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Conventionalcoring­AAPGWiki

Conventionalcoring

FromAAPGWiki

Thischapterpresentsan

overviewofcoringtools,

includingguidelinesfor

selectingcoringtoolsfor

specificapplications.

Coringprovidestheonly

meansofobtaininghigh

qualitysamplesforthe

directmeasurementof

rockandreservoir

properties.Coresprovide

bothgeologicaland

engineeringinformation,

andtheiranalysis

ultimatelyleadstoa

profitablefield

development.

DevelopmentGeologyReference

Manual

DevelopmentGeologyReference Manual Series MethodsinExploration Part Chapter Conventionalcoring Author LeeWhitebay Link

Series MethodsinExploration

Part

Chapter Conventionalcoring

Author LeeWhitebay

Link

Wellsitemethods

Store AAPGStore

Manycoringsystems

exist.Thesystemused

dependsontheobjectives

forthecoringprogram

andonthephysical

constraintsofboththe

formationandthedrilling

location.Aremote

locationmightrequirea

ready­madecore­handling

andpreservationsystemsuchasadisposableinnerbarrel.Anexploration

programmightprofitbyemployingawirelinecorebarreltocoreanddrill

alternatelywithouttheexpenseoftrippingpipe.Amaturefieldmightneeda

spongeorpressurecoretohelppindownremainingreserves.Thesethree

situationsdescribethreecoringprograms,eachwithdifferentobjectivesand

constraintsandeachwithadifferent“best”waytogetthejobdone.

Contents

1Conventionalcoringsystems

Contents 1Conventionalcoringsystems 2Specialcoring

2Specialcoring

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2.1Heavydutyconventionalcorebarrels

2.2Disposableinnercorebarrels

2.3Corebarrelliners2.2Disposableinnercorebarrels 2.4Sponge­linedcoringsystem 2.5Full­closurecoringsystems

2.4Sponge­linedcoringsystem

2.5Full­closurecoringsystems

2.6Rubbersleevecorebarrel

2.7Pressurecoring2.5Full­closurecoringsystems 2.6Rubbersleevecorebarrel 2.8Wirelinecorebarrel 3Seealso 4References 5Externallinks

2.8Wirelinecorebarrel2.5Full­closurecoringsystems 2.6Rubbersleevecorebarrel 2.7Pressurecoring 3Seealso 4References 5Externallinks

3Seealso2.5Full­closurecoringsystems 2.6Rubbersleevecorebarrel 2.7Pressurecoring 2.8Wirelinecorebarrel 4References 5Externallinks

4References2.5Full­closurecoringsystems 2.6Rubbersleevecorebarrel 2.7Pressurecoring 2.8Wirelinecorebarrel 3Seealso 5Externallinks

5Externallinks2.5Full­closurecoringsystems 2.6Rubbersleevecorebarrel 2.7Pressurecoring 2.8Wirelinecorebarrel 3Seealso 4References

Conventionalcoringsystems

Designedtorecovercorefromconsolidatedformations,conventionalcoring systemsconsistofaninnercorebarrelwithacorecatcher,suspendedbya swivelassemblyinsideofanoutercorebarrelthatisattachedtothedrill

string,andacorebit(Figure1).Asmentionedpreviously,thefinalselection

ofaparticularsystemdependsupontheformation,location,andobjectives

ofthecoringprogram.

TypesofinnerbarrelsaresummarizedinTable1.Corediametercanvary

from1.75to5.25in.Corelengthcanrangefrom1.5ftforshortradius

horizontalwellstogreaterthan400ftforverticalholes.

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Figure1 Conventionalcore barrel.©Eastman Christensen,TechnicalData SheetC­105.

Figure1Conventionalcore

barrel.©Eastman Christensen,TechnicalData

SheetC­105.

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Table1Conventionalcoringsystems

 

Core

 

Inner

Barrel

Length

(ft)

SpecialFeatures

Mildsteel

30–120

Ready­madecorepreservationsystem;high

temperatureapplications

Mildsteel

1.5

Designedforshortradiuscoring

High

 

Strongerbarrel,includesadditionalinnerand

outercorebarrelstabilization

strength

steel

120–

>400

Fiberglass

30–90

Ready­madecorepreservationsystem;usedfor

consolidatedandunconsolidatedformations

Aluminum

30–90

Ready­madecorepreservationsystem;high

temperatureapplications

   

Ready­madecorepreservationsystem;maximum

Steelwitha

plasticliner

30

temperature180°F;reducescorediameterby0.5

in.

Steelwitha

 

Ready­madecorepreservationsystem;maximum

fiberglass

30

temperature250°F;reducescorediameterby0.5

liner

in.

   

Ready­madecorepreservationsystem;maximum

Steelwitha

steelliner

30

temperature350°F;reducescorediameterby0.5

in.

Thecorecatcher,thedevicethatholdsthecoreinthebarrel,istailoredto

thetypeofinnerbarrelandlithologyexpected.Table2listscorecatchersby

theircommonnamesandusages.Insomecases,multiplecatchersareused.

Friablesandstoneinterbedddedwithshalemightrequirebothslipand

flappertypecatchers.Full­closurecatchers,runprimarilytoensuresuccess

whencoringunconsolidatedsand,alsoincorporatesplitringorsliptype

catcherstoimprovecorerecoveryintheeventthatcoringendsinhardrock.

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Table2Corecatchers

Type

RecommendedUsage

Splitringor

Consolidatedformations

spring

Collet

Whereformationcharacteristicsareunknown

Slip

Consolidatedformations,normallyrunwithflapper

catcherorwithorientationknives

Dogor

Consolidated,fractured,andunconsolidatedformations

flapper

wheregeologyisunknown

Basket

Unconsolidatedformations,normallyrunwithanother

corecatchertype

Fullclosure

Friabletounconsolidatedformationstoprovidefull

closure

Specialcoring

Heavydutyconventionalcorebarrels

Aheavydutycorebarrelshouldbeconsideredwhencuttinglonglengthsof

relativelyhomogeneousformationsorwhenanticipatinghigherthannormal

torqueloads.Thissystemcanalsobeespeciallyattractivewhenrigtimeis

thelargestcomponentofthecoringexpense.

Theprecursoroftoday'sheavydutycorebarrelsisthemarinecorebarrel. Thistoolwasdevelopedtobestrongerthanconventionalsystemsforusein offshoresettings.Themarinebarrelincreasesthemarginofsafetyagainst

toolfailure,butisrestrictedtocuttinga3­in.­diametercore.

Today'sspecialheavydutycorebarrelshavebeendevelopedtocoreharder thannormalformationsandtocutextendedlengthcores.Thesetoolsare

designedtocutcoresupto5.25in.indiameter.Heavydutythreadsallow

moretorquetobeappliedtothebitandimprovethemarginofsafetyagainst

toolfailure.

Disposableinnercorebarrels

Disposableinnercorebarrelshaveimprovedbothcorerecoveryandcore

quality.Aluminumorfiberglassinnercorebarrelscanbesubstitutedfor

conventionalsteelinnerbarrels.Themostcommontypeofdisposableinner

corebarrelisthefiberglassbarrel.Thelowcoefficientoffrictionofthe

fiberglassisthoughttoimprovecorerecoverybyreducingtheresistanceto

coreenteringthebarrel.Amorequantifiablebenefitcomesintheformofa

ready­madecore­handlingandcorepreservationsystemthatcanbeusedin

remotelocationsorwithdelicatecores.(Forexample,fracturedor

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unconsolidatedcorematerialtendstobekeptintactastheinnerbarrelislaid downandcutintosectionsforshipping.)Aluminuminnerbarrelsare

recommendedwhenhightemperatures(>150°F)areexpected.

Corebarrelliners

PVCplastic,ABSplastic,andaluminum haveallbeenusedasinnercorebarrel liners.Thelinerslipsinsideasteelinner corebarrel,reducingtheeffectiveinner diameterofthecorebarrelby

approximately0.5in.Thelinersimplifies

corehandling,especiallyforfriableor unconsolidatedcore,andservesasacore preservationsystem.Linersareless expensivethandisposableinnercore barrels.However,besidesreducingthe diameterofthecore,theyrestrictthelength

ofthecoreto30ft.

Attemptshavebeenmadetousecorebarrel

linerstocutnaturallyfracturedrock.

Unfortunately,shardsofcoreoftencutinto

therelativelysoftlinermaterial,causing

thecorebarreltojam.

Sponge­linedcoringsystem

Figure2 Sponge­linedcoring system.©DBS,aBaroid Company.

Figure2Sponge­linedcoring

system.©DBS,aBaroid

Company.

Thesponge­linedcoringsystemwasdevelopedtoimprovetheaccuracyof

core­basedoilsaturationdata.Thisisveryimportantinformationtohave

whenevaluatingthemeritsofasecondaryortertiaryoilrecoveryprogram.

Thespongecoringsystemconsistsofaconventionalcorebarrelfittedwitha

seriesofsponge­linedaluminuminserts(Figure2).Thesystemcutsa

relativelysmallcore,2.5or3.25in.wideand30ftlong.Thespongeliner

catchesoilthat“bleeds”outoftherockasthecoreispulled(tripped)from

thehole.Theoil­wetspongeholdsoiltightly,whileallowingwaterandgas

tomovethroughthespongeandoutventholesdrilledinthealuminumliner.

Spongeandconventionalcoresmaybecutoneafteranotherwithoutmaking

specialtripstoopenthehole,soitispossibleto“spot”aspongecoreand

stillacquirelargerdiametercoresforotheranalyses.

Full­closurecoringsystems

Full­closurecoringsystemsweredevelopedforcoringunconsolidated

formations.Theyusedisposableinnerbarrelsorinnerbarrellinersanda

specialcore­catchingsystemtoretrievesoftcoressuccessfully.Currently,

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full­closurecoringsystemscut30ftof3­

to5­in.­diametercore.Systemsarebeing

developedtocutlargerdiameterandlonger

cores.

Figure3 Full­closurecore catcher.FromWhitebay. [ 1 ]

Figure3Full­closurecore

catcher.FromWhitebay. [1]

Thedifferencebetweenfull­closureand othercoringsystemsisthatthecorecatcher isnotexposedduringcoring.Thisallows theinnercorebarreltoslipoverthesoft corewithaminimumofdisturbance.After coring,aballispumpeddownhole activatingthecorecatcherandsealingoff

thebottomofthebarrel(Figure3).

Thehiddencorecatcherisboththemajor

assetandmajorliabilityofthiscoring

system.Sincethecorecatcherisnot

exposedduringcoring,comingoffbottom

islikelytoresultinlostcore.Ifthecatcher

isnotactivatedaftercoring,thecorewill

belostduringtripping.Againsttheserisks,

thebenefitsarealongerlengthandlargerdiametercorethanispossiblewith

arubbersleevecorebarrelandalessdisturbedcorethanonecutwitha

conventionalcoringsystem.

Rubbersleevecorebarrel

Usingarubbersleevecorebarrelisareliablewaytorecovercorefrom unconsolidated,conglomeritic,and/orhardfracturedformations.Therubber sleevebarrelisuniqueinthatthetopoftheinnerbarreldoesnotmove relativetothecoreduringcoring.Theouterbarrelisdrilleddownarounda columnofrockthatisprogressivelyencasedintherubbersleeve.The systemworksbestfromfixeddrillingplatforms,butitcanbeoperatedfrom

floatingrigsifrigmovementisminimal.Therubbersleevebarrelcutsa20­

ftlengthof3­in.­diametercore.

Pressurecoring

Pressurecorebarrelsaredesignedtoretrievecoresmaintainedatreservoir pressure.Acceptedasthebestmethodforobtainingcore­basedoilsaturation information,pressurecoresalsoretainreservoirgases.Currenttoolsare

designedtocutuptoa20­ftlengthof2.5­in.­diametercoreandcontain

10,000psi.

Pressurecorebarrelsaresophisticatedtoolsrequiringanon­sitefacilityto

servicethebarrelandhandlethepressurizedcores.Corehandlingincludes

displacingthedrillingfluidfromtheinnercorebarrelwithanonfreezinggel

andthenfreezingtheentireinnerbarrelassemblyindryice.

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Whenplanningapressurecoringoperation,itisimportanttoacknowledge

thatflushingaheadofthecoringbitmaytakeplace.Thus,oneshould

minimizeoverbalance,usealowfluidlossdrillingfluid,andwhenpossible,

employthenewlow­invasioncoringbittechnologytoreducecoreflushing.

Wirelinecorebarrel

Thewirelinecorebarrelallowsdrillingorcoringwithoutpullingthedrill string.Thisreducesdrillingcostsbyeliminatingtheneedtotrippipe.The

maximumsizeofawirelinecoreis30ftlongand2.75in.wide.Themost

commonlyusedtoolsproducea2.36­in.­diametercore.Forapplicationsin

whichsmalldiametersamplesareadequate,thisisacosteffectivemethod.

Thewirelinecorebarrelisdesignedsothattheinnercorebarrelandbearing

assemblycanbedroppedthroughthedrillstring,lockedinplaceforcoring,

andretrievedbywireline.Sequentialcoresmaybecutoradiamonddrilling

plugcanbedroppedintoplacetodrillahead.Thedrillingplugmayalsobe

retrievedbywirelineforinspectionortoresumecoring.Duringplanning,it

isimportanttocheckthattheinnerdiameterofthedrillpipeislargeenough

toallowthetooltopassthrough.

Seealso

References

1.↑Whitebay,L.E.,1986,Improvedcoringandcore­handling

proceduresfortheunconsolidatedsandsoftheGreenCanyonarea,

GulfofMexico:SPEPaper15385,61stAnnualTechnicalConference

andExhibition,NewOrleans,LA,Oct.5–8.

Externallinks

Externallinks Original findliteratureabout Conventionalcoring contentin Datapages
Externallinks Original findliteratureabout Conventionalcoring contentin Datapages
Externallinks Original findliteratureabout Conventionalcoring contentin Datapages
Externallinks Original findliteratureabout Conventionalcoring contentin Datapages

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