feasible to monitor a
geothermal reservoir with surface resistivity
measurements but even in the most ideal situation
the measurement error may be large relative to
the expected change. (2) At Cerro Prieto, large
changes in apparent resistivity were observed
for the production region and surrounding area.
The observed 10 percent increase in apparent
374

r e s i s i t i v i t y i n t h e older production region may


be due t o l o c a l boiling o r t o fresh water
invasion. The l a r g e decrease i n apparent
r e s i s t i v i t y on the flanks of the producing zone
may be due t o the movement of more s a l i n e
oundwater i n t o the r e s e r v o i r region i n response
the pressure drop. ( 3 ) Because of the
nonunique-ness of models and the present l e v e l of
measurement e r r o r , i t i s not f e a s i b l e t o quantitat i v e l y i n t e r p r e t data by perturbing the working
two-dimensional model i n order t o match the
observed changes.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors wish t o acknowledge the help
of Deborah Hopkins who was involved i n e r r o r calcul a t i o n s . We a l s o wish t o thank Alfred Truesdell,
Ernest Majer, Keshav Goyal, Sergio Diaz, and HCctor
Fonseca f o r valuable discussions.

C a l i , Mexico, October 1979, Comisidn


Federal de Electricidad, pp. 57-65.
Elders, W. A., A. E. Williams, and J. R.
Hoagland, 1981. An integrated model f o r
the n a t u r a l flow regime i n the Cerro
P r i e t o geothermal f i e l d based upon petrol o g i c a l and isotope geochemical c r i t e r i a
i n Proceedings, Third Symposium on the Cerro
P r i e t o Geothermal F i e l d , Baja California,
Mexico, ( t h i s volume).

Goyal, K. P., C. W. Miller, M. J. Lippmann, and


S. P. Vonder Haar, 1981. Analysis of Cerro
I Proceedings, Third
P r i e t o production d a t a &
Symposium on the Cerro P r i e t o Geothermal
Field, Baja California, Mexico, ( t h i s volume).
Grant, M. A., A. H. Truesdell and A. Mafidn M.,
1981. Production induced b o i l i n g and cold
water e n t r y i n t h e Cerro P r i e t o geothermal
r e s e r v o i r indicated by chemical and physical
measurements
Proceedings, Third Symposium
on t h e Cerro P r i e t o Geothermal F i e l d , Baja
C a l i f o r n i a , Mexico, ( t h i s volume).

This work was supported by the Assistant


Secretary or Conservation and Renewable Energy,
Office of Renewable Technology, Division of Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.

Lyons, D. J., P. C. van de Kamp, S. Vonder Bar,


J. Noble, and J. H. Howard, 1980. Subsurface
geological and geophysical study of t h e Cerro
P r i e t o geothermal f i e l d , ip Proceedings,
Second Symposium on the Cerro P r i e t o Geothermal F i e l d , Baja C a l i f o r n i a , Mexico, in MexiC a l i , Mexico, October 1979, Comisibn
Federal de Electricidad, pp. 173-186.

REFERENCES
Corwin, R. F., H. F. Morrison, S . Dfaz C . , and
B. Rodriguez J . , 1978. Self p o t e n t i a l
s t u d i e s a t the Cerro P r i e t o geothermal
field,
Proceedings, F i r s t Symposium on
the Cerro P r i e t o Geothermal F i e l d , Baja
California, Mexico, September 1978. Lawrence
Berkeley Laboratory Report LBL-7098, p. 204210.

in

Majer, E. L. and T. V. McEvilly, 1981.

A detailed
microearthquake study a t the Cerro P r i e t o geothermal f i e l d
Proceedings, Third Symposium
on the Cerro P r i e t o Geothermal F i e l d , Baja
California, Mexico , ( t h i s volume).

de l a Peaa L., A., I. Puente C., and E. Dfaz C.,


1979. Modelo geoldgico d e l
campo geothrmico de Cerro P r i e t o , &Proceedings, Second
Symposium on the Cerro P r i e t o Geothermal
F i e l d , Baja California, Mexico, i n MexiCali,
Mexico, October 1979, Comisidn Federal de
Electricidad, pp. 29-52.

Morrison, H. F., N. E. Coldstein, W. Hoversten, G.


Oppliger, and C. Riveros, 1978. Description,
f i e l d test and data a n a l y s i s of a controlled
source EM system (EM-60), Lawrence Berkeley
Laboratory Report LBL-7088.
W i l l i a m s , A. E. and W.A.

Eldere, 1981. Oxygen


isotope exchange in rocks and minerals from
the Cerro P r i e t o geothermal system; i n d i c a t o r s
o f temperature d i s t r i b u t i o n and f l u i d flow,
in Proceedings, Third Symposium on t h e Cerro
P r i e t o Geothermal F i e l d , Baja California,
Mexico, ( t h i s volume).

Dfaz C., S . , I. Puente C., A. de l a Pe3a L.,


1981. Proposed geologic model based on
geophysical w e l l logs, & Proceedings , Third
Symposium on the Cerro P r i e t o Geothermal
F i e l d , Baja California, Mexico, ( t h i s volume).

W i l t , M. J. and H- E. Goldstein, 1979. R e s i s t i v i t y


monitoring a t Cerro P r i e t o , g Proceedings,
Second Symposium on the Cerro P r i e t o Geotherm a l F i e l d , Baja California, Mexico, in Wexi-

Elders, W. A., J. R. Hoagland, and A. E. Williams,


1979. D i s t r i b u t i o n of hydrothermal mineral
zones i n the Cerro P r i e t o geothermal f i e l d o f
Baja California, Mexico, & Proceedings,
Second Symposium on the Cerro P r i e t o Geothermal F i e l d , Baja California, Mexico, i n Mexi-

C a l i , Mexico, October 1979, Comisibn Federal


de Electricidad, pp. 419-428.

375

Sonora B C.

SCALE

I\
\ I

Ikmd
XBL 7881632

Figure 1. P r o j e c t l o c a t i o n map LBL r e s i s t i v i t y


project

I
x e L 811-2532C

Figura 1. Mapa de ubicaci6n d e l levantamiento


de r e s i s t i v i d a d d e l LBL.

Figure 3. S t a t i o n l o c a t i o n map f o r dipoled i p o l e r e s i s t i v i t y l i n e E-E'.


Figura 3. Mapa de ubicaci6n de l a s estaciones
de l a l i n e a de r e s i s t i v i d a d dipolo-dipolo E-E'

Permanent
Current Electrodes

pot
Electrodes

FWOUS

XBL 8163203

Figure 2. Schematic design diagram of t h e LBL


dipole-dipole r e s i s t i v i t y system.
Figura 2. Diagrama e s q u d t i c o d e l sistema de
r e s i s t i v i d a d dipolo-dipolo d e l LBL.

kilometers
0

9 IO

II

12

13

i4

15

16

17

18

19

H= 5:
7 8-

9-

10 -

.
Figure 4.
d a t a set.

XEL812-2717

Pseudosection p l o t of standard e r r o r s (SE) f o r f a l l 1980

Figura 4. Seudosecci6n de e r r o r e s estgndar (SE) para 10s datos d e l


otoiio de 1980.

376

30

-+-

FALL 1980

-*-SPR. 1980

20
0
c

.j IO
.al
>

0
c
c

0
al

& -10

n = l SPACING

-20

Figure 5a. Line p l o t of percent apparent r e s i s t i v i t y d i f f e r e n c e s r e l a t i v e


t o 1979 b a s e l i n e measurements, spacing n = 1.
Figura 5a. Porcentaje de l a s d i f e r e n c i a s de r e s i s i t i v i d a d aparente relat i v a s a l a s mediciones de l i n e a de base de 1979, separaci6n n = 1.

Or

-20 L

n = 4 SPACING

PADIFFERENCES %
XBL 813-2715A
Figure 5b. Line plot of percent
t o 1979 b a s e l i n e measurements, s p

377

relative

kilometers
0
h

5
I

8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 ~ 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9
I

'

14.

SPRING 1980
Figure 6a. Pseudosection p l o t of apparent r e s i s t i v i t y differences f o r
spring 1980 d a t a set r e l a t i v e t o spring 1979 d a t a set.
Pigura 6a. Seudosecci6n de l a s d i f e r e n c i a s de r e s i s t i v i d a d aparente
para 10s datos d e l otoso de 1980 r e l a t i v o a 10s datos de l a primavera
de 1979.

kilometers
0

IO

II

12

1I 3

14I

15 I

16

17

18 1:9

FALL 1980

PADIFFERENCES %
XBL 813-27188

Figure 6b. Pseudosection p l o t of apparent r e s i s t i v i t y differences f o r


f a l l 1980 data set r e l a t i v e t o spring 1979 measurements.
Figura 6b. Seudosecci6n de las d i f e r e n c i a s de r e s i s t i v i d a d aparente
para 10s datos d e l otoiio de 1980 r e l a t i v o a 10s datos d e l a primavera
de 1979.

318

8.5

I -

2.0

Figure 7. Expanded version of two-dimensional resistivity model over


line E-E'. Well locations are shown at the top of the figure.
Figura 7. Versibn ampliada del modelo de resistividad bi-dimensional
a lo largo de la linea E-E'. En la parte superior de la figura se
muestra la ubicacibn de 10s pozos.

1
1

Table 1. Confidence limits of apparent resistivity


estimates for various transmitter-receiver dipole
separations.
Tabla 1. Lfmites de confianza de resistividad aparente para varias separaciones entre el dipola
transmisor y receptor.
DATA POINT
T

8-9
8-9
6-7
6-7
7-8
7-8
12-13
7-8

5-6
5-6
11-12
11-12
13-14
13-14
7-8
12-13

PA

1.686
2.083
2.807
2.692
1.813
1.808

SE(%)

95%CI(+) C I / S E

.8
1.6
1.8
1.9
3.6
3.0

2.0
2.4
6.0
4.6
5.0
4.9
10.0
6.5

2.5
2.7
3.3
2.9
2.8
2.6
2.9
3.2

'

--

T = Transmitting dipole stations


R Receiving dipole stations
PA Apparent resistivity
SE = Percent Standard Error
CI 95% Confidence Interval
CIfSE = 95% CI/SE

379

RESULTADOS DE DOS AGOS DE MONITOREO


DE LA RESISTIVIDAD EN CERRO PRIETO
1

RESUMEN
Mediciones d e r e s i t i v i d a d dipolo-dipolo
con e l doble prop6sito de d e l i n e a r e l yacimiento y
de monitorear l a r e s i s t i v i d a d d e l campo s e han l l e vado a cab0 anualmente en Cerro P r i e t o desde 1978.
En e l &rea d e l campo se e s t a b l e c i e r o n dos l h e a s
dipolo-dipolo de 20 km de longitud con e l e c t r o d o s
permanentes emplazados a 1 km de d i s t a n c i a e n t r e si;
una de esas l i n e a s se mide anualmente. Las mediciones d e r e s i s t i v i d a d s e r e a l i z a n u t i l i z a n d o un
generador de 25 kW con una c o r r i e n t e d e s a l i d a de
h a s t a 8 0 A y un r e c e p t o r promediador de se&les cont r o l a d o por un microprocesador.
Este sistema de
a l t a potencia y bajo ruido es capaz d e mediciones
altamente p r e c i s a s , abn con grandes separaciones
e n t r e e l transmisor y e l receptor. Los c6lculos
e s t b d a r de e r r o r para d a t o s obtenidos indican
e r r o r e s menores d e l 5 % para todos 10s puntos. Los
l h i t e s de confianza de 95% muestran G r g e n e s
de e r r o r 2-4 veces ma's a l t o s . E l a d i s i s d e 10s
d a t o s obtenidos muestran un cambio pequezo en l a
r e s i s t i v i d a d aparente en 10s 300 m s u p e r i o r e s en l a
zona de producci6n d e l campo; en dicha regi6n las
mediciones son relativamente i n s e n s i b l e s a1 c i c l o
p l u v i a l anual. En l a zona de produccidn m6s a n t i gua de Cerro P r i e t o s e observaron incrementos d e l a
r e s i s t i v i d a d a p a r e n t e a profundidades de 1 km y
mayores. Grandes zonas de disminuci6n de l a r e s i s t i v i d a d aparente s e observaron a ambos l a d o s de l a
zona d e incremento. E l aumento de l a r e s i s t i v i d a d
aparente en l a reg& de producci6n puede deberse
a1 incremento de l a f r a c c i 6 n de vapor en e l yacimiento como r e s u l t a d o d e l abatimiento de l a presi6n
d e l mismo relacionado con l a produccibn. Alternativamente, 10s aumentos de r e s i s t i v i d a d pueden s e r
e l r e s u l t a d o de l a entrada de agua dulce d e l Rio
Colorado. La zona de r e s i s t i v i d a d d e c l i n a n t e que
flanquea e l &ea de aumento puede deberse a l a ent r a d a de aguas s a l o b r e s en l a regi'on d e l yacimiento
como consecuencia d e l abatimiento de l a presidn.
E l modelado c u a n t i t a t i v o de 10s cambios observados
e s impriictico debido a l a gran incertidumbre en l a
estimaci6n de 10s cambios de r e s i s t i v i d a d aparente
y l a f a l t a de unicidad de 10s modelos.
INTRODUCCION
A comienzos d e 1978, e l Lawrence Berkeley
Laboratory (LBL) en cooperaci'on con l a Comisi6n
Federal de E l e c t r i c i d a d de M6xico (CFE) comenzd en
e l k e a de i n t e n s a produccidn de vapor y agua d e l
campo geot6rmico de Cerro P r i e t o , Baja C a l i f o r n i a ,
Mgxico (Fig. 1 ) un proyecto de monitoreo de cambios
en l a r e s i s t i v i d a d d e l subsuelo mediante mediciones
de l a r e s i s t i v i d a d desde l a s u p e r f i c i e . Los objet i v o s d e l proyecto incluyen: a ) l a delineaci6n
d e l a e s t r u c t u r a de r e s i s t i v i d a d en e l subsuelo de
Cerro P r i e t o y de 10s l i m i t e s d e l yacimiento, y
b ) l a f a c t i b i l i d a d de d e t e c t a r cambios en l a res i s t i v i d a d d e l subsuelo (e.8. debido a l a producc i b continua de f l u i d o s ) , a p a r t i r de mediciones
hechas en l a s u p e r f i c i e . E l programa era de establecer un conjunto permanente de e s t a c i o n e s y repe-

t i r anualmente las mediciones con e l f i n de observ a r cambios en l a s condiciones subterrgneas.

W i l t y Coldstein (1979) d e s c r i b i e r o n l a
e s t r u c t u r a de l a r e s i s t i v i d a d derivada de las med i c i o n e s d e s u p e r f i c i e . En e s t e t r a b a j o presentamos 10s r e s u l t a d o s de dos 6 0 s d e monitoreo de l a
r e s i s t i v i d a d en Cerro P r i e t o . Describimos e l equiPO u t i l i z a d o en las mediciones y 10s mgtodos para
obtener datos r e p e t i b l e s de a l t a calidad. A d d s ,
s e examinarzn 10s cambios observados en e l lapso
de dos azos en tgrminos d e l modelo bi-dimensional
de r e s i s t i v i d a d e x i s t e n t e . Finalmente, se hace un
i n t e n t o de e x p l i c a r loa procesos geol6gicos e h i drol6gicos relacionados con l a extracci6n de aguas
subterrgneas y e l tectonismo.
DISEfJO DEL EXPERIMENT0

E l mgtodo de r e s i s t i v i d a d dipolo-dipolo fu6


seleccionado para e l monitoreo de l a r e s i s t i v i d a d
en Cerro P r i e t o . Este mgtodo, u t i l i z a d o comunmente
en exploraciones d e minerTa, fu6 seleccionado por
v a r i a s razones: a ) l a f a c i l i d a d de e s t a b l e c e r loa
r e l a t ivamente pocos e l e c t r o d o s pe rmanen tes necesar i o s para e l monitoreo; b) la s e n s i b i l i d a d inher e n t e de este mgtodo a e s t r u c t u r a s d e r e s i s t i v i d a d
l a t e r a l m e n t e d i s c o n t i n u a s y c ) las longitudes d e
c a b l e relativamente c o r t a s que son n e c e s a r i a s para
l a s operaciones de campo.

En l a Figura 2 s e muestra un diagrama esque& t i c 0 d e l equipo u t i l i z a d o . E l generador de 25 kW


es capaz d e proveer c o r r i e n t e s de onda cuadrada de
h a s t a 8 0 amps de c r e s t a a c r e s t a , y de h a s t a 1200
v o l t s para periodos de onda cuadrada de 1 a 1000
segundos. Esta f u e n t e de energia r e s u l t 6 i d e a l
para e l e s t u d i o en Cerro P r i e t o dado que, aunque
p o r t a t i l , ea suficientemente poderosa para proveer
s e z a l e s adecuadas a l a s e s t a c i o n e s &a d i s t a n t e s .
Se u t i l i z a r o n ondas cuadradas de un period0 de 40
segundos para minimizar 10s e f e c t o s de acoplamiento
inductivo r e s u l t a n t e s de l a a l t a conductividad d e l
t e r r e n o en Cerro P r i e t o . Pruebas de ondas cuadradas de un period0 de 10 segundos mostraron atenuac i 6 n inductiva s e v e r a en l u g a r e s d i s t a n t e s , dando
como r e s u l t a d o estimaciones d e r e s i s t i v i d a d aparent e erroneamente bajas.
Con e l sistema d e l LBL, las seGales se r e c i ben en c u a t r o dipolos simultaneamente a d i s t a n c i a s
que son mfiltiples e n t e r o s , e n t r e 1 y 10 veces, de
l a longitud de 1 km d e l dipolo transmisor. Las
se"na1es son d e t e c t a d a s con e l e c t r o d o s porosos de
cobre-sulfato de cobre, y f i l t r a d a s y amplificadas
electronicamente. Es necesario filtrar l a s sekles
para remover e l r u i d o t e l i k i c o y e l de 60 Hz. Despu'es d e l procesado analSgico, l a s se&les s e
d i g i t a l i z a n , se descomponen en SUB componentes d e
Fourier, y s e adicionan ("stacking") u t i l i z a n d o un
a n a l i z a d o r de e s p e c t r o multicanal (Morrison et a
1978). Se encontr6 que este sistema es muy efec-L d
t i v o para obtener d a t o s de a l t a c a l i d a d dado que es
p o s i b l e e l i m i n a r buena p a r t e d e l ruido a n t e s d e l

adicionado ("stacking") y r e d u c i r eficientemente e l


r u i d o r e s t a n t e adicionando simultaneamente las se:ales d e c u a t r o dipolos.

que s e encuentran pr6ximas a l a p l a n t a generadora.


Aunque es probable que 10s l h i t e s de
confianza den una representaci6n &e p r e c i s a d e l
e r r o r r e a l , s u c6lculo para tres conjuntos d e d a t o s
e s una t a r e a enorme. Dado e l n b e r o limitado de
observaciones tomadas en cada punto, l a p r e c i s i 6 n
de e s t o s l-bites de confianza m& rigurosos es
sospechosa. Por l o t a n t o , hemos l i m i t a d o n u e s t r o s
cglculos de e r r o r a 1 de loa e r r o r e s est6ndar. La
v e n t a j a de esta a p r o x i m a c i b ea que da una representaci'on b a s t a n t e p r e c i s a d e l error r e l a t i v o para
v a l o r e s de l a seudosecci6n. En l a Figura 4 se
muestra una representaci'on e n seudosecci6n de
e r r o r e s estgndares para e l conjunto de d a t o s d e l
otoso de 1980. Esta f i g u r a muestra e r r o r e s que
aumentan con l a separaci6n e n t r e transmisor y rec e p t o r , y s e observan e r r o r e s relativamente mayores
en e l extremo o c c i d e n t a l de l a l i n e a donde e8 comparativamente 6 s d i f i c i l i n t r o d u c i r c o r r i e n t es
mayores en e l suelo. Los e r r o r e s son relativamente
bajos en l e a p a r t e s c e n t r a l y o r i e n t a l de l a l i n e a
que cruza l a regi'0n d e l yacimiento.

Doe l i n e a e dipolo-dipolo de 20 km de longio r i e n t a d a s e s t e - o e s t e s e e s t a b l e c i e r o n en e l


ampo (Figura 1 ) . La l i n e a D-D' est& f u e r a d e l
6 r e a de producci'on d e l campo y es adyacente a1
volc'an Cerro P r i e t o . Dicha l h e a se u t i l i z ' o principalmente para obtener informacign de fondo. La
l b e a E-E', que cruza directamente sobre l a zona
de producci'on (Figura 3 ) . se usa para medir anualmente l a r e s i s t i v i d a d con f i n e s de monitoreo. La8
mediciones s e efectGan en 130 puntos a una separaci'on (n) m6xima de 8, que corresponde a una separaci'on transmiaor-receptor de 9 km y a una profundidad m'axima de penetraci'on de 3 km. En cada lugar
se promediaron un m'inimo de 30 c i c l o e de onda cuadrada. Para e s t a c i o n e s d i s t a n t e s , donde l a s s e k l e s
son m6s & b i l e s , se promediaron m'as de 200 c i c l o s .
Las mediciones s e efectuaron a menudo en horas de
l a noche y en f i n e s de semana, cuando 10s n i v e l e s
de ruido t e l b i c o y c u l t u r a l son m'as bajos. Durant e cada camp&a anual, casi l a mitad de l o a puntos
Esto se h i z o para
se midieron doe veces o &s.
estimar l a r e p e t i b i l i d a d de l a s mediciones en int e r v a l o s de tiempo c o r t o s , y para comparar l a repet i b i l i d a d de c o r t o plazo con e r r o r e s estimadoa de
conjuntos i n d i v i d u a l e s de datos.

CABIBIOS OBSERVADOS EN LA RESISTIVIDAD APARENTE


En l a Figura 5 se mueatran l a s d i f e r e n c i a s
observadas en l a r e s i s t i v i d a d a p a r e n t e de l a l k e a
E-E', para separaciones (n) i g u a l e s a 1 y 4. E l
g r i f i c o muestra c 6 l c u l o s d e l porcentaje de difere;
c i a para dos conjuntos de d a t o s r e l a t i v o s a mediciones de l i n e a de base hechos en l a primavera de
1979. Para e l grgfico correspondiente a n = 1
(Figura 5a) para ambos conjuntos d e d a t o s las d i f e r e n c i a s son grandes en e l extremo o e s t e de l a
linea, pero relativamente pequeEas en todo e l
resto.

RESULTADOS
Estimaci'on de e r r o r . Para todas las medic i o n e s se computaron promedios y desviaciones est'andares (a) de r e s i s t i v i d a d a p a r e n t e , y de esas
cantidades y d e l n b e r o de c i c l o s promediado (N),
s e comput'o e l e r r o r e s t a n d a r porcentual (SE),
p e r c e n t a j e SE =

x 100

Para estimar 10s e f e c t o s d e l c i c l o p l u v i a l


anual sobre las condiciones en e l subsuelo, se efectuaron una a e r i e de mediciones en e l otoso de
1980, a 1 f i n a l de l a e s t a c i 6 n seca, con e l f i n de
compararlas con mediciones efectuadas en l a primavera d e l mismo aiio. La Figura 5a muestra que las
d i f e r e n c i a s de resis t i v i d a d aparente para medicion e s efectuadas sobre e l campo de producci6n ( e s t a ciones 6-13), con separaciones n = 1, son muy pequeiias en ambos conjuntos de datos. Esto demuest r a que l a s a r c i l l a s y lodos d e la regi'on son rela
tivamente i n s e n s i b l e s a1 c i c l o p l u v i a l anual. Por
c o n t r a s t e , las d i f e r e n c i a s de r e s i s t i v i d a d aparent e son mucho mayores cerca de la s u p e r f i c i e en e l
m a t e r i a l de abanico a l u v i a l adyacente a l a sierra
Cucap; ( e s t a c i o n e s 1-5). Esto s u g i e r e que l a res i s t i v i d a d de l a p a r t e somera de esta regi6n es
muy s e n s i b l e e l c i c l o p l u v i a l anual.

P*d

donde V es l a r e s i a t i v i d i a d a p a r e n t e promedio. E l
e r r o r e k n d a r (SEI estima e l e r r o r en e l promedio
de un conjunto dado de datos. Es una estimacibn
razonable d e l e r r o r de l a medici'on s i e l ruido en
l a se"na1 f u e r a solamente a l e a t o r i o . Desafortunada- .
mente, l a s s e b l e s est'& a menudo contaminadas por
f u e n t e s no a l e a t o r i a s (i.e. l i n e a s de tensi'on, 15n e a s d e alambrados, t r 6 n s i t o v e h i c u l a r ) y dichas
f u e n t e s podrian provocar e r r o r e s sistem'aticoa en
l a s mediciones de datos. Para estimar cu& sever08
pueden s e r e s t o s e r r o r e s , realizamoa mediciones
p e t i d a s 2 y 3 veces en determinados puntos durante
cada levantamiento anual. E l i n t e r v a l 0 e n t r e med i c i o n e s v a r i 6 e n t r e 12 horas y 8 dias. Como se
muestra en l a Tabla 1, se calcularon l f m i t e s de
confianza de 95% para algunos de e s t o s datos. En
todos l o a casos, encontramos que 10s l i m i t e s de con
f i a n z a calculados excedieron 10s e r r o r e s estiindares
por un f a c t o r de 2 a 4. Adem&, l a s d i f e r e n c i a s
e n t r e 10s promedios d e v a l o r e s remedidos cayemn,
usualmente, dentro d e l l h i t e de confianza. Las
Gltimas dos e n t r a d a s d e la Tabla 1 muestran 10s re
s u l t a d o s cuando se intercambiaron la8 posiciones
d e l r e c e p t o r y e l transmisor. Loa promedios calculados para este cas0 est& muy pr6ximos entre sf;
n embargo, 10s e r r o r e s son mucho mayores cuando
transmisor se ubica en las e s t a c i o n e s 12 y 13.
La d i f e r e n c i a de e r r o r se debe, probablemente, a 1
n i v e l de ruido &s elevado en las e s t a c i o n e s 7 y 8,

re

En l a Figura 5b se g r a f i c a n las diferenc i a s de r e s i s t i v i d a d aparente para separaciones


n 1 para l a s s e r i e s de datos d e primavera y oto50 de 1980, r e l a t i v a s a l a l h e a de base de 1979.
Las separaciones n = 4 corresponden a una profundi
dad &xima de penetraci6n de a l r s d e d o r de 1300 m.
La f i g u r a i n d i c a un incremento s i g n i f i c a t i v o en l a
r e s i s t i v i d a d a p a r e n t e en l a zona de producci6n 116s
antigua de Cerro P r i e t o ( e s t a c i o n e s 7 11) y una
dieminuci6n s i g n i f i c a t i v a en las &reas que fluquean l a zona antedicha. Un p a t & similar se obs e r v a para separaciones con n e n t r e 3 y 7. Dado
que e s t o s cambios se observan 8610 con las separa-

381

t e a l a p l a n t a (Elders e t al., 1981). Tambi'en e8


p o s i b l e que 6sta sea un ;rea de mezcla e n t r e aguas
c a l i e n t e s ascendentes y aguas m6s frias descendentes o que fluyen horizontalmente. A 1 este de este
cuerpo conductivo, l a s rocas aumentan gradualmente-'
en r e s i s t i v i d a d indicando aguas d e poro &s d u l c e b
a medida que nos aproximamos a1 Rio Colorado. A1
o e s t e de l a zona de producci6n de vapor, l a resist i v i d a d a profundidad es baja, menos de 1.5 ohm-m.
Lyons y van de Kamp (1979) i n t e r p r e t a r o n esta
ci6n como una secuencia de e s t r a t o s marinos saturados con agua de mar parcialmente evaporada.

ciones m& grandes, e s t o s u g i e r e que en Cerro


P r i e t o est& ocurriendo cambios s i g n i f i c a t i v o s de
r e s i s t i v i d a d a profundidad t a n t o en e l yacimiento
bajo producci6n como en l a regi'on que rodea a1 yacimi en t 0 .
I n t e r p r e t a c i d n de 10s Resultados: Las
Figuras 6a y 6b son seudosecciones d e d i f e r e n c i a s
de r e s i s t i v i d a d aparente correspondientes r e s p e c t i
vamente a 10s d a t o s de l a primavera y d e l otoEo de
1980, r e l a t i v o s a las mediciones d e linea de base
de 1979. b s d i f e r e n c i a s , dadas en porcentaje,
muestran incrementos de r e s i s t i v i d a d a p a r e n t e de
h a s t a 25% e n puntos adyacentes a la s i e r r a de Cuca
p6. Tambi'en muestran disminuciones de h a s t a 25%
en regiones inmediatamente h a c i a e l este y e l o e s t e
de l a a c t u a l zona de producci6n. Ambas series de
d a t o s muestran un pat& similar. Para separaciones mayores de 2 se observa un incremento s i g n i f i c a t i v o de r e s i s t i v i d a d a p a r e n t e en l a a c t u a l zona
de producci6n, flanqueada a ambos l a d o s por grandes
zonas donde l a r e s i s t i v i d a d a p a r e n t e est&disminuyendo. En ambas f i g u r a s l a s d i f e r e n c i a s se contornean para 2 y 52, l o que est6 c e r c a o d e n t r o de
10s l'imites de confianza para e s t o s datos. Dado
que en l a seudosecci6n 10s cambios ocurren en grupos de puntos que aumentan o dismirmyen conjuntamente, e l p a t & observado de d i f e r e n c i a s es probablemente s i g n i f i c a t i v o , aunque su forma real puz
de s e r s e n s i b l e a e r r o r e s de medici6n. Sin embargo, l a magnitud de tales cambios s u g i e r e variaciones s i g n i f i c a t i v a s en e l subsuelo causadas por una
extensa extraccidn de f l u i d 0 y subsecuente recarga
subterrgnea d e l sistema.

sez

Con este modelo conceptual e8 p o s i b l e e5


p l i c a r , de un modo general, 10s cambios de resistL
vidad aparente observados en Cerro P r i e t o . Un aumento en l a r e s i s t i v i d a d aparente en l a zona de pro
ducci6n m6s a n t i g u a y poco profunda puede explicaf
se por un incremento en l a f r a c c i 6 n de vapor en l a
formaci6n debido a l a produccio'n, o por un reempla
eo de las aguas profundas por aguas menos s a l o b r e s
d e l Rio Colorado, o por una combinaci6n de ambas
causas. hridencia de l a primera viene de la obsef
vaci6n de que en muchos de 10s pozos a n t i g u o s dur a n t e 10s Gltimos 6 0 s l a e n t a l p b se ha elevado y
ha descendido l a presi'on (Goyal e t al., 1981). T B ~ _
bi'en han variado marcadamente en 10s Gltimos 6 0 s
l a s c a r a c t e r i s t i c a s qu5uicas de las aguas producid a s hacia un mayor parecido con las d e l Rio Colorado (Grant e t al., 1981). Esto, j u n t o con l a e v i
dencia i s o t 6 p i c a (Williams y Elders, 1 9 8 l ) , sugie:
r e que e x i s t e una recarga s i g n i f i c a t i v a de agua
f r e s c a en e l sistema geot6rmico. Para provocar e n
un 60un aumento d e l 10%e n l a r e s i s t i v i d a d S e r b
necesario un reemplazo d e l 15% d e las aguas d e l y&
cimiento con aguas d e s a l i n i d a d 10 veces menor.
Esto no es i r r a z o n a b l e dada l a producci6n armal d e
f l u i d o s en Cerro P r i e t o (Goyal e t al., 1981).

La Figura 7 muestra e l a c t u a l modelo de res i s t i v i d a d bi-dimensional dipolo-dipolo para l a


gi6n que abarca l a zona de produccibn. Con e l pro_
p 6 s i t o de a n a l i z a r 10s cambios de r e s i s t i v i d a d a p a
r e n t e , discutimos brevemente a continuaci6n e l mod e l 0 bi-dimensional d e l campo presentado en un t"
bajo a n t e r i o r (Wilt y Goldstein, 1979). E l rasgo
m6s s o b r e s a l i e n t e d e l modelo es e l cuerpo r e l a t i v a
mente r e s i s t i v o (4.0 ohm-m) asociado con la zona
a c t u a l de producci6n. Este cuerpo t a m b i b est6 a s 2
ciado con una zona de mayor consolidaci6n (de l a
Pe& et al., 1979), 9 de minerales metamo'rficos
( E l d e r s et al., 1979). A n 6 l i s i s d e r e g i s t r o s geof i e i c o s de pozos indicaron que t a n t o l a r e s i s t i v i dad de l a s a r e n a s como l a de las l u t i t a s aumentan
en e a t a zona (aunque para l a s l u t i t a s e l increment o es &s d r h t i c o ) , y que l a densidad es mayor y
l a porosidad &s baja que l a de l a s rocas correspondientes l o c a l i z a d a s f u e r a de esta zona (Lyons y
van de Kamp, 1979; E l d e r s et al., 1981).

re

Una p o s i b l e explicaci6n para las zonas


donde l a r e s i t i v i d a d decrece a ambos l a d o s d e l &ximo e s que o t r a s aguas s a l o b r e s s e mueven hacia e l
yacimiento en respuesta a l a c a i d a de l a i r e s i 6 n
causada por l a producci6n. A 1 este de l a p l a n t a
generadora, en una gran &ea que s e extiende desde
l a s u p e r f i c i e h a s t a gran profundidad, l a r e s i s t i v i
dad aparente disminuy6 h a s t a un 25%. S i e l afalla
miento es importante en e s t a zona, como l o sugieren
l a s mediciones d e a u t o p o t e n c i a l y l a s i n v e s t i g a c i o
nes microsismicas, pueden crearse canales de f l u j o
mediante e l fracturamiento inducido p o r fallas.
Los f l u i d o s de poro podrian entonces moverse bastante rapidamente en respuesta a la c d d a de pres i 6 n debida a l a produccio'n.
Con e l f i n de c u a n t i f i c a r estas observaciones, se r e a l i z b un i n t e n t o de reproducir loa ca=
b i o s observados perturbando e l modelo bi-dimensio
n a l elaborado. S i n embargo, pronto descubrimos que
e l n h e r o de modelos a c e p t a b l e s que pueden corresponder a 10s d a t o s es muy grande. Una segunda d e s
ventaja es que e l p a t & de cambios observado no
est6 bien d e f i n i d o debido a1 margen de e r r o r de
l o a d a t o s de campo.

Inmediatamente a1 este de esta zona de


4.0 ohm-m de r e s i s t i v i d a d , yace un cuerpo conduct i v o delgado, sumamente inclinado. Esta regi'on
r r e l a c i o n a b i e n con un plano de hipocentros microsismicoa l o c a l i z a d o sobre l a f a l l a Hidalgo (Majer
y McEvilly, 1981) y con l a ubicaci6n i n f e r i d a d e l
plano de l a f u e n t e de l a anomalia de a u t o p o t e n c i a l
observada en e l campo (Corwin e t al., 1979). An6li
sis de r e g i s t r o s de pozos i n d i c a n que esta zona se
c a r a c t e r i z a por aguas c a l i e n t e s , y a r e n a s
lutitas de baja r e s i t i v i d a d (Diaz e t al., 198l3. Una
explicacidn e s que esta zona corresponde a un penacho de aguas c a l i e n t e s ascendentes que conectan
l a zona de producci6n profunda s i t u a d a a1 este de
la p l a n t a generadora con la regi'on de producci6n
de menor profundidad s i t u a d a a1 o e s t e de y adsacen

co

Conclusiones
E l monitoreo d e r e s i s t i v i d a d durante d
ha rendido algunos r e s u l t a d o s s i g n i f i c a t i v o s :
1 ) E 8 poaible y v i a b l e monitorear un yacimiento
geot6rmico midiendo la r e s i s t i v i d a d desde l a s u p e r

&os

382

f i c i e ; s i n embargo, aGn b a j o las mejores condiciones, e l e r r o r de medici6n puede ser grande en rela
ci'on a1 cambio esperado. 2) En Germ P r i e t o s e 02
servan grandes cambios de r e a i s t i v i d a d aparente en
l a zona de produccidn y Qreas circundantes. E l i&
temento de 10%e n r e s i s t i v i d a d aparente observado
l a zona de produccidn &s a n t i g u a puede deberse
a e b u l l i c i d n l o c a l o a invasidn de agua dulce.
La
gran disminuci6n de l a r e s i s t i v i d a d puede deberse
a l a e n t r a d a de agua subterrgnea 6 s s a l o b r e a l a
regi6n d e l acimiento en respuesta a l a cafda de l a
presi6n. 37 Debido a l a f a l t a de unicidad de 10s
modelos y a1 n i v e l a c t u a l de e r r o r de medicidn, no
e s f a c t i b l e i n t e r p r e t a r cuantitativamente l o a camb i o s de r e s i s t i v i d a d perturbando e l modelo bi-dimen
s i o n a l elaborado para i g u a l a r 10s cambios observadose

Agradecimientos

Loa a u t o r e s desean agradecer l a ayuda de


Deborah Hopkins que colabor6 e n 108 d l c u l o s de
e r r o r . Tambih q u i e r e n agradecer a A l f r e d Trues' d e l l , Ernest Majer, Keshav Goyal, S e r g i o D h z y
H6ctor Fonseca por v a l i o s a s discusionea.
Este t r a b a j o cont6 con e l apoyo d e l
A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y f o r Conservation and Renewable
Energy, Office of Renewable Technology, Division
of Geothermal and Hydropower Technology d e l Departamento de Energia de Estados Unidos b a j o c o n t r a t o
DE-AC03-76SF00098.